US 2355816 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. l5, 1944. H G. MRNER 2,355,816
CLOSURE Filed June 18, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 6 INVENTOR Il M ATTORNEY Patented Aug. l5, 1944 cLosUaE Hans Georg Meiner; New York, N. Y.
Application June 18,1942, Serial No. 447,525 In Sweden September 13, 1939 2 Claims.
The invention relates to separable slide fasteners and more particularly to such fasteners for making a separable closure which is fluid tight and pressure resistant.
Objects and advantages of the invention will be set forth in part hereinafter and in part will be obvious herefrom, or may be learned by practice with the invention, the same being realized and attained by means of the instrumentalities and combinations pointed out in the appended claims.
The invention consists in the novel parts, constructions, arrangements, combinations and improvements herein shown and described.
The accompanying drawings, referred to herein and constituting a part hereof, illustrate one embodiment of the invention, and together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the invention.
Of the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary front elevation of an embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the device shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a section on line 3-3 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is a section on line 4-4 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is a section on line 5-5 of Fig. 1; and
Fig. 6 is a detail in elevation of the permanent closing member shown near the bottom of Figs. 1 and 2.
In certain respects, this application is an improvement on my copending application Serial No. 326,337, led March 28, 1940, now Patent 2,306,488, granted December 29, 1942.
'I'he primary object of the invention is to provide a closure of the slide-operated type which will be suitable for use with lifesaving suits, rafts, water-proof provision bags and other containers wherein a separable closure is required to be liquid and gas tight, but which nevertheless must be readily and rapidly operable for emergency openings and closings. The invention therefore provides a separable fluid-tight closure wherein the joinable elements are formed of rubber and other resilient flexible material so constructed as to give a rapidly operable interlocking multiple contact closure wherein the joinder of the parts is so intimate and so compact that passage of fluids is inhibited and wherein certain elements of the closure tend to tighten and increase the resistance to passage of fluids under the fluid pressureof the fluid to be excluded. Coupled with this desirable and requisite tightness of closure, the invention provides slide means capable of very rapidly and easily closing the fastening by bringing together the separable elements thereof and', conversely, removing the restrictions against opening so that same may be rapidly reopened. Consequently, one important object of the invention is to provide a slide device capable of operating with the minimum of friction and resistance to movement in connection with relatively bulky and interlocking rubber closure members. Such members are ordinarily somewhat resistant to intermeshing particularly where a sturdy and effective interlocking construction is provided and the invention overcomes this diillculty by providing a very effective yet simple slide means which, as stated, is operable with the minimum of friction, thus requiring relatively little exertion on the part of the user. Moreover, the invention is designed to be capable of rapid and effective use under all conditions of weather and will not deteriorate by becoming stuck together or corroded or otherwise openatively impaired by prolonged use or' immersion in salt water, oil and other agencies.
It will be understood that the foregoing. general description and the following detailed description as well are exemplary and explanatory but are not restrictive of the invention. Referring now in detail to the present preferred embodiment of the invention, illustrated by way of example in the accompanying drawings, the closure means of the invention is shown applied as a closure for any suitable container comprising the flat flexible membranes or sheets I and 2. Said membranes may comprise the main body of a bag or container for supplies carried on board ship and adapted to be floated in the water upon sinking of the vessel, for landing operations or the like. On the other hand said membranes may comprise the forward portions of a lifesaving suit of the general type disclosed and claimed in my prior copending application Serial No. 326,337, filed March 28, 1940, now Patent 2,306,- 488, granted December 29, 1942, or they may constitute the terminal body portions of any suitable container either large or small to which it is desired to apply the invention. It therefore will be understood that the invention as disclosed and claimed herein is of general application.
The closure is made up of two major exible vrubber bodies or strips 3 and 4 adapted to be operably engaged in interlocking longitudinal relationship. Each of said strips 3 and 4 extends throughout the length of the opening to be closed by the closure of the invention, is made of relatively thick but pliable and yieldable rubber, preferably vof about the consistency of automobile tire rubber or slightly softer. Each of said strips is therefore inherently ilexible throughout its length and thus is adapted to conform to the shape' of the container or of the contents thereof. The strip 4 (Fig. 3) is formed as a solid rubber body. having a fiat base portion 5 which tapers to a relatively thin side edge portion or strip 6. 'I'he at base 5 is adapted to be seated on and vulcanized to the oute'r surface of the membrane 2, while preferably an overlapping sealing strip 1 is contiguously sealed to the outer surface of membrane 2 and overlies the thinner portion 6 and is vulcanized thereto so as to form a strong and fluid-proof and flexible connection between the strip body 4 and the membrane 2. Similarly body strip member 31s permanently sealed and fastened to the membrane I by similar parts as will be clear from the drawings.
