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Publication numberUS2358559 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 19, 1944
Filing dateOct 9, 1941
Priority dateOct 9, 1941
Publication numberUS 2358559 A, US 2358559A, US-A-2358559, US2358559 A, US2358559A
InventorsClemens Edwin S
Original AssigneeWater Reclaimer Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Water reclaimer mobile type
US 2358559 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 19, 1944. E. s. CLEMENS ,7 2,358,559 I WATER RECLAIMER MOBILE TY P E Filed Oct. 9} 1941 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 .lflllllllllllll: l Q i git 0W Sept. 19, 1944. E. s. CLEMENS WATER' RECLAIMER MOBILE TYPE 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. 9, 1941 J5. )5. Clemens Patented Sept. 19, 19.44

FFI'VCEF I j fvva'rER RECLAJMER uoBrLE TYPE I Edwin S. Clemens, New Orleans, La., assignor to I Water Reclaimer Corporation,

corporation of Alabama Mobile, Ala., a

Application October 9, 1941, Serial No. 414,369 I 7 Claims.- (01102-236)- This invention relates to'water reclaiming apparatus and; has for its object the provision of means'for obtainingpotable water from an .impure water supply, stressing the larger proportionate quantity of water reclaimed and the maximum economyin the utilization of heat in.

the reclamation ofthe water. 7 V I The function of the subject apparatus involves the evaporation in vacuo of water heatedto a lower than boiling point temperature which ordinarily wouldnecessitata'for the pump recirculation of theraw 'water from heater to vacuum chamber, that the latter be elevated to at least the vacuum seal height above the surface level of the body of raw water. Otherwise, the water will flash into Vapor. in the circulating system,

making the pump ineffective. This has limited the practical employment of vacuum water reclaimers to boats or buildings wherein the pres ence of a tower-like structure from twenty to thirty. feet or more in height isunobjectionable. One of the objects of the present invention is to provide access of atmospheric pressure to the circulating water column between'.the heating chamber and the vacuum chamber, relieving the vacuum tension of the circulatingcolumn, avert- I ing the tendency of the water to flash inthe circulating line, and permitting the pump to properly function'withthe' apparatus at any desired low level. {This adapts theapparatus of the present invention to be'mounted on .atruck as well as to be used in boats or in buildings, which is the most important consideration in providing mobile water reclaiming units for armies, etc.

Another object of the invention is to introduce the heated water to the vacuum chamber in the form of a hollow conical curtain whereby maximum surface, both the inside and outside of said curtain, is exposed to the evacuated atmosphere of the vacuum chamber. Still another object of the invention is the provision of a cone splitter to open one side oflthe conical spray particularly near the 'apex where the ,water curtain is continuous, thereby to allow the water vapor from the inside of the apical por tion of the hollow cone to escape. 1

A further object-of the invention is to provide a sediment and solute collecting body of water with level determining overflow, at the bottom of the vacuum chamber, which is continuously agitated by the impingement of the water spray against the surface thereof, so that the high density of water is kept in a. condition .of uniform concentration continuously dischargingall solids therein contained, into said overflow.

- the elementsof a Other objects of the invention will appear as the following description of a preferred andpractical embodiment thereof proceeds. 1

In the drawings which accompany andform a part of the following specification and through out the several figures of Which'the same characters of reference have beenemployed to designate identical parts:

Figure 1 is a view in elevation; partly in sec-' tion, showing an embodiment of the invention adapted to be mounted upon a truck; I

