US 2361412 A
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1944- c. L. PAULUS ETAL 2,361,412 I GUNNERS WARNING PANEL AND LAMP SYSTEM Filed March 20, 19 13 2 Sheets-sheaf 1 Oct. 31, 1944. L, PA HAL 2,361,412
GUNNERS WARNING PANEL AND LAMP SYSTEM Filed March 20, 1943 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 each covering Patented Oct. 31, 1944 GUNNERS WARNING PANEL AND SYSTEM LAMP Charles L; Paulus and Raymond K. Stout,
Dayton, Ohio Application March 20, 1943,;Serial No. 479,870
6 Claims; (01. 177 337) i (Granted under the act of March" 3, 1883, as
. amended April 30, 1928'; 370 G. 757) The invention described herein may be manu-f factured and used by. or'for the Government for governmental purposes, without the payment to usof any royalty thereon. 1' y This invention relates to improvements .in signalling devices and moretparticularly to warning systems for gunners in aircraft and the like in which a plurality of gunners stations are located, predetermined areas around the craft. v
An object of the invention'is the provision of signal means which is operative'from any of the gunners stations to warn all of the stations of the presence or movement ofan enemy craft or target in any one or more of the areas covered by the stations. c '4 Another object is the provision of visual signal means arranged in or adjacent a plurality of as-v sociated gunners stations, and signal operating means therefor in each station for actuating the signal means in all of the stations to inform the gunners therein of the presence of an enemy target in any particular area covered by any one or more of the stations. i
A further object is to provide a visual signalling system depicting the areas covered by the gunners stations and'a visual signal associated with each of the areas depicted, operable from any of the gunners stations. g
A still further object is the provision of signal means and'interconnected signal operating means in each of the'gunners station'arranged in similar relation to the actual location of the gunners stations and actual areas covered thereby,
'Another object is'the provision of signalling means located in all of the gunners stations having depicted thereon the representation of the areas'covered by the stations, and including interconnected visible signal and signal operating means arranged in each of the depicted areas for actuating the visible'signal means in the same depicted areas onthe signalling means in all of the stations.
Another object is the provision of multiple signal means located in each of'the depicted areas on the signalling means, and interconnected similarly located multiple signal operating means for energizing any one of the multiple signal means in any of the depicted areas to warn the gunners station covering said area not only that an enemy target is'in the area, but that an enemy craft is above, on, or below the horizon level in said area. 1
A further object is the provision of test means, one'ach of 1 the panel members arranged to cause simultaneous actuation of all'of the signal means;
on each of said panel members. o
Other objects and advantages of the parts. I
Fig. 1 is a somewhat diagrammatic side elevation of the rear portion of an airplane embodying my invention, and illustrating the representation of an enemy aircraft passing around the rear end thereof from the area covered by the starboard gunner into the area covered by the port gunner. Fig.2 is a plan view of one of the signal panels illustrating the arrangement of, the signal lamps and associated signal actuating buttons.
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of one of the combined signal lamp and signal operating'units.v 1
Fig. 4 is a plan View of a modified form of signal lamp and signal operating unit.
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary view disclosing a wiring diagram for a four-station gunner warning system arrangement, in which only; three of the gunners stations are shown. p
In' modern war planes, particula rly the larger bomber and patrol unitsthegunners stations are located at various places around the craft to cover various angles of approach. The locations of these stations are: in the nose, tail, and on the sides, top' andbottom of an aircraft:
Some of these areas overlap, so that it is possible to concentrate'the gunfire on a target from sev-' eral different gunners stations.
When an enemy plane is on one side of the craft, in the area covered by certain of the gun-'- ners stations, and passes to the other side,'into' the range orarea covered by other gunners stations, and if the gunners in the last mentioned stations immediately observe the enemy in their area, they can quickly concentrate their gunfire on the target. These targets, however, are hard to immediately pick up, especially at night, and considerable valuable time is often lost before' the target can be located and gunfireconcentrated thereon. Interconnectedtelephones are an k 1 invention wil appear in the following specification,,.refe r ence being had to the accompanyingdrawings; in which like reference characters refento: like in the area covered by the port gunner 2 and The dot-and-dash line Bin the tail gunner I. dicates the probable direction of the enemy plane I, and
through the area just referred to, to a point 6;;
covered by both the port gunner 2 and'the tail I By the utilization ofmy improvedvisual signalling system, the port gunner is notified in advance that the enemy is moving into his sector, and he is in a position to concentrate. his gunfire onthe enemy as it rn'c'pves'intorange.