'I'he strip members 3 and 4 are adapted to be intermeshed and separably interlocked throughout their length and their adjacent surfaces are suitably formed for this purpose. As will appear from Figs. 3 and 4, the strip member 3 is the primary female member of the closure pair, its inner or meshing surface being formed with a groove or socket-like recess I which extends throughout the length of the member. The socket or groove I0 is formed by an upper node or ridge I I, the terminal edge of which is arcuate. A lower node or ridge I2 underlies the socket I0 and curves outwardly and upwardly from the interior thereof to provide an upper terminal edge I3. Said edge I3 and the opposite and adjacent terminal edge I4 of the node I I are spaced closer to each other than the maximum crosssectional diameter of the socket I0 so that said socket has a mouth or entrance smaller in crosssection than its interior section. The upper surface of the node II is reversely curved at I5 to form a rounded top for the member 3 which continues in a substantially uniform arc around the surface thereof to form a re-entrant groove I6 along the back edge of the member 3 and at about the same level as the lower portion of the socket I0. The tapered upper surface of the base member 5 extends into the groove I6 as shown. The lower surface I1 of the lower node I2 curves downwardly and rearwardly to terminate at a slight shoulder I8 formed in the at base of the portion 5.
The strip 4 constitutes the primary male member of the closure couple and its engaging or front face is provided throughout its length with protruding node 20 which is substantially circular in cross-section throughout about threefourths of its cross-sectional circumference and is shaped and positioned so as to fit very tightly into the socket portion I0 of the member 3. The rear or neck portion 2| of the node 20 is narrower than the major diameter of the node and thus is adapted to conform to and t tightly in the space between the edges I3 and I4 of the member 3.
The face of member 4 above the node 20 is re-entrantly grooved to form an. arcuate socket 22 which is adapted to receive and intimately engage the node portion II of the member 3. The portion of the member 4 above the socket 22 is tapered to form an overlapping and relatively thin lip portion 23 which overlies the upper grooved surface I5 of the member 3 to a substantial extent. It will be noted that the terminal edge of the lip member 23 is in substantially the same vertical plane as the terminal edge of the node member 20. The upper surface of the lip portion 23 is rearwardly and downwardly curved in an arc 24 roughlylcorresponding in shape to that 'of the surface I5 of member 3 and being reentrantly grooved at25 along the rear edge of the member 4, which groove merges with the rising surface of the tapered base 5 so as to form a groove identical in shape with and at the same level as the groove I6 of themember 3 but facing in the opposite direction, as will be clear from the drawings.
'I'he lower portion of the node 20 merges with a reversely curved grooved portion 26, the crosssectional outline of which corresponds intimately with the node I2 of the member 3. Below the groove 26 the member 4 curves inwardly and downwardly to form the relatively thin and ilexible lip portion 21, the base of which is co-extensive with the at base of portion 5. The inner edge of lip 21 extends so as to underlie the curved surface Il of the portion I2 of member 2 and abut against the shoulder I8 of member 3 when the strips are in their interlocked engagement, as will be clear from Figs. 4 and 5.
When the strips 3 and 4 are interengaged as described and shown, the central node'portion 20 is tightly interlocked within the receiving socket I0 of the member 3. That is, it is necessary to force the member 20 into the socket III between the constricting jaws I3 and I4 of the latter, the resiliency of the rubber permitting this action. At the same time the lower node I2 and the upper node II of the member 3 are recessed in the sockets 26 and 22 respectively of the member 4 so that a firm union and interlocking closure is afforded by these parts. In addition, however, the overlapping relatively thin" and pliable lip 23 embraces and overlies the en'- tire j oinder of the strips. This lip member theres fore forms an eiective seal to the entire closure or joint and, because of its thinness and relative pliability, it is adapted to be forced tightly against the upper surface I5 of member 3 when the closure is subjected to external iiuid force, as when the container formed by the membranes I and 2 is immersed in water or the like. That is, the Water pressure exerted against the surfaces of the submerged container tends to compress and thereby tighten the closure of the entire joint and especially to force the overlaying lip 23 tightly over and against the surface I5 and thereby effectively seal the entire joint. In a, similar manner the underlying, relatively thin tapered lip 21 performs a like function for the lower portion of the closure as will be obvious' from the foregoing taken in connection with the drawings. The sealing of said underlying lip 21 is especially useful with containers having an internal pressure, as with inflated rafts, bags and the like.
