US 2360316 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 17, 1944. e, w. CARLSON 2,360,316
EARTH MOVING AND MATERIAL HANDLING Filed May 8, 1941 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 I rag Q 1944- G. w. CARLSON EARTH MOVING AND MATERIAL HANDLING Filed May 8, 1941 2 Sheets- Sheet 2 Patented Oct. 17, 1944 UNITED STATES FATENT OFFICE 6 Claims.
This invention relates to earth moving methods and apparatus and particularly to provisions for a wide range of utility in machines of this character.
It is one of the objects of this invention to provide for the continuous and concurrent removal, and loading onto a vehicle, of earth to be moved.
It is another object of this invention to provide for the construction of a subterranean tunnel in loose material.
A further object of this invention is to provide for automatically grading earth to any degree of curvature.
Additional objects of the invention will become apparent incident the practice thereof in accordance with the teachings of the following specification and the attached drawings wherein:
Figure 1 is a side elevational View of the preferred modification of a machine, illustrating the method employed in tunneling thru loose material;
Figure 2 is a view of the machine of Figure 1 from the Working face thereof, as from line 2-2 of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a view from line 33 of Figure 1, the tunnel timbering being, however, illustrated only in dotted lines and the machine being shown as in operating position occupying the entire tunnel section and accessible for disassembly of the lateral excavating units from the main excavating unit;
Figure 4 is a fragmentary sectional elevation to illustrate mechanism for providing accessibility for disassembly and for permitting relative adjustments of the planes of the tractor tread and the excavating mechanism and for adjustments of the degree of curvature of the surface to be worked;
Figure 5 is a sectional detail as at plane 5-5, of Figure 6 illustrating the construction of the retractable excavating shoes; and
Figure 6 is a plan from the plane of 6-6 of Figure 5.
In the arrangement shown in Figures 1, 2, and 3, a vehicle 2, preferably self propelled and of the tractor type provided with a power plant 4, tractor treads 6 and lateral frame stringers 8, carries at one end thereof, and in inclined relation thereto so as to overlie the vehicle, an earth excavating head in adapted to engage the earth body on the forward and upper side of the rig and move soil from the earth body up and over the vehicle to drop through a hopper 12 onto a suitable conveyor M, or onto a truck. By this arrangement the earth moved is transferred from one end of the Vehicle to the other without change of the orientation of the vehicle 2. The depth of cutting into the earth at [6 is determined by the position of vehicle 2. Vehicle 2 is driven forwardly against the earth concurrently with the operation of excavating head H).
The earth moving rig comprises central endless chain type scoop sections 48 including a frame I8 carrying sets of chain scoop idler and driving gears 26 and 22 respectively. Frame I8 is carried by vehicle 2 on legs 24 and brackets 26. Brackets 26 are rigidly secured to frame l8 and pivot about the axis of the power supply shaft 26 driven from power plant 4 and supported in the stringers 8. Legs 24 are extensible and contractible as shown in Figure 3, through turnbuckle 30. Legs 24 are pivoted to frame [8 at 32 and on the vehicle frame stringer 8 at 34. Power is supplied from the vehicle to the adjustably mounted excavator head It! through the bevel gears at pivot 28 and takeoff shaft 36, which shaft 36 drives gear 22 through a chain drive within housing 38. It is evident, therefore, that whatever the adjustment of turnbuckle 36 may be, a supply of power is communicated to the chain scoop 40.
Adjustment of turnbuckle 36 provides two different results. In the tunneling illustrations of the figures the vertical height of the tunnel is thus determined, and when the machine is to be removed the excavating head I0 is lowered by adjusting at 30 so as to present a smaller cross section in the plane normal to the tunnel. This is necessary because it must pass below the roof timbers 42 (Figure 1), and also permit the vehicle 2 to run upon any ties installed in the flooring.
Another function of the adjustment afforded through turnbuckle 30 has relation to automatically cutting away earth deposits to a desired curvature. In the operation of the machine illustrated in Figure 1, the earth cutting begins in the plane of the vehicle treads, that is on the same level as the level of the floor in Figure 1.
