US 2361464 A
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Oct- 31 1944- D. H. EDWARDS -E1' Al. A 2,361,464
ARTICLE oF-M N'JFAGTUREv Fiied April 2. 1940 ulnlmmuu y .I
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77ml I Patented Oct. 31, 1944 ARTICLE F MANUFAGTURE e David H. Edwards andEdward 0. Mueller, Ken- Vmore, N..Y., assignors to E. I. du Pont de Ne Wilmington, Del., a corpomours & Company; ration of Delaware Application Aprile, 1944i, serial No. 327,406
y Y Y Y aclaims. This invention relates to shrinkable, Vnon- 'brous secondary closure devices, vespecially regenerated cellulose and .like bands adapted, upon shrinking, to tightly t over and satisfactorily seal the primary closure to a bottle. More particularly it appertains to! bands suited for easy vremoval (without the aid of any instrument) from bottle tops and their primary closures.
Shrinkable, non-fibrous secondary closures such as thimble-shaped capsl and tube-shaped bands for'bottles have been known and used for years. 'Ihe bands are cheaper to manufacture andallow all or a part of the top of the primary closure to be exposed. They provide an attrac- .tive decoration to the container, a deterrent against tampering with the Vcontents thereof, and when suitably pigmented, an effective background for printed matter (advertising, etc;) .Y
To seal a bottle, the band. in gel (hydrated) form, is placed over the bottle top (the primary closure being rin place) andallowed to dry. 'I'he well known shrinkage which accompanies the 21S-cs) developed which solved the Vproblems satisfactorily from a cost standpoint. Most of the heretofore proposed schemes for easy removal which involved special coniigurations for the band have beenv unsatisfactory since they give rise to dry splittingY or other defects which miltate against the useful life ofthe band.
By dry splitting, as used in this art, is meant 1 the sputung or rearing of the band duringstorage or handling. These bands when dried have internal strains andhave atearing grain running lengthwise. While it is difficult to start a tear,
- once atear is startedV itwill proceed very easily (much as happens with a crack in a pieceV of glass). A nick or other sharp deviation from a straightlinein the edge of a band is known to be a common causeof dry splitting.
This invention had for an object the provision `ofa non-fibrous, shrinkable, pellicular, secondary closure, capable of being tightly shrunk into contact with a bottle'top and its primary closure,
drying'of (loss of water from) gel regeneratedcellulose results in the dry band tting into extrenely firmengagement with the bottle neck and primary closure.
Due to their` non-iibrous character, the dried pellicles are extremely tough (in some cases being almost of a horny nature). It isalmost never possible to puncture them with a ringer-nail', and
due to the tight engagement between the pellicles and the bottles it is diicult to find a place where they can be grasped in order to pull v'them on.
A still further dimculty `in shrunkcellulosic closure removal lis found in the specific use of these bands in the distilled alcoholic liquor field.
In some cases the law requires, that part ofthe government stamp remainon the bottle until the .contents are-consumed.v These stamps do not adhere well to the bottle in the iirst place, and since the bottles are frequently handled -with .Wet
very difcult to ensure compliance withthe aforementioned regulation. In consequence, `reliance and capable of having its top portion readily and l easily removed, after such shrinkage, without detriment to the portion remaining on the bottle neck. Another object was to provide a regenerated cellulose secondary closure band which could easily be removed after being shrunk into position by drying. Another object was to provide a non-librous, shrinkable, pellicular cellulosic bottle closure capable of being shrunk into close contact with a bottle .top without splitting, andcapable, Vin its'dry,4shrunk state, of being readily removed'without the use of anyimplehands during and after the originalv opening, it is ment.A Another object was to provide a regenerated cellulosic band capable of being shrunk over a bottle top and its primary closure to tightly seal the same, and capable of being torn by hand to permit separation of the bottle -and primary closure (to permit access to the bottle contents) without the aid of anyexternal device, and without disturbing a revenue stamp retaining portion. A still further object `was to provide a cellulosc band closure Vcapable-of satisfactorily and efiiciently performing its intended function up to the moment of wilful removal, and capable of being easily torn away as a whole or in part, when desired. A general advance the problem of easily removing only so much of the band as is necessary to gain accessto the' contents of the bottle, and leaving enough of the band in positionto retain the stamp in place.