In each of the gunners stations in the craft,
such as the'nose, sides; top and bottom stations (not shown) and the two stations illustrated in Fig-.l, is-located at-least one of my improved interconnected visual signal devices, indicated'gen erally at "l.
Each signal device includesa-panel member. la
as illustrated in Fig. 2, having depicted thereon lamps are placed in the areafi; outside the out line of the aircraft 8 and in substantiallythesame relation that the areas orsegmer'itscovered by the various gunners stations occupy with relation" to theplane;
For example; the center of v the area covered by the rear or tailgunners station I is directly behind the aircraft and is depictedon all of the panel membersby the signal Iamps'IB located in therear of the depicted aircrafts; Theport and starboard gunnersstations, respectively,
coverareas: tothe left andright'of the plane,
and these areas are depictedon all of the'panelmembers by the signallamps ll and I 1', arranged in the same relation-with respect to the aircraft outlines, in approximately the center'of the segments illustrated-0n thepanels.
Signal lamps l2"and,l 6 are positioned'onthe panel members to indicate the approximate ad jacent ends of the segments covered by the side gunners stations.
picted craft and to the right and left front of the wings to indicate the segments covered by the gunners. in front or nose of the plane and at the right and left. in front of the wings.
Signal lampoperating means l0, H, ll, I3,',,
I4, I6 and H. are arranged on each panel member la, close to the signal lamps In, to I], andin the same locations, as the lamps.v
These operatingmeansconsist ofpush button.
contacts whichare mounted in the-form of units, as seen in Fig. 3, each unit consistingv of an elongated base member 18. aperturedat its ends to receive one of thelamp sockets l9 atone end and one-of the push button sockets m -at the other end. The lamps and push buttons-"may be of conventional construation, including-terminals zl, 22- and 23, 2t, respectively, adapted to be connected toconductors, as seen in the wiring diagram disclosedin part in Fig. 5.
As before indicated, at least one of the signalling devices 1 is placed in each of the gunners stations on the aircraft, with lamps in the same location 01]..3112015. the panels? Thedamps for each location. 'areoonnectedin, parallels in a circult arranged to be, energized by any of the push button switches disposed next to the respective lamps.
- Referring again to Fig. 2, if a gunner in any of the gunners stations depresses the push button lli' on apanelul'member la in his station, the signal lamp Ill on his panel will be lighted, as well asthesignal lamps H) on all of the other panels. And likewise, the switches or push buttons. II! or l2 on any of the panels will light Lamps or other illuminating means l3, l5, and M are placed on the panels in front of the ,de-
thelamps II. or [2" respectively on all of the panels; 1
In order to assure the gunners in the stations that the circuits: and lamps'ron their panelszare in; proper working order; a-stes-tr switch .irrrths... formora push button. 25: is: provided: on; each? panel member I a, and thedepression of'zth isxlduta ton energizes a circuit including alliofithe'. lamps lflrto'l 1 onallthepanelse I In connecting the; signalrdevicesin the various?- gunners. stations, any suitable lwiringmircuihmak be employed. An example :is; disclosediin :Eiai. is. in which only three gunners stations are illus-s. trated, indicated generallyv as '26, 211" and: The use iofaqgreater number of stations; asadisclosefiz on the-panel member 1min Figa2,'.is1 largclwit matter of choice. and :it'is; therefore thoughtrun necessary toincludemore. than three; statiQns-in; the wiring diagram. It should alsozbenoted; that; the diagram disclosesronly four signal,- lamps; I10, I 2, sand :16; and associated? circuit closing-ado: vices or'push buttons 102,12; lr4--gaind-i I6 but:
: the. addition; of" a" largervnumber, such;v as 8; as:
disclosed on the panel-.member inz-Fig: 2; isalsqc a matter: of: choice, depending-upon the; number: of gunners? stationson the craitzr lathe-wir n diagram, a test switch is provided as;indicate.dn atZSi" and I6, as; disclosed in' the; wiring diagram;