Figure 2 is a similar view showing a modified form ofthe'invention adapted'f'or use on a boat; Figure 3 is an elevational view of a spray nozz le featuring the cone splitter; v Figure 4 is a vertical section through a modified form of vacuum chamber showinga plurality of sprays in vertical axial alignmentyand Y I Figure 5 is a similar view through a modified form of vacuum chamber in which-a plurality of sprays are horizontally arranged. Referring now in detail to the several figures, and first-adverting tothat form of the invention shownin Figure 1, this being "the installation-designed particularly for a; mobile unit and in which it is contemplated that a ,capacityof reclaimed water is required greater than can be obtained from the mere waste heat of the truck power plant, the numeral 1" heater, which may be heated if desired, in part by waste heat from the internal combustion engine, not shown, I I truck; but which is shown as being served by a suitable burner 2. The water heater l is one of circulatoryv system which I in, cludes also the vacuum chamber 3 and the pump 4, which pumps water from the lower part of the vacuum chamber by way of the conduit 5"and returns it to, the water heater through the conduit 6,. The atmosphere of the vacuum chamber is continuously evacuated through the conduit 1 at the top of said chamber. I I Heated water from the upper part of the heater I is drawn into the vacuum chamber through a downwardly directed spray nozzle 8 which delivers the water to the vacuum chamber in the form of a hollow inverted cone 9, or other suitable spray. A portion of the heated water spray vapor being carried through the conduit '|.to a condenser HI. A pump I I connected to the lower part of the condenser byga conduit I2, delivers the condensatewater from the condenser to a storage chamber l3. Thewater vapor from the chamber 3 is drawn into the condenser through represents a water which nermeny operates the is evaporated in the vacuum chamber, the Water maintained in the vacuum would interrupt its pumping point but higher than the boiling point under the degree of vacuum chamber, might flash into a vapor, creating a void iri-tlie pump! whichfunction' and bring the circulation of water to an end and the vapor would condense back into the water in the re circulating line itself. Also, if the entire circulatory system were closed, more heat" would be required :if the whole recirculation line -were-unden-vacuum; assthe' vacuu would-have, a tendency to reduce thetemperature ofthe water to the -vacuum temperature. For instance, steam leaving the exhaust 0fan engine or turbine at 300 F. anddischarged: intoea vacuumof 27 inches; as referred to-30-inches barometer, would instantly be'reduced to approximately 1l5 on-into a 28-inchwacuum to-approximately 105 So;-by discharging-.thewater fromtheheater into atmospheric-pressure and allowing-.the-vacumn -to-pullthisewater into =the reclaimertank, thetotahheat of the wateris then put: through the -spray:head for vaporization in the reclaimer tank.

In" order to'avoid this have'provideda-break in the circulatory conduitsat which:break atmos rpheric pressure isimposed upon: the column of circulating water-g relieving: the vacuous tension of the circulatory water-column and preventing the tendency of thewaterto fiash intoa-vapor in---the pump,; or for that matter, at anyother point than the-vacuum: chamber itself.

This break -is effected by the -pI OViS -0n:-Ofan opem toppedvessel -;l 6 which is-filled--. with water up -toa constantminimumlevel H, determined by the positiom ef-a float -valve: 23-,in' theconduit I 5-which leads to the sprayrnozzle. The. maximum levelisdetermined-by the overflow pipe 18-. The adj acent ends of the conduits l4 and I5 dip into the vessel l 6 below the water leveL l1; Thus, the function of the pumnk is to pump into the vessel- II which is. .under atmospheric. .pressure, and thefunctiom of the vacuum inthe vacuum chamber 3;-is to draw liquid from the-body of liquid in the vessel 1'6; x

The condenser l0 is-cooled'by-raw water-drawn from'the source. of; supply. through the conduit and pumped to the condenser bythepumpell and-discharged 'byway. Of the pipe. 22. The coolingwate-r, ofcourse, becomes-heated in the condenser, and" as it is desired -to conserve as much as possible ofv the. heat of this. water, as much asmay needed to. make up. the-loss due t6 the volume of'waterreclaimed,.plus high densitywatertrirown' away; through pipe 32 'in Fig 1,. is fed intdth chamber 3 through the branch pipe 26'.' I

. ThatpartofItlie water. of the' conical spray 9 which does not evaporate in the vacuum chambet 3' accumulates in abody 21 in the bottom of'is'aid vacuum chamber to'a level determined and mai'ritairiediby the upper end of the conduit 5 which eiite'nfdsani appreciable distance above the bottom of the' vacuum chamber; 'Ihiswater water vapor.

is necessarily of relatively high density, containing solutes resulting from the evaporation of part of the spray and also sediment in suspension. A part of this high density water is bled off from the system through the valved pipe 24 connecting into the conduit 6, either continuously or periodically, as may be desired. This prevents progressive increase in the density of the water circulating throug'hthe system and avoids the"deposit'of' scale, etctyin the various parts of said system. As the spray 9 impinges forcibly against the surface of the high density water body. 21-, it.keeps this water body in a state of agitation whereby a uniform proportion of the '5'csolid's which it contains are continuously carried to the pipe 24 This purge of the high density water does away with the necessity of having to cleaniscale and salt accumulations from the various parts of the system as it required with ordinarycoil types of evaporators. In other words, the subject water .reclaimer is selfcleaning'.

, Abafflei 2.9 requires the. water vapor to traverse a. circuitousfpath before reaching the conduit 1, and prevents. any splashof. impure water. from being. entrained. with, the..outgoing water vapor and contaminating the reclaimed .water.