Various solutions of the problem set out above have heretofore been proposed, but up to the present time no scheme or arrangement has been in the art, and other objects which 'will' appear hereinafter, are also contemplated.
It has now been found that if a slit-like cut is made between a pair of facing tear-drop shaped perforatlons, and a line of such perforations'lying end-to-end made around a gel band. that the objects of theplesent invention are accomplished,
Vfthe secondary closure.
throughout the drawing. y Y
drawing, il indicatesV a accompanying drawing, inwhich:
Figure 1 is an elevation view of a secondary closure of the present invention V(in gel condition) ready to be placed in position on ka bottle tn: f Y
Figure 2 is a perspective view of abottle top and its primary closure, having the gel secondary closure of Figurel in position thereon;
Figure 3 is a perspective view of a bottle top and its primary closure sealed with a secondary closure of Figures 1 and 2. In this figure the *secondaryv closure is shrunk into position over i' the bottle top and its primary closure. The primary closure is of the stopper type, and a revenue Y stamp is shownunderneath the secondaryclosure; Y
Figure 4 is anelevation view of a bottle having f a metal primary closure (screw cap) anda secondary closure. In this View the upper edge of *the -seoondaryclosure is serrated to, provide tabs (for grasping Awith the lingers); p Y i Figure 5 is an elevation view ci the bottle top Yshown in Figure-4 .after removal of the primary closure andthe top part of the secondary closure and revenue stamp: A V Y Y Figure 6 isv an elevation view of va bottle having a long skirted molded `screwrcap primaryrclosure and a secondary closure ofv thetype shown in `Figure l:
- Figure 'Vis fan outlineyiew showing the form y taken byv theperforations upon drying. The gel shape is shown at theleft of the dotted lines, and
the dry shape at'thejrightr and y .Y
, Figure 8 isan outline drawing showing in inches the preferred dimensions for the perioratins of Similar:` characters refer: similar `parts Referring 'now tothe ponent parts of the secondary closure retain portions of the revenue stamp both on the cap and on the bottle,
Vil metal screw cap primary bottle closure 19, having thereover a shrunken band 1I, is shown in Figuregi. The row of perforations is shown at 14. Twisting the band apart at the line of perforations causes part of the band to remain on the bottle, as shown at 8| in Figure 5. This portion of the band maintains part of the revenue stamp 38 on the bottles The portion of the band remaining on the capprimary closure) may be lefton or removed, as desired. The torn edge of the band8l is shown at 80.
The secondary closures may have an ornate Vedge or; edges if desired, and such an embodi- -inent having 5 to '1 serrations per inch is illus-A trated at 11 in Figure v4.
If a circular hole about fig inch in diameter, such as that illustrated at 10- (Figure 4) is placed about 1/8 inch from the .edge of the secondary closure bandt will afford ameans offrernovingthe entire band from thepbottle top. By placing the finger-nail in this holeand scraping it along the f bottle, toward the near edge of theband, the
intervening portion of the band is easily torn to provide a ,tabV which can be taken between the lingers and pulled to tear the band as desired.
Example I' A regenerated cellulose gel handhaving a. iiat width of 30 millimeters-was perforated .with a series of perforations composed of two tear-drop cut-outs connected at their pointed ends by a gel regenerated cellulose band such `as ktlfiat shown l in Figures 1 and 2.
These bands have tra sparent and'opaque sections indicated at I2 and I3, respectively. A series of perforations H-g consisting of tear-drop perforations .withtheir pointed ends joined by va out, lie end-to-end around the gel band of Figure 1 near one end thereof. Each perioratiqnrchanges l shape upon drying,- assumingthe shapes shown at Il-d in Figures 3 and '1.