grounded; as: indicated .at 3flrto ther metal: frames work or other suitable part ofrtheecrazftcthltaughathe terminahflg while theother lamp; terminals are connected by. conductors, 39; 4E, 41- and: 4'27; respectively, tothe main? circuitawires 43,44 .45; and 45; leading aroundwthes aircraft to; the yarn ous gunne'rsstations mreturn' circuit connector:- 471 provided, connected itotone terminalof orth'ez switch memberscl'fli'; 12".: H; I: and-s: and to one side ofrthevbattery-ABLbythe. wira; 49: The other side; ofr'thea battery isrconnected? to. ground; as indicatedfat' 5.0a Eaohi conduatme; 39; 40; 4| and; 42 (has .connectedi thereto; a; circuit: wire 5|; 52; (and-15A: leading to atest-switchiix; When: this: switch: is closed; current willzfiow: from? the battery 48 through the conductors; lflitoitonn';
} side through the switch" 25;; to the;- conductor 51. to 5.4;: and.conductorsv39iitoga? causing: all: lights onithe panels to beaii-lluminated,
Should any; one ot-thaswitchesto; the indie viduallightsslfl; l2; l4- andalfig be depressedcfom instance,- the switch HY- in the wiring diagram; in Fig.5 5; corresponding tothe'switch l. 'zbmtheg panel'board: 1a,- shown: in Fig '2rcurrent will :flzow; fromv the: batteryvlfi through the conductors; 49a and 38, through the depressed switch "153.110 the:- lamp l0, and through. grourid-Jflzback: tor the other. sidelof the battery; closing ofitheaswitctc l" also -establishes a circuit through the conduc tor'4ll to the conductor 44 leading to the other warning panels located at the other stations around the ship, such as 2! and 28 inFig'L5." Current flows along the wire 44 and the otherconductor wires 40 at the other stations to one terminal of the other lamps at the last-mentioned stations. Since the second or otherterminals of theselampsa're all grounded at 30, current flows throughall ofthe lamps II] to the ground and back to the grounded terminal 50 of the batterly 48, completing the circuit. Closing of another switch, such as H or IS in the station 25 or 21, lights the respective lamps l4 or IS in that station and, through the conductor 4| or 42, connects the battery 48 with the conductors 45 or 46 connected to one terminal of the lamps l4 and IS in the other stations and, since the other terminals of these lamps are grounded to the battery, they are selectively lighted when the respective switches M or l6 are closed.
In the operation of the device, assuming an enemy aircraft 3 to be sighted on the right side of the plane A, and it appears that this target is to pass around the stern, one or more of the gunners in their stations, observing the enemy craft, will depress the push button switches I0, I l or l2, depending to some extent on the location and probable direction of the enemy craft. This action by the gunners will cause the signal lamps I0, II and I2 on all of the panels la to be lighted, indicating to all of the gunners in all of the stations that the enemy is moving into the areas depicted on the panels where the signal lamps are illuminated. These gunners for these depicted areas, being so warned, are in a position to more readily locate the enemy craft and concentrate their fire upon it as it comes into the range of their guns. v
In order to inform the gunners, not only as to the particular segment in which an enemy target may be, but also to indicate that the target is above, on or below the level of the horizon in a particular area, we provide a multiple push button signal unit, as illustrated in Fig. 4, each unit comprising a base, indicated at 55, carrying signal lamps 56, 51 and 58 and similarly located push buttons or switches 55', 51' and 58'. These multiple units may be located on the panel members la in the same positions as the lamp and switch units in Fig. 3. When the gunner depresses the upper button 56 of one of 'these multiple units in a certain area, the lamp 56 is illuminated in a corresponding location on all of the panels, indicating. that an enemy aircraft is not only in that particular sector, but is above the horizon therein. The depression of the button 51' lights the lamp 5! and indicates that the craft is about on the horizon, while the depression of the button 58' lights the lamps 58 and indicates the target to be below the horizon.
