US 2357942 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Filed Feb. 10, 1940 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 fnveniior Jo/mB.Fa rr' De ceased, By/Qma Grayf'arr fixecuzr'ix.
Sept. 12, 1944. FARR 2,357,942
OUTBOARD MOTOR Patented Sept. 12, 1944 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ou'raoaan Mo'roa John B. Farr, deceased, late of Detroit, Micln, by
. Ama Gray Farr, executrix, Detroit, Mich.
Application February 10, 1940, Serial No. 318,215
3 Claims. (Cl. 123-195) This invention relates to internal combusth motors and in particular to outboard motors for propelling boats.
One object of this invention is to provide a multiple radial cylinder outboard motor with at least three cylinders wherein the various pistons are secured to a common crank through their connecting rods, this crank being mounted upon a crank shaft which drives the propeller.
Another object is to provide a four cycle radial multiple cylinder outboard motor with at least three cylinders wherein each cylinder is provided with a cam shaft for actuating the intake and exhaust valves, each cam shaft being preferably driven from a common gear on the crank shaft.
Another object is to provide a multiple radial cylinder outboard motor wherein the various piston connecting rods are connected to a half crank mounted on the crank shaft.
Another object is to provide a multiple radial cylinder outboard motor with at least three cylinders having a crank shaft with a half crank carrying an anti-friction bearing to which the various piston connecting rods are connected, so that the bearing, such as a ball bearing, may be mounted on the half crank without being split or otherwise divided.
Another object is to provide a multiple radial cylinder outboard motor with at least three cylinders having the multiple connecting rods connected to a half crank on the crank shaft, the end of this half crank projecting so as to be engaged by a hand operated crank for starting purposes.
Another object is to provid a multiple radial cylinder outboard motor having a vertical crank shaft driven by connecting rods from the multiple cylinders, the crank shaft carrying a fly-wheel beneath the cylinders, this fly-wheel rotating in a horizontal plane and carrying scoop devices which scoop up the oil and throw it upward to various parts of the motor.
Another object is to provide a multiple radial cylinder outboard motor with at least three cylinders having a. cover plate on top of the housing, this cover plate having intake manifolds therein for equally distributing the explosive gas mixture to the various intake valves.
Another object is to provide a multiple radial cylinder outboard motor having the intake valve chamber immediately adjacent the exhaust valve chamber and separated therefrom by a thin wall.
so that the cold incoming gases tend to cool the walls heated by the outgoing exhaust gases. Another object is to provide a multiple radial cylinder outboard motor having a one piece tubular propeller shaft housing having bearing seats at its opposite ends so that these bearing seats may be machined in accurate alignment without the danger of subsequent misalignment in assembly.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation, partly broken away in central vertical section, showing a preferred embodiment of the multiple radial cylinder outboard motor according to the invention;
Fig. 2 is a top plan view, partly broken away, of the outboard motor shown in Fig. 1; and
Fig. 3 is a vertical section through the valve structure of a cylinder, taken along the line 33 in Fig. 2.
General arrangement In general, the outboard motor of this invention consists of an approximately circular crank case carrying three or more radial cylinders having pistons connected to an anti-friction hearing mounted upon a half crank, which, in turn, is a part of the vertical crank shaft. This crank shaft, beneath the'cylinders, carries a horizontal fly-wheel having scoop elements arranged to scoop up the oil from the crank case or sump and throw it to various parts of the invention. The crank shaft also carries a timing gear which meshes with individual timing gears mounted on an individual cam shaft for each of the several cylinders, this cam shaft operating the intake and exhaust valves of each cylinder. The half crank shaft projects upward so that it is'engageable by a hand crank mechanism for starting purposes. v
The upper part of the motor above the cylinders is occupied by a cover platehaving intake manifolds therein rimning to the intake valves of the various cylinders. By this means the explosive gas is equally distributed to the various cylinders from the carburetor. Each intake manifold runs to an intake valve chamber which is separated by a thin wall from the exhaust valve chamber so that the cold incoming gases will cool the exhaust valve chamber.