It will be noted that the engagement of node II in the socket 22 and node I2 in socket 26 are relatively easily separated by transverse movement as there is little or no interlocking action at these surfaces, the only true interlock being between the socket I0 and the node 20. This construction therefore greatly facilitates the sliding engagement and disengagement of the strip members, while at the same time the sealing actions of the flexible lip members 23 and 21 provides a unique sealing function in combination with the main interlock as above described.
The invention provides means for joining and closing together the strips 3 and 4 of the closure by slide action and one important feature of the invention is the construction oi slide-means which will reduce to a minimum the friction and resistance to such closuresunder all conditions of use of the device, while at the same time providing the maximum of tightness and compression of the engaging parts ofthe closure strips so as to provide and maintain an exceedingly tight, and therefore effective, sealing closure. For this purpose a rolling'and compressing action is preferably employed. As embodied the slide comprises a frame having a flat, generally rectangular metal base piece 30 which overlies and is spaced a short distance from the top of the outermost portion of the lip 23 of the strip member 4, said plate 30 thus lying parallel to the base and the face of the membranes I and 2. Each of the four corners of the plate 30 is apertured to receive a vertically-disposed pin 3| having an enlarged head 32 the base of which lies flush against the top of the plate. Said. pin extends downwardly from the plate a sufficient distance to serve as an axle or journal for a roller 33 which is rotatable thereon. Said roller has an upper cylindrical portion, the top of which underlies the bottom surface of the plate 30 and therebelow the surface of the roller'is curved as shown in Figs. 2 and 4, said curvature being such that the roller is circular in crosssection throughout but of diminishing radius nearly to its bottom portion where it again flares to terminate in a circular hub 35. Said hub has a rounded edge of a thickness such that it ts intimately into the groove 25 of the strip member 4 (or groove I6 of strip member 3 as the case may be) while the rear curved portions 24 and I5 of the strip members 4 and 3 respectively fit generally into the curved surfaces 34 of the rollers. It will be understood that each of the rollers 33 at the four corners of the plate 30 is identical in construction and that each of them is rotatable on its respective axle pin 3l as shown. The lower ends of said axle pins 3I are enlarged at 36 to be seated in conforming recesses at the base 35 of the rollers and thereby act to rotatably support said rollers as shown.
As will be clear from the drawings, movement of the slide 30 lengthwise of the strips 3 and 4 will cause the rollers to rotate due to the frictional engagement thereof with the outer or rear edges I5 and 24 of the strips 3 and 4 respectively. 'Ihe rollers thus exert a camming and squeezing action upon the strips to force them toward each other and into interlocking engagement as shown. The bottom hubs 35 of the rollers travel in the grooves I6 and 25 and thereby exert powerful clamping and compressing action upon the strips so as to cause 'the' interlocking nodes 20 and I2 and their respective socket portions to be forced quickly and rmly together. Due to the seating of the hubs 35 in said grooves, the slide is at all times intimately engaged with the strips 3 and 4 wherever it may be located along them and merely by pulling it lengthwise along said strips it forces the unengaged strips together as stated and shown. It will be recognized that by the utilization of rolling friction, a relatively great compressive force can be exerted upon the strips while at the same time assuring easy operation of the slide along the strips under any and all conditions. Moreover the provision of four such rollers, as shown, tends to maintain the movement of the slide rectilinear and even as it travels along the strips, thereby preventing any possibility of jamming or tilting or twisting of the slide out of its desired trackway, while the multiple rollers distribute the rolling friction and thereby reduce the force required.
It will 4further be understood that movement of the slide in one direction will effect closure and inter-engagement of the strips 3 and 4, i. e. in the direction toward the top of 'the breech in Figs. 1 and 2. However, a reverse or downward movement of the slide will not automatically separate the strips, but will merely make their separation possible by hand. Thus the closure of a suit, for instance, will remain water-tight until it is actually opened.