This system is primarily designed for aircraft, but it is obvious that the same may readily be used for various protective systems, such as on ships, tanks, and even on stationary gun emplacements.
Having thus described our invention, in connection with an illustrative embodiment, what we claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In a protective signalling system for an aircraft having a plurality of associated control stations to protect predetermined associated areas thereof, signalling means therefor comprising a plurality of visual indicators, at least one of tion of all of-said' associated areas, interconnect ed signallin means. at each of said control stations, associated with each of the said depicted areas aforesaid on said visual indicators, and independently operable signal actuating means sim ilarly located in each station, in each depicted" area and connected with all of the signal means for the same predetermined areas, in all of the areas of the craft, a signalling panel device in each gunners station having depicted thereon the aforesaid associated predetermined areas,
signal means in each of the depicted areasafore said on all of the said panel devices, and independently operable signal operating means in the depicted areas aforesaid for actuating similarly located signal means in any predetermined depicted area on all of said panel devices.
3, In an aircraft gunners warning system of the class described having a plurality of gunners stations disposed around a craft in associated locations and protecting associated areas surrounding the craft, a warning panel member in each gunners station having depicted thereon the replica of said craft and said associated protected areas, a signal device on each panel member located adjacent each depicted area aforesaid comprising a lamp and operating means therefor in each depicted area, and a connection from said operating means in each depicted area on any panel member to the lamps in the same depicted area on all of said panel members for simulta-# neously operating all the lamps in a selected area on all of the panel members from any of the panel members.
4. In an aircraft gunners warning system, a plurality of panel members adapted to be disposed in the gunners stations on an aircraft, each having a replica of an airplane on its face and a number of electrically interconnected Warning-. lamp-push-button combinations similarly disposed around the airplane replicas on all of the panel members for selectively lighting said similarly-located lamps on all of said panel members.
5. In 'a signalling system for a plurality of separate associated protective control stations located in different associated areas around a common point to protectthe same, signal means therefor comprising a plurality of visual indicators, at least one of which is located in each station and has depicted thereon the approximate relative location of all of the aforesaid associated areas, visible signal means at each control station physically associated with each depicted location on said visual indicator, signal actuating means in each control station operatively and physically closely associated with each of the visible signal means on the visual indicator in that station, and operatively connected to the signal means located in the other stations, depicting the same associated areas for causing simultaneous actuation of all of the said visible signal means aforesaid, in any similarly located depicted location, on all of the visual indicators.
6. In an aircraft gunners warning device, a plurality of panel members each having a replica of the aircraft depicted upon the face of the panel which is located-in each ofv thea'fores'aid controls. stations, eachiof :said visual indicators. having'f. depicte'dthereon the approximate relative loca-'-:
4? v msmem member: and; a:plumiity-iofisignaiilampsrdnd lamp: lighting pushibuttbxrunits disposedzdmthenahek aroundathezdepictediaircrafkin the'relativesdey pictedareas covered: by: the @1188? the 2'adrm'arfbiv each; unit: comprising :a raw-01: lamps-and iazijwctaposed: paralleb. correspondingi -row:Ofizpush but? tons for: selectively? lightingxjrelativelyg oppositely; disposedrlamps inz-the mwisaid: panelimemberak being;:disp0sed atthe gnnnersz-t statiunszcfqrv-thfir said: guns: of. the aircraftwith the? relative? g;
simifarly: locatd pushibutmn-anddampunits, on? each: panelc'electrically connected. in parallel-1- Wher'ebya anyf'push'button: energizes: and. lights: similarly :located 7 lamps .on all: of said panels.- in
dicatmg the: depictedareacovered by the pmtectingthat: area: and+ the.- portinnsof; than?v area loc'atedz on the horizon level; and above: and:
below saidlevel; v
CHARLES. L. PAULUS; RAYMOND K. STOUT