The crank shaft is coupled to a propeller shaft mounted in anti-friction bearings in a one piece tubular housing, the bearing seats of which are machined in accurate alignment. Since the housing is not divisible in manufacture or assembly, this construction insures accurate alignment of the bearings.
The drive housing is mounted in a suitable bracket mechanism attached to the boat by which the motor may be turned bodily through a complete revolution so'that the boatmay be reversed or the rudder, attached to the lower portion of the housing, turned through a wide angle.
Detailed construction The'crank case I is provided with a plurality of radially disposed apertures II within which are mounted cylinders I5 having cylinder bores I5 containing pistons I I. The pistons I! are provided with internal bosses I0 having aligned bores I9 carrying the wrist pins 20.
The wrist pins are engaged by the bores 2i in the end of the connecting rod 22, the opposite end of which'is provided with a bore surrounding and containing the outer element 24 of an anti-friction bearing 25. The inner element 20 of the latter is mounted upon the portion 21 of the half crank 20 forming a part of the crank shaft 20. The half crank 20 is provided with an oppositely projecting counterweight portion 00 for counterbaiancing the thrust of the crank.
The crank shaft 29 carries the inner element 5| of an anti-friction bearing 02, the outer element 33 of which is supported in a recess 04 within the spider 35 forming a part of .the crank case I0. The latter is provided with an integral yoke portion 50 carrying a pivot pin 51 upon which is mounted a pivot handle 00 by which the motor mayb swung to and fro by the operator around a vertical axis, for steering or reversing purposes.
Keyed to the crank shaft 25 is a timing'gear 59 which meshes with gears 40 (Figs. 2 and 3) mounted on the cam shafts ll. Each cylinder I5 is provided with its own individual cam shaft, the lower end of which is mounted in the antifriction bearings 42 supported in recesses 40 in partition wall 'II between the intake chamber 40 and the exhaust chamber I2 (Fig. 3). The exhaust chamber 50 is simply provided with a coil spring I0 urging it into a closed position. The exhaust valve chamber I2 is provided with an exhaust port I4 to which an exhaust manifold (not shown) may be connected in any conven-.
tional way, and leading either to a conventional muiiier or to an underwater exhaust. These elements are omitted to simplify the disclosure.
The cylinder bores I 0 of the cylinders I5, at their outer ends, are closed by the cylinder heads I5 bolted thereto as at 10 andcontaining the ignition chambers- II, having threaded bores 10 containing the spark'plug 19. Theenergization .of the spark plugs I0 is effected by electricity supplied from a conventional spark coil or magneto (notshown) through a-conventionai timer and distributor (not shown) mounted on the upper end of one of the cam shafts II. This timing and distributing mechanism is likewise omitted for purposes of simplifying the-showing.
Each of theintake chambers is provided with an intake port 00 from which the intake manifold passageways 40 lead to. the carbureter connecting portion 0| to which is attached the carburetor 02. The latter is provided as usual with an air intake portion 02 and anadjusting screw 04 for adjusting the needle valve.
The cover plate 41 containing the exhaust passageways I0 is bolted as at 05 to the cylinders II. The cover plate 01' is likewise provided with a vertical bore 00 containing the shaft 81 on one end of which is mounted the manually cperated starting crank 00. 'A coil spring 00 urges the shaft 01 and crank 00 upward. The other end of the shaft 01 carries an arm 00 engageable with a projection 5i upon the crank portion 21. The projection 0| is wedge-shaped (Fig. 2)
the spider 35 of the crank case I0 (Fig. 3). The
upper end of each cam shaft is mounted in antifriction bearings 44 supported in the recess 45 formed in the boss 40. The bosses project downwardly from the cover plate ",the latter also containing intake manifold passageways 45 leading to the intake valve chambers 49 in each cylinder I5. The cam shafts II are provided with intake and exhaust valve cams 50 and 5|, respectively, serving to actuate the valve tappets 52 and 53, respectively, mounted in the bores 54 of the collars 55. The latter, in turn, are mounted in the bores 55 within the partition portions 51 forming a part of the cylinder I5 '(Fig. 3). The'valve tappets 52, actuated by the cams 50, engage the enlargements 50 upon the ends of the intake valves 50 having valve heads engaging valve seats 5| in the cylinders I5. The intake valve 59 is reciprocably mounted in a bore 52 within the spider 52 extending across the intake chamber 40. A coil spring 04 urges the intake valve 50 toward its closed posiso as to permit the arm 00 mm thus automatically when the motor starts.