A hollow cone spray. has. beenselected as affordingthemaximum.surfaceeexposedto the vacuum within the .vacuumchamber 3L The water constituting this cone. spray is.1in-the form-of a thin. curtain,. bothetheeinnereand. outer surfaces of 'which are exposed. to. the. vacuous atmosphere within the vacuum .chamber.. Such a curtain has .the form of.-a.continuous. sheet of water toward. the apical.portionoffthe cone, but in the lower or wider. portionethe sheet of water breaks into cascades of-d'ropsmore or less separated-and affording. innumerable-passages. from the inside to the outside .of the. cone for the exit of the Ordinarily, a. certain volume. of water vapor would be trappedwithin the apical portion of the. hollowcones by the-continuous sheet of water forming. theupper part ofsaid cone. This would decreasethe. evaporative surface. of'th'e inside .of'thecone. In order to prevent this loss in. eyaporativ :efliciency, I .have provided thecone splitter 30 which. has the-=form 'of a blade or wire attached to the rim of the spray nozzle and extendinginwardly so as. tointersect the. surface of; the .coneclosely adjacent theapex thereof. Such a splitter. diverts the water'issuing from the. spray nozzle 8,. forming a cleft' 3l from apex to baseand providing: an

avenue'fo'r the continuousdischargeof all of theiwater Vapor generatedon the inside .of the cone. 7

By the provision of. the atmospheric. break represented by the open vessel 16,. intowhichthe adjacent'ends of the conduits. l4 and I5 dip be.- lcw" the waterlevel, I'am enabled. to maintain circulation of .waterbetweenthe heater andvacuum chamber without resortingto, the. elevation of the vacuum chamber to' a. height equal. in. or exceeding the vacuum seal height above the. level of the body of raw water being reclaimed. Without this break, it would be impractical .to install this system in a mobile unit such'asv a'truck or other places where height is limited.

Referringnow to that adaptation of the invention shown in Figure 2, this represents a boat orother installation in'which. a relatively large amount .ofv waste heatis available and in which the volume of water required to be reclaimedisi generally not so large to. require any supplemental. heating, agency.

'boat, and which drawn through the conduit The heate'r in this form of the invention is represented'by the -water 'jacket33 of the internal combustion engine which operates the is 'applied with cooling Water The cooling water heated by the engine is pumped from the engine jacket by way of the conduit 34 by the pump 36 and delivered to the open topped vessel 16" throughthe conduit 38.

connection with that form and the conduit I5. which supplies the spray nozzle dip into the "vessel I li-below the water level l which is maintained by the float valve 23 and by the overflovvpip'e 31, the latteritlischarging intO'the sea. Vacuum in the vacuum 7 by the pump ll theinduction end of which com municates through the conduit l2 and condenser chamber 3 is maintained Ill with the water vapor conduit 1. A separate vacuum pump, such as that shown at 49 in Figure 2 maybe used, if desired. Cooling water for the condenser is pumped from the seathrough the conduit 2!], pump 2| and conduit 38', and returns to the sea by way of the conduit 39. The bafiie 29 is the same as in the first described form of my invention and performs the same function. A body of water is maintained in the bottom of the vacuum chamber 3 to a level determined by the height at which the upper end of the pipe stands above the bottom of the vacuum chamber. A proportion of the high concentration water is withdrawn by the pump 40 and discharged into the sea.

This form of the invention differs from that illustrated in Figure 1, solely in that waste heat from an internal combustion engine is employed the water being treated,

gained through the from the use of the shows a horizontally increased surface resulting multiple nozzles. Figure 5 enlarged vacuum chamber 44, in which the spray nozzles 45, 46 and 41 are in horizontal alignment emanating from a common manifold 48. Each of these nozzles is equipped with the cone splitter 30.

While I have in the above description disclosed what I believe to be a preferred and practical embodiment of the invention, it will be understood to those skilled in the art that the specific details as shown and described are by way of illustration and not to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention which is expressed in the appended claims.

What I claim as my invention is:

1. Water reclaiming apparatus comprising means forming a vacuum chamber, a condenser, a conduit connecting the upper part of said vacuum chamber with said condenser and a pump for drawing water vapor into said condenser from said vacuum chamber and maintaining vacuum in said chamber and a water circulation system including a water heater and conduits communi- 34 from the sea.

relieving vacuum {tension'on'the water column s in said circulation system comprising a vessel "circulating water column, s conduit adjacent said vessel being submerged -below thelevel of said water body; afspray-head "terminating said'upp'er conduit within said vac- 1 uum chamber, drawing said vacuum "chamber 'means forming a vacuum V I I -a conduit connecting'the upper part of said vacfor drawing water va a claim 3, including open to atmosphere intercalated in said upper conduit and forming part thereof, means for maintaining a, water body in said vessel at constant level, said water body forming part of the the ends of said'upper 'water' from said vessel, and apump in said'lower conduit pumping from through said heater to said'vesseL- V I y v '2. Water reclaiming apparatus comprising chamber, a condenser,

uum chamber with'said'conde'nser, and a ump from said vacuum chamber and maintaining vacuum in said chamber, a water circulation system including a water heater and conduits communicating therewith and with the upper and lower parts of said vacuum chamber, a spray head terminating in said upper conduit within said vacuum chamber, said upper conduit includdrawing from said vessel.