It is essential that the cut start as at 46, in the same plane as the tractive treads in order to effect uniplanar flooring, and so that the roof of the tunnel shall likewise be in one plane. If, however, the point is raised above the plane of treads 6 by shortening legs 24, the resulting floor is curved concave upward. For example, by adjusting the turnbuckle 36 so as to increase the length of leg 24, the tips of buckets at point 46 are caused to dig downwardly into the floor on a level below the chord drawn tangent to the bottoms of the tractor gear wheels; that is, below the level of the floor portion which supports the tractor treads. As the excavating progresses and the tractor advances, the plane of the tractor treads comes over the points just excavated and drops gradually downward in doing so, thereby causing the tips 46 to out still further below the original level of the tractor treads, as illustrated. The level of cutting is thus changed to the formation of a curved surface which continues to become steeper downwardly as the excavator progresses. On the other hand, if the points 46 are positioned above the plane of treads 6, as by shortening the legs 24, the resulting floor is curved concave upward.
In addition to the central chain scoop sections 48, the machine contains provisions for reducing the horizontal dimensions of the entire machine transverse the axis of the machine, so that the machine may return from whence it came, passing between the vertical timbers 58. Such timbers are erected behind the machine as it advances in conformity with the need for shoring and timbering. As illustrated in Figure 3 the vehicle 2 is much narrower than the tunnel cut, extending only between the vertical planes passing through points a and b. The widths of chainscoop section 48 may be of the order of, or slightly greater than, this width.
The width of the cutting face of the moving rig is increased by the addition of separable lateral sections 62 of chain scoops, as in Figures 2, 3, and 4, idler and drive shafts 64 and 66, respectively, having separable flange couplings 68 for connecting shaft extensions 10 thereto. extensions 18 are supported in lateral frames 12 to position lateral section scoop drive gears 14. When the machine is to be moved rearwardly from the face of a tunnel, its width is decreased by uncoupling the lateral sections of the chain scoop at 68. After lowering the central portion 48 through adjustment of legs 24, the machine can pass the timbering. The discharge of soil from sections 62 is onto hopper wings 63, which are pivoted to hopper I2 for collapsing inwardly in order to clear timbering 58 (shown in dotted outline in Figure 3) in moving rearwardly or to the right from Figure 1 position.
In order to drive the chain scoop and afford access for a mechanic to uncouple the lateral sections 62 thereof, the central section 48 of the chain scoop is provided with transversely extensible and contractible buckets 16, having gear engaged base bucketlpo-rtions 18 and the laterally shiftable bucket portion 80. The position of shiftable bucket portion 88 is controlled by cam pin 82 sliding in camway 84 secured to frame l8. Accordingly, the idle portion of the central scoop section, which portion is illustrated in Figure 3 and disposed rearwardly, is reduced in breadth to provide the openings 86 through which the members 24, 26, pass to support the frame I 8, and through which takeoff shaft 36 also passes to drive the chain scoop. The openings 86 are sufficient to permit entry and uncoupling of the shaft extensions If! and 18. Before uncoupling these extensions, the individual scoops may be released to the floor by pulling a link pin of the chain scoop; the frame of these lateral extensions may be fastened against their interference With the movement of the central portion 48 of the scoop. It is only necessary to remove one link pin from each chain of scoops 62; by so doing the entire balance of the chain may be fed forwardly in the normal direction of movement for Shaft excavating by means of the normal drive which results in the side sections 62 being deposited well forwardly of the frame l8, that is, under the rearward (rightward in Figure 1) portion of frame l8. The frame sections I2 may be released and withdrawn, or they may be anchored to the lateral side walls (to the left and right of the Figure 3), in any desired manner, and then disconnected from the main portion of the head as at couplings 68. By so doing, the vehicle 2 and section 48 may be driven rearwardly between uprights 56, and then the frame sections 12 for 62 may be released from their anchors and re- -moved from the tunnel.
Accordingly, it is clear that a substantially flat forward scoop surface is presented by excavating head If! to which power is applied from a central power plant, of less dimensions than the excavating head, and to the rear of the scoop and outside of the chain-scoop proper.
The versatility of this machine will be appreciated when it is further pointed out: that the upper end of the chain-scoop can be used to trim overhead material to any desired level above the floor within the adjustment range; and that the lower end of the chain-scoop at 46, is, alone, usable as a scraper and loader, since it can pick up at ground level and concurrently deliver at truck or belt conveyor level.