Connecting rod 22 is a. master connecting rod which is provided with pivot pins 02 to which the connecting links or secondary connecting rods 03 are pivotally connected. Opposite ends of the secondary connecting-j rods 02 are pivotdisengaged ally connected to the wrist pins 20 of thepistons I! in the manner previously described. The pistons I1 are provided with the usual piston rings 00 for the prevention of leakage between the pistons I1 and the cylinder bore I0. The cylinders II are provided with the usual cooling flns or, flanges 55 with corresponding fins 96 upon the cylinder heads I5.
Th crank shaft 20 is provided with a tapered portion 01 engaged by the correspondingly tapered bore 00 of the fly-wheel 05 keyed thereto. The fly-wheel 00 is provided with bores I00 within which are secured the downwardly extending scoop tubes Ill. The latter project slightly above the top of the fly-wheel 00 and, in the rotation of the latter, serve to pick up oil from the sump portion II and throwit upward to the various moving parts of the motor.
,The sump portion II is provided with an upwardly projecting annular flange I02 surrounding the fly-wheel hub I00 and serving to prevent the escape of lubricant. The sump portion II within the flanged portion I02 is provided with a recess I04 serving to receive the outer element of an anti-friction bearing I05, the inner element of which is mounted upon the reduced diameter portion I00 of 'the'crank shaft 29.
The crank shaft portion I00 terminates in a coupling portion I31 having cooperating ridges engaging a corresponding coupling socket I33 in the upper end of the drive shaft I33. The lat:-
a bevel gear "6 secured, as at H1, to the propeller shaft H3. One end of the propeller shaft H3 is mounted in double anti-friction bearings II3 supported in a recess I23 formed in the drive housing cap I2I. as at I22, intothe bore I23 in the projecting portion I 23 at the/lyer end of the drive housins I2.
The drive housing I2 also is provided with a projecting portion I25 (Fig. 1) provided with a recess I26 containing an anti-friction thrust bearing I21 which is engaged by the enlargement I23 on the propeller shaft I I3. The latter is provided with a packing I23 compressed by a gland I33 threaded into the bore I3I. The outer end of the propeller shaft H3 is provided with a screw propeller I32 secured thereto, as at I33, and having propeller blades I34. Formed integrally with the drive housing I2 is a downwardly projecting fin or rudder I35.
The upper end 01' the drive housing I2 is provided with an annular recess I36 loosely receiving an annular member I31 carrying a pivot pin I33. Engaging the pivot pin I33 is the 1 bore I33 formed in the upper end of the bracket I3 which has an outwardly extending arm structure I43 provided with threaded bores I carrying a pair of clamping screws I42, each being provided with a head I43 and handle I44 for clamping the motor to a boat (in Fig. i the two clamping screws I42 are in horizontal alignment and hence only one is visible.)
The bracket I3 is likewise provided with a downwardly extending arm structure I45 to which are secured, as at I46, spaced arms I41 containing arcuate slots I43 having their centers of curvature at the center of the pivot shaft I33. The slots I43 are engaged by adjusting bolts I43 seated in annular members I 53 loosely mounted upon the casing I2 in a manner similar to the annular membr I31. In this manner the motor may be swung completely around by grasping the handle 33. The bolts I33 also permit an adjustment of the motor and a tilting relatively to the vertical plane.