Means for facilitating sliding of the slide on the strips is provided and same is constructed so as to further reduce any possibility of the slide to tilt or assume an undesired angular position on the strips in either direction of movement therealong. As embodied a slide pull comprising a pair of looped cords 40 and 4I is provided, the ends of said cords being passed through a button or apertured handle member 42 and knottted at 43. The opposite ends of said cords are passed through longitudinal slides 45 and 46 respectively formed in the slide plate 30. Thus when it is desired to pull the slide upwardly to close the strips together, the cord loops will slide to the upper ends of the slots 45 and 46 and thepull will be exerted there substantially parallel to the plane of the slide 30 and the direction of desired movement. Conversely when it is desired to pull the slide downwardly in the opposite direction, the looped cords will slip to the bottom of the slots 45 and 46 and thus the pull will be exerted at the lower end of the slide and therefore more closely parallel to the desired plane of movement. In other words, no tilting action is imparted to the slide or carriage in either direction of movement thereof as would be the case if the point of application of the pulling force were xed at the center or ateither end of the slide. Hence binding or wedging of the slide on the strips is materially reduced by this feature ofl the invention.
The invention provides additional means for maintaining compact closure and security thereof throughout the length of the strips 3 and 4 over which the slide 30 has been moved in the closing direction. For this purpose a plurality of slide following members are provided, said members being adapted to be drawn after the slide 30 and to maintain the compactness of closure which has been effected thereby. Said following members 50 are preferably substantially U-shaped pieces of flat metal, the interior curvature of which conforms substantially to the exterior outline of the curved portions I5 and 24 of the strips 3 and 4 when the latter are interengaged. Inwardly disposed tongues 5I and 52 are provided near the ends of the arms of the member 5I] and extending into and traveling along the grooves I6 and 25 respectively, there acting to maintain the pressure and compacting force originally exerted by the hubs 35 of the rollers 33 of the slide.
Means are provided for drawing the followers 50 after the slide and for maintaining same in suitable spaced positions along the closed parts of the strips 3 and 4. As embodied each of the followers 50 is attached to flexible cords or chains along either side of the strips and as shown chains and 6| are provided for this purpose. Said chains preferably comprise links separated by small beads 62. Each arm of the spacer member 50 is apertured by a slot 53 the outer portion of which is narrow and which is enlarged terminally sealing material to overlie to permit passage of the link portion 80 of the chain but is too small to admit passage of the bead members 62 thereof. Thus any pull on the chains in either direction will cause the follower members 50 to slide along the strips. The chains atone end are ilxed to the slide plate 30, the lower ends Si thereof being downwardly anged at 86 to provide means for attachment of the ends of said chains. 'I'he anged portions I8 are apertured at 61 in form similar to the apertures 53, there to receive the end link and bead of the chain as shown. Thus when the slide is pulled upwardly, it pulls the chains 60 and 6I along with it and in so doing causes the followers 50 to be pulled along the strips to take up their spaced positions along the taut chains. Prefer-l ably, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the followers are provided in sets of pairs spaced by a single bead 62 thus providing a distribution of gripping actionat veach pair of said followers.
The bottom ends of the strips 3 and 4 are preferably maintained permanently interlocked together and for this purpose an arcuate or U- shaped band 'I0 is tightly gripped about the elevatedportions ofthe strips as shown in Figs. 1
and 2. The terminal ends li and 'l2 are tightly embedded into the grooves i6 and 25 respectively of the two strips so that said band 10 is l tightly iixed and stationary near the lower ends of said strips. The bottom ends of the chains and 6I are xed to said band 10 by ears 15 which extend vvtowardthe sides of said band and are provided with appropriate openings 'I6 to receive and hold I the ends of said chains as shown.
vIl. desired, the lower end of the strips below said gripping band 'I0 maybe encased in a suitable base 80 of rubber or other protecting and and nish the end oi the closure.
The invention in its broader aspects is not limited to the specific mechanisms shown and described but departures may be made therefrom within the scope of the accompanying claims without departing from the principles of the invention and without sacricing its chief advantages.
What I claim is:
l. A fluid-tight closure including in combina- 10 tion apair of flexible strips of rubber or the like forming male' and female members of said closure, the female strip member having a groove, a projecting node on the male strip member shaped to be seated in said groove and to resilient- 15 1y interlock therewith, and relatively thin ilexuilzlle lips on the male member adapted to overlie and underlie the female member and provide a flexible seal for the interlocked closure when said members are joined, the under-side of each 20 said members being at and substantially coplanar with at sheet members respectively attached thereto.
2. A fluid-tight closure including in combination a pair of flexible strips of rubber or the like g5 forming male and female members of said closure,
the female strip member having a groove, a pro- .iecting node on the male strip member shaped tobe seated in said groove and to resiliently interlock therewith, and slide means having rollers 3u for engaging the outer edges of both strips and forcing them into interlocking engagement, said rollers being shaped to impart a cam forcing action to the strips to close same together, the outer edges ofsaid strips having grooves therein for re- 35 c'eiving and guiding said rollers.
HANS GEORG MRNER.