It is to be noted that the forward, or leftward movement of the vehicle in Figure 1, results in the wedging of the vehicle into the earth, that is, considering the tractor treads as one face of the wedge and the working face of the chain scoop as the other face of the wedge. Inasmuch as the teeth of the scoops, while operating, tend to pull the excavator head into the earth due to the reaction of the earth, it must be clear that the tractive effort of the tractor treads leftward assists to effect feeding to the teeth into the earth body.
In tunneling, or cutting ditch through loose earth, it is essential that the ceiling and walls be timbered directly behind the zone of operations. According to the present method the entire face of the tunnel is supported against falling into the excavated space by the working machine, and the timbering 42-56 is emplaced immediately behind the chain-scoop while it is in operation. The arrangement permits timbering to the very point where the excavator head ceases to support the tunnel face.
While an auxiliary frame 12 and scoops 62 have been described, it will be appreciated that a similar effect may be achieved in reducing the width of the machine by making camway 84 removable from the main frame [8 and permitting the bucket sections 80 to come off by an excess movement inward. For example, the base bucket 18, Figures 5 and 6, is grooved to normally receive the dove-tail lugs 19 of portion 80 in locked relation, such lugs, when pin 82 moves freely of camway 84, being freed to permit liftirig the portions 88 rearwardly of the machine out of engagement with portions 18. By such construction the vertical planes through points a and b, Figure 3, would define the sidewalls of the tunnel. The access ports 86 reduce to passages between the tunnel walls and the retracted ends of sliding buckets 88 and serve to give access to a mechanic for loosening camway 84 to, in turn release pins 82, and the scoops or buckets 80 may then be removed one by one as they are fed over the machine. The shafts 64 and 66 terminate within the Width of the central portion 48 of the excavator head and couplings 68 are unnecessary.
Having described my invention and explained the principle of its operation both in the method and a preferred embodiment of apparatus for carrying out that method in accordance with the statute, it will be apparent that other variations of the invention may be resorted to by those skilled in the art for the purpose of accomplishing one or more of the useful results flowing therefrom without departing from the spirit of the invention. It is therefore to be understood that the disclosed embodiments are illustrative only and the following claims are referred to for a definition of that for which the inventor is secured protection hereby.
1. In combination; a tractor including endless chain type treads, an engine supporting chassis carried by said treads, an engine carried by said chassis, said treads being so mounted on said chassis that the lower reaches thereof determine the orientation of the tractor with respect to earth and said treads forming the maximum laterally extending components of said tractor; an excavating head including a frame, an endless chain type scoop mounted on said frame and formed in sections one section of which is of less breadth than the lateral width of said tractor treads and forms the central portion of said scoop and the other sections of which form extensions of said central portion and which sections are removable from extended relation with said central portion; and means for mounting said frame on said tractor in such manner as to dispose the 3. In combination with the structure of claim 1, means to cause portions of the scoop to change position in the inactive phase of operation and in the lateral sense so that access may be had to the region between the reaches of the endless scoop, and whereby the scoop face is continuous in the operative phase.
4. In combination with the structure of claim 1, means for adjusting said scoop carrying frame with respect to the tractor chassis, the frame being pivotally mounted so that one end of said scoop may be adjusted in a range which includes the plane of the tractor contact with earth and regions above and below such plane; whereby said scoop and tractor are adapted to cut either a plane surface or a concave or a convex surface through said adjusting means.
5. In combination with the structure of claim 1, the scoop being mounted with the scoop disposing the lower end thereof immediately in advance of the forward moving tractor, and means forming part of said frame mounting means for adjusting the vertical position of said lower end of said scoop with respect to the tractor position.
6. In combination; a tractor including endless chain type treads, an engine supporting chassis carried by said treads, an engine carried by said chassis, said treads being so mounted on said chassis that the lower reaches thereof determine the orientation of the tractor with respect to earth and said treads forming the maximum laterally extending components of said tractor; an excavating head including a frame, an endless chain type scoop mounted on said frame and formed in sections one section of which is of less breadth than the lateral width of said tractor treads and forms the central portion of said scoop and the other sections of which form extension of said central portion and which sections are removable from extended relation with said central portion; and means for mounting said frame on said tractor in such manner as to dispose the scoop endwise of the tractor.
GEORGE W. CARLSON.