The drive housing I2 is preferably of streamlined cross-section so as to offer the minimum resistance in its passage through the water. For this purpose, the leading edge is rounded and the trailing edge is thin and fin-shaped.
Operation The operation of the invention has been described, in part, in connection with the description of the construction thereof. The operator starts the engine by rotating the hand crank 33 after pushing it downward into engagement with the projection 3| on the half crank 23. Assuming that the carbureter 32 has been supplied with fuel and the timing apparatus and spark plugs 13 energized from a suitable source of electricity, the explosions take place in timed sequences within the cylinders I5.
While the explosions are taking place within The latter is threaded/ the cylinders I5, the cam shafts H are bein rotated so as to open and close the intake valves 63 and exhaust valves 61 in accordance with the predetermined cycle of operation, according to the four-cycle plan. Thus the piston I 1 makes one complete stroke upon its explosion and exhaust half strokes and a successive complete stroke upon its intake and compression half strokes. This cycle of operations is repeated indefinitely according to the desires of the operator.
As the explosion stroke of each cylinder occurs, the thrust of each piston I1 is communicated to the half crank 23 of the crank shaft 23' by the engagement of the main connecting links 33 with the anti-friction bearing 25. This rotation is transmitted to the drive shaft I33 through the coupling members I31 and I33 and, thence, to the screw propeller I32 through the shaft H3 and bevel gearing H5 and H6. I
Meanwhile, the rotation of the fly-wheel 33 causes thescoop tubes I3I to pick up oil from the sump portion II and throw this oil upward to lubricate the various bearings and-the cylinder r bores I6.
- between the two chambers.
The motor may be adjusted as to position by manipulating the bolts I43, thereby allowing for any tilt at which the bracket structure I3 must be set in the particular boat.
To steer the boat, the operator merely swings the handle 33, thereby swinging the motor and its connected parts, including the drive housing I2, screw propeller I32, and the rudder I35. To reverse the boat, the operator merely swings the handle 38 through a half revolution, so that the screw propeller I32 is directed forward instead of rearward, as shownin Fig. 1. The hearing ring members I31 and I53 permit this wide angle swinging of the motor assembly relatively to the bracket structure I3.
The term outboard motor used herein is defined as a small internal combustion engine with propeller attached, temporarily secured to the stern of a small boat.
While a specific embodiment of the invention has been described and illustrated, it will be understood that various modifications may be made within the scope of the appended claims without departing from the spirit of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. In an outboard motor, a crank case having a closure plate to provide an end wall therefor. a plurality of removable cylinders disposed radially about said crank case, pistons reciprocably mounted in said cylinders, a crank-shaft journaled in one wall of said case, a cantilever crank pin on the crank shaft having its end terminating within the confines of the cylinders and spaced from the end wall closureplate a suflicient distance to provide clearance there-v between, and a connecting rod assembly'mounted said crank pin being drivingly connected to said piston, said clearance space being so pro-- crank case and extending radially therefrom,
pistons mounted in said cylinder, a crank shaft journaled in said crank case, a cantilever crank pin on said crank shaft having its end terminat ing within the confines of the cylinders andspaced from the closure plate a suflicient distance to provide a clearance space therebetween, and a connecting rod assembly mounted on said crank pin connecting said pl tomgwith said crank pin, said clearance space being so'-wopor-= tioned as to ermit removal oithe connection rod assembly laterally from the crank min after the cylinders have been removed from the crank C558.
3. In an outboard motor. a, crank;caae having an end wall, a series of cylindersrradiailydil. posed about said crank case. pistons reciprocablymounted in said cylinders; a crank-shait ioor- -naled insaidvcrank case,- a cantilever crank pin on said crank-shaft withinthe confines oi said ity of secondary connecting rods connecting the remaining .pistonsto said mainconnecting rod.
said clearance space being soflproportioned to admit removal oi the connecting rod assembly laterally from the crankipinaiter the cylinders -hav'e been removed irom thezcrank case.
III p AMA GRAY FARR,
- l Emecutrix.