Bottles 31 bearing revenuestaxnps 38over the neck and primary closures (in these cases a wood topped cork) 39 are shown in Figures 2 and 3. The line of 'perforations inthe gel 'band is positioned at the junction 59 of the wood stopper 39 and'the'bottle top. I'he top edge 51l of the band may be flush with,or abovey or below, the top of the primary closureafter drying; asl deisired- Y Y Y The intended manner of utilizing the present invention is tohold the bottle in one hand while twisting the bottle closure withthe other hand, or' vice versa, or both. As a result of such an action. the band is severed lalong the line of perforatiens. 1 Y
` A recent type of primary bottle closure designed -for more convenient handling isjillustrated at 99 slit. Such an arrangement is shown in Figure '7. The cut-outs, in outline, are shown in Figures 7 and 8 at il-g. The perforaticis were placed end-to-end around the band and Vnear one edge thereof. Theywere inch ln'length and the tear-drop eut-outs were 0.044 inch iniwidth. An intervening space oiga; inch was allowed between kthe perforations. 1 y Y y The band was'slipped over and about the top of asuitable size liquor bottle, closed with a vmolded screw cap and sealed with a revenue stamp. The bandgwas positioned so that the line y of perforations was on the junction between the edge of the cap anda-,the neck ofrthe bottle. In bottles not having screw type tops it is sometimes convenient to vlocate the ring of perforations slightly below this junction.V The resulting Vpack- Y age was set aside to dry, whereupon the band shrank andfsnugly fitted the container. vrThe perforationsbecame somewhat rectangular (attened oval or ellipse) the ends being curved.
It was-'round that such a band endured handlingand storage well, and even though the humidiiy at times became low, there was no dry splitting. It was found, also, that the seal could be brokenby twisting-the cap (the primary closure) in the usual manner with the hand while Y holding the vbottle stationary. Theupper portions of the band came away with the cap while the lower portion remained on the bottle, safeguarding the ends of the revenue stamp. The retained portion is illustrated in Figure 5. The torn. edge of the lower portion of the band being below the pouring edge of the bottle did not interfere with the removal of the contents thereof.
Example 1I closure in the manner illustrated in VFigure 6.
A long-skirted screw-cap provides a better grip so that more force may be applied in breaking the band along the line of perforation. It follows that bands designed for this type of cap need not be so well perforated (that is, to the usual extent), and this in turn gives added insurance against dry splitting. In order that adequate resistance to the twisting force applied to the primary closure may be furnished, it is necessary that the 'portion of the gelband below the line of perfora? tion should be of suiiicient area to well engage,
or satisfactorily grip, the bottle neck.
The invention is :-.tisfactorily used with various kinds of primary bottle and like container closures. Corks, wood-topped stoppers, molded plastic screw caps and metallic'screw caps are 1 the type most commonly encountered. The secondary closures of the present invention-operate very satisfactorily with each of these types.
The bands may be formed of materials other than regenerated cellulose, for example, cellulose esters and ethers. While the non-fibrous cellulosic pellicles are the most common type, in some instances pellicular bands formed of non-cellulosic materials such as gelatin, casein-and the like, may be used. Lowly etherifled (up to one mol of substitution per glucose unit of the cellulose),
alkyl and hydroxy alkyl celluloses such as low substituted ethyl (and methyl)v cellulose and low substituted glycol cellulose, are quite satisfactory. The same is true of cellulose acetate.
' Forconvenience the invention has been described in terms of bands and perforations of particular sizes. Deviation from these sizes is permissible, depending upon such variables as the particular substance of which the band is made, the thickness of the band, the probable humidities to which the package will be exposed, the amount of leverage afforded by the particucutting short sections from continuuous lengths of regenerated cellulose tubes vor tubing. The manufacture of such tubes is described in detail in U. S. A. Patent No.'2,l41,776 (Vautier & Fays). AThe cutting of'such tubes into bands is described in U. S. A. Patent 1,647,489, and cutting plans lar primary closure, the size of the band withv respect to the size of the bottle, etc.