3. Water reclaiming apparatus comprising means forming a vacuum chamber, a condenser, a conduit connecting the upper part of said vacinto said vessel, said spray head drawing water from said vessel.

concentration of duit 5. Water reclaiming apparatus as claimed. in

a suction conduit communieating with said vacuum chamber above said spray head and with a condenser, a pump. con- "eating therewith and with the upper and lower 'parts'of said vacuum-chamber, and means for por through said condenser r nected to said suction cond it through said con- ;denser for drawing water vapor from said vac uum chamber into said condenser and discharg- 'municating therewith and with the upper and lower parts of said vacuum chamber, a downwardly directed spray head terminating said upper conduit within said vacuum chamber, said M upper conduit including pipe sections communieating respectively with said heater and said spray head, and an intermediate vessel open to atmosphere having a constant minimum water level, said pipe sections at their adjacent ends dipping within said vessel below said level, a float controlled valve in said upper conduit determining the minimum level in said vessel, said lower conduit extending within said vacuum chamber to a certain height above the bottom thereof determining the retention of a, body of water at constant level within said vacuum chamber replenished by the spray from said spray head and against the surfaceof'which said spray impinges, and a pump in said lower conduit pumping water from the body in said vacuum chamber-through said heater into said vessel,- "said spray head drawing water from said vessel. v

7. A spray head for use in ,vacuum chamber evaporating apparatuscomprising a nozzlehaving discharge orifices angularly arranged to deliver a spray in the form of a hollow cone and a cone splitter carried by said nozzle comprising a blade extending transversely across the path of the spray to form a cleft in the spray to provide an avenue of escape for vapor from within the conical spray.

EDWIN S. CLEMENS

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2613177 *Jul 1, 1948Oct 7, 1952Bethlehem Steel CorpLow-pressure flash evaporator
US2636846 *Mar 30, 1946Apr 28, 1953Et Lavigne Juan LoumietDistilling process and apparatus
US2663683 *May 2, 1952Dec 22, 1953John J McandrewsApparatus for evaporating liquids
US2747847 *Jan 26, 1953May 29, 1956Otto CarlCoke oven gas cooler
US2778782 *Aug 15, 1951Jan 22, 1957Niagara Blower CoMethod and apparatus for concentrating aqueous solutions of hygroscopic organic substances
US2803589 *Dec 3, 1952Aug 20, 1957Eleanore T AllenMethod of and apparatus for flash evaporation treatment
US2875139 *May 22, 1953Feb 24, 1959Phillips Petroleum CoApparatus for obtaining maximum depth of flash of oils and the like
US2901426 *Dec 28, 1953Aug 25, 1959Phillips Petroleum CoVaporization with condensation of vapors and recovery of resulting condensate in an external guard zone
US2921004 *Dec 18, 1953Jan 12, 1960Foster Wheeler LtdApparatus for the evaporation or distillation of water
US3117557 *Apr 21, 1961Jan 14, 1964Douglas Aircraft Co IncEvaporators
US3317405 *Oct 21, 1965May 2, 1967Kenard D BrownDistillation apparatus with ultrasonic frequency agitation
US3522150 *Apr 18, 1968Jul 28, 1970Charles W GaluskaVacuum flash distilling apparatus
US5152150 *Apr 30, 1991Oct 6, 1992Elliott Jr Robert HRemoval of volatile organic pollutants from drinking water
US5458184 *Dec 9, 1994Oct 17, 1995Elliott, Jr.; Robert H.Removal of volatile organic pollutants from drinking water
US5555735 *Oct 16, 1995Sep 17, 1996Elliott, Jr.; Robert H.Removal of volatile organic pollutants from drinking water
DE1182382B *Dec 23, 1958Nov 26, 1964Standard Messo DuisburgVorrichtung zum Entlueften und Kuehlen von Viskose unter Anwendung von Vakuum-verdampfung
Classifications
U.S. Classification202/236, 261/115, 239/461, 203/11
International ClassificationC02F1/04, B01D3/00, B01D3/06, C02F1/16
Cooperative ClassificationB01D3/06, C02F1/04, C02F1/16
European ClassificationC02F1/04, B01D3/06, C02F1/16