US 2356456 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 22, 1944..
w. GARNER 2,356,456 SHOCKABSORBING O R CUSHIONING MATERIAL MADE M FIBROUS S TANCES ed Aug.
Patented Aug. 2 2, 1944 snock-anso'anmcolt CUSHIONING MA- TERIAL MADE FROM FIBROUS sUB- '1 STANCES Walter Garner, Menston, in Wharfedale, England,
assignor of one-half to Lister-and Company, Limited, Bradford, Yorkshire, England 1 Application August 9,1943, Serial No. 498,005
i 15 Claims. This invention relates to improvements in shock-absorbing or cushioning material made from fibrous substances.
The expression fibrous: substances includes any mineral, protein, cellulosic or synthetic material in the form of fibres, especially fibres of an average diameter lessthan 500 micromillimetres and preferably less than 100 micromillimetres.
Examples of such fibres are wool, cotton, mohair,
kapok, glass fibre, asbestos, metal and rayon,*and preferably those fibres which are .inherenty springy and resilient such as mohair. When fibres are used which do not inherently possess be treated, e. g. by'impregnation with synthetic resin, 'e. g. phenol formaldehyde resin, so as to impart or augment. such property. r
Broadly stated, the basic feature of shock absorbing or cushioningmaterial accordng to the invention is that it comprises two or more units held or secured in superposition, and each unit comprising as component elements two text'le fabrics into which are woven resiliently flexible textile elements which connect the fabrics togather and provide legs between the fabrics which, due to their length, their substa'ntal inclination, or approach to normality, to the surof the connecting elements. It would not exceed,
' the desired degree of resilient flexib'lity,-they may I v say, three inches and generally would be consicia erably less than that. In the case of mohair,
for example, it will be found that the optimum The resilient connecting legs may be disposed in strips, e. g. 2" wide separated by a. gap of say wide, in order, for example, to lighten the fabrication ,without substantially impairing its resilience.
" In Great Britain April 2, 1942 By employing as the connecting legs, textile elements or yarns (e. g. a two-fold yarn) which are resiliently flexible or compartively rigid in character, and closely packing'them if required, there is imparted to the fabrication asubstantial springy resistance to compression which renders it suitable for use as a shock-absorbing or cushioning elementwhich' may be cut to any size or shape according to the particular purpose of its application in use. Thusffor example, it may be used as a substitute for soft or sponge rubber sheets in the manufacture of s'eat'ng', or other articles, or as a mattress or mattress component.
-The closenessof the packing of the connecting ,legs required for obtaining anyparticular degree ofresiliency with a particular kind of fibre, will depend of course on the count of the yarn. By way of example it may be indicated that a satis-- factory degree of resiliency may be obtained by;
using 1000, or between 500 and 2000, legs or elements per square inch of 2/32s mohair. yarn, or by using 500, or between 250 and 1000, legs per squarev inch of 2/16s mohairyarn. It may be stated therefore that a more open spacing than corresponds to 300 or 400 legs per square inch of 2/32s yarn wouldnot be satisfactory.
The holding or securing together in superposition of the fabricated units may be effected by means of adhesive, stitching or other. positive methods of fastening, or in some cases the units may be held in superposition, without being attached together, by encircling or encasing means.
The fibres or yarns employed in the weaving of the unit fabrications may have been treated to impart desired properties such as fire-resisting and water repelling. Alternatively, or in addition, the units themselves may be subjected to such treatment.
One or both of the outer fabrics of the units or of the composite structure may be covered or interwoven with other materials having regard to theparticular purpose and nature of the employment of the fabrication, or merely for decorative purposes.
Figures 1, 2 and 3 of the accompanying schematic drawing show, by way of example, three forms, of unit fabrication which may be used in the production of shock-absorbing or cushioning material according to the invention.
In the drawing, l. and 2 represent the ground warp of one outer fabric of a unit, and 3'and 4 represent the ground warp of the other outer fabric of the unit. The weft picks in the respective outer fabrics are shown in section as 5 and 6.
In Figure 1, which represents a standard weave,
V i'the: connecting elements or legs are produced by weavin gin a pile yarn l to engage all the Weft picks of both outer fabrics.
In Figure 2, which represents a derivative of the standard weave, the connecting elements or legs are produced by weaving in the pile yarn I to. engage alternate weft picks in the respective unit comprising as com-ponent'elements two textile fabrics into which are wovenresiliently fi'exible textile elements which connectthe fabrics fabrics is from 0f1te 0.4 inch and in" which the connecting elements are 2/16s mohair yarn packed to the extent of between 250 and 1000 elements per square inch.
6. Shock-absorbing material as claimed in claim 1, in which resilient flexibility in the fibres of the connectingelements'oia unit is imparted by a treatment such-as impregnation with synthetic resin.
7. Shock-absorbin material as claimed in claim 1, in which a. unit fabrication has been produced in oneoperation on a loom capable of weaving affwarppile fabric to the uncut stage.
8. Shock-absorbing material as claimed in claim-1; in which the connecting elements of a unit aredisposed in strips.
9.'Shock-'absorbing material as claimed in claim 1, inwhich the fibrous substance has been together and provide legsbetween the fabrics which are capable of holding the fabrics spaced apart by at least 1% inch and, if external compression has been applied, of restoring them to *suchsp'acin apart when the. compression is rev 'bsorbin g. materialas claimed in in I, which'ftliepacltingof the connecting 7 elements is 7 elements of l2/32js' yarn per. square inch. 3.; Shocl'c-.abso'rbing material s claimed .in elaimf 1," in whichithe iibres of the connecting J 'Qfthe twoit extile fabrics .i s from 0.1 to-0.4 inch. Shock-absorbing material asclaimed. in
.claiml' in'which the spacing of the twoitextile fabrics" is from 0.1 to 0.4;.inch and in which the nr'iecting. elementsv are; 2/32'5 mohairiiyarn elements per-square inch.
"'pack dijtet X .ent r between 500 and 2000 M .5. Shoclr-absorbing. material as claimed in jf ei'ei in which thespacing of the two textile 4 atjle'ast as closeas correspondsto 300 i elements ofralunit' are mohair and. the spacing treated to impart waterrepellency.-
treated: to impart fire resistance.
10. Shock-absorbing material as claimed in claim 1, in which the fibrous substance has been 11. Shock-absorbing material as claimed in claim 1, in which an outer fabric'of afiinit is covered with other material- 12. Shock-absorbing material as claimed in claim 1, in which an. outer fabric ofa unit is interwoven with other material. 1 I 13. Shock-absorbing material as claimed in claim 1, in which the units are positively secured together. 1 i
14. Shock-absorbing material as claimed in claim 1, in'which the units are held insuberpoition, without being attached together y .circlingmea'ns; i
= 15..seat's,- mattresses. mattress components and other articles of manufacture comprising shock-absorbing material as claimed in 'claiml.