In general, for a regenerated cellulose band in the neighborhood of 0.017 of an inch in thickness, a perforation of 1A inch to 5/8 inch in long dimension, with an intervening space of 116 inch to 1A; inch, is preferred. Such a band has a thickness of approximately 0.003 or 0.004 to 0.005 inch in the dry state.
v It has been convenient to describe` the invention in terms of secondary closures for bottles containing distilled liquor, but it is to be understood that the invention is equally applicable to many other types of packages presenting the same or related problems.
Although the bands may be manufactured by various procedures, they are usually made by 75 are illustrated in Figures7 and 8 of U. S. A Patent application Serial No 287,727 (Creadick).
The most convenient way o f-perforating the bands is to punch through the two thicknesses of the same while it is in a flat or collapsed condition.
The bands may be suitably decorated by pigmentation and printing. Typical procedures are described in U. S. A. Patents No. 2,141,744 (Evans) and 1,997,769 (Fletcher).
'I'he primary purpose of this invention was to design a, secondary closure band which could be opened by twisting, and the specic description was made on that basis, but it should be noted that the line of perforations in a dried band of this invention will also serve as a tear line. A row of circular holeswill not serve as a tear line. With the bands of thisinvention a tear can be made from one edge to the` line of perforations and continued circumferentially around that line. For example, one can take hold of one of the serration tabs at the top of the band of Figure 4, and by pulling it, easily start a tear that can be continued 'down to the line 14, and if the tear is then directed around the neek of the bottle, it will continue along the aforementioned line 14 (or any other tear line present in the band), with the result that access to the contents of the bottle is easily gained and the lower portion of the government stamp is Y still firmly secured tothe bottle by means of that portion of the band below the. line of tear. Similarly, by breaking out a tab from the hole 10, as previously described, a tear may be made up to the line of perforations.
With the present invention the band may be ruptured near the junction of the bottle and its primary closure by means of a twist, as in the usual act of unscrewing the primary closure. As a result, access tothe contents of the bottle is simple and easy. Perforations of the design and dimensions described above are resistant to dry splitting. during storage and handling. A
portion of. the band remains in place to provide a safeguard in retaining a portion of the revenue tage of the present invention lies in the fact that the perforation of the gel band adds only slightly to the cost thereof. Furthermore, the perforations of the secondary closure being of pleasing and regular design and neatly arranged around the band, add to the vattractiveness thereof.
As many apparently widely differentl embodiments of this invention may be made without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, it is to be understood that this invention is not limited to thespeciflc embodiments thereof except as defined in the appended claims. i
l. A shrinkable secondary closure consisting of a band of gel regenerated cellulose having a circumferential line of perforations, the individual perforations consisting of a pair of teardrop shape cut-outs joined by a slit, the pointed ends of the two perforations being toward each other, the individual perforations being positioned end-to-end in aline around the band, said perforations being @i6 of an inch in length, 0.044
of sn inch wide at the widest piece,l and spaced g of an inch from each other..
2. The combination comprising a bottle or like container, a. primary closure 'therefor, and a secondary closure comprising a` tough regen'- erated celluloseV pellicular sleeve occupying a position about adjacent portions of the bottle and `its primaryclosure, the sleeve being maintained'in position by`heing tightly stretched in the'manner resulting from being dried in said position; and a. line of elongated perforations extending'end-to-end around the said sleeve, the
said pcrforations being of the shape resulting 5 from drying a. sleeve having pairs of tear-drop shaped holes with their pointed ends directed toward eachother and joined by a. slit.
e DAVID H. EDWARDS.
EDWARD O. MUELLER.