US 2361499 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
ARTICLE OF i l i ACTE Julian Ritchie, Raritan Township, `Middlesex County, N. J., assigner to E. du Pont de Nemours & Company, '2 ,o j ,.1
ration of Delaware Application May 11, 1940, Serial No. 334,476
on, Del., a corpo- 4 claims. (on. cisssi This invention relates to shrinkable, nonbrous secondary closure devices, especially regenerated cellulose and like bands adapted, upon shrinking, to tightly fit over and satisfactorily seal the primary closure to a bottle. More particularly it appertains to bands suited for easy removal (Without the aid of any instrument) from bottle tops and their primary closures.
Shrinkable, non-fibrous secondary closures such as thimble-shaped caps andl tube-shaped bands for bottles have been known and used for years. The bands are cheaper to manufacture and allow all or a part of the top of the primary closure to be exposed. They provide an attractive decoration to the container, a deterrent against tampering with the contents thereof, and when suitably'pigmented, an elective background for printed matter (advertising, etc.)
To seal a bottle, the band in gel (hydrated) form, is placed over the bottle top (the primary closure being in place) and allowed to dry. The well known shrinkage which accompanies the drying of (loss of water from) gel regenerated cellulose results in the dry band fitting into extremely rm engagement with the bottle neck and primary closure. I
Due to their non-iibrous character, the dried pellicles are extremely tough (in some cases being almost of a horny nature). It is almost never possible to puncture them with a finger-nail, and due to the tight engagement between the pellicles and the bottles itis dimcult to find a place where they can be grasped in order to pull them on.
A still further dimculty in shrunk eellulosic closure removal is found in the specific use of these bands in the distilled alcoholic liquor field. In some cases the law requires that part of the government stamp remain on the bottle until the contents are consumed. These stamps do not adhere well to the bottle in the iirst place, and since the bottles are frequently handled with wet hands during and after the original opening, it
is very difficult to ensure compliance with the aforementioned regulation. In consequence, reliance has come to be placed on shrunken cellulosic bands to guarantee that a lower end of the stamp remain on the bottle. This in turn has raised the problem of easily removing only so much of the band as is necessary to gain access to the contents of the bottle, and leaving enough of the band in position to retain the stamp in place. A
Various solutions of the problem set out above have heretofore been proposed, but up to the present time no scheme or arrangement has been developed which solved the problems satisfactorily from a cost standpoint.
Most of the heretofore proposed schemes for easy removal which involved special coniigurations for the band have been unsatisfactory since they giverise to dry splitting or other defects which militate against the'useful life of the band.
.By "dry splitting," as used in this art, is meant the splitting or tearing of the band during storage or handling. These bands when. dried have internal strains and have a tearing grain running lengthwise. While it is diilcult to start a tear, once a tear is started it will proceed very easily (much as happenswith a crack in a piece yof glass). A- nick or other sharp deviation from a straight line in the edge of a band is known to be a common cause of dry splitting.
This invention had for an object the provision oi a non-fibrous, shrinkable, pellicular, secondary closure, capable of being tightly shrunk into contact with a bottle top andits primary closure, and capable of having its top portion readily and easily removed, after such shrinkage, without detriment to the portion remaining on the bottle neck. Another object was to provide a regen-` erated cellulose secondary closure band which could easily be removed after being shrunk into position by drying. Another object was to provide a non-fibrous, shrinkable, pellicular cellulosic bottle closure capable of being shrunk intoand without disturbing a revenue stamp retaining portion. Astill further object was to provide a cellulosic band closure capable of satisfactorily and emciently performing its intended function up to the momentof wiliul removal, and capable of .beingeasily torn away as a whole or in part, when desired. A general advance in the art, and other objects which will appear hereinafter, are also contemplated.
At rst glance it mightanpear that a liney of circular perforations madearound a gel band to furnish a tear line in the shrunken secondary closure wouldl furnish a very satisfactory opening arrangement. Upon testing, this plan was found to be impractical. The reason for this When small round holes are used, the amount oi thickened material produced by shrinkage very greatly increases the force required to break the band. in addition, even ii `an initial break is made, the line oi tear does not follow the line oi holes. .apparently the beaded portions tend to guide the tear away from the line of holes so that it proceeds at an angle to the desired line4 of tear (the line of holes). No such dimculty is encountered in metal caps having like perfora- Sirni'lar diculties, but to a different extent.
are encountered when large perforations are used. En addition, the vertical strips between the large perforations tend to orient themselves horizontally when the upper and lower portions are tvvsted in opposite directions. so that the amount oi material to be torn or the force required to stretch the intermediate portions of the band to the breaking point, is increased. A further iinportant Ydreuvbacii to the use ci large round holes is their unattractive appearance. 'it has non' been found that ii a slit-like cut is made between a pair or circular holes and a line oi such perte-rations. lying end-to-end, made around a gel hand, that the objects of the present invention are accomplished, and that the diiculties or thev previous proposals are overcome.
From the following description, in which is disclosed certain embodiments oi the invention as well as details of what is believed to be the host mode for carrying out the invention, it will be apparent how the foregoing objects and related ends are accomplished.
The' written description is amplified by the accompanying drawing, in which:
Flgure l is a perspective view of a secondary closure (in gel forni) oi the present invention. In this view certain. dimensions of the secondary closure are exaggerated to more clearly bring out its features;
Figure 2 an elevation view of e. secondary closure of the present invention (in gel condition) v 'ready to be placed in position on a bottle top;
Figure 3 is a perspective view of a hottie top and its primary closurahaving the gel secondary closure oi Figure 2 in position thereon;
Figure e is a perspective view of a bottle top Y and its primary closure sealed with a secondary closure oi Figure 2. In this gure the secondary closure is shrunk into position over the bottle top and its primary closure, The primary closure is of the stopper type, and a revenue stamp is shown underneath the secondary closure;
Figure 5 is an elevation view of the bottle top shown in Figure 'l after removal of the primary closure and the top part of the secondary closure and revenue stamp; I
Figure 6 is an outline view showing the form taken by the periorations upon drying. The gel shape is shown at the left of the dotted lines, and the dry shape at the right;
Figure 7 is an elevation view of a bottle having a metal primary closure (screw cap) and a secondary closure; in this View the upper edge oi the secondary closure is serrated to provide tabs (for grasping with the ngers); and
Figure 8 is an elevation view of a bottle having a long skirted molded screw cap primary closure and a secondary closure of the type shown in Figure 1.
Similar characters refer to similar parts throughout the drawing.
Referring now to the drawing, ll indicates a gel regenerated cellulose band such as that shown in Figures l, 2 and 3. 'ihe band in Figure is shown with a part orolren away to heiter illustrate its shape. The same hand/after drying and shrinking on a bottle, is shown at il in Figure Li. The hand has transparent and opaque sections indicated at li. and i3, respectively. A series ci perorations lil-g lie rendi.oend around the gel hand near one end thereof. Each perforation changes shape upon drying, assuming the shape shown at l-d in Figure 6.
A bottle 3l hearing a revenue stamp over it neck and primary closure (in this case a wood topped cork) Se isshown in Figure 3. The line of perorations in the gel hand is positioned at the junction or the wood stopper and the bottle top. The top al of the band may he hush with, or above or below, the top of the primary closure after drying, as desired. is shown in. Figure e, it is iiush. In Figure 'Z it is above, and in Figure 8, below.
The intended manner of utilizing the present invention is to hold the hottie in one hand while twisting the bottle closure with the other hand, or vice versa, or both. As a result of such an action, the band is severed along the line oi per iterations.
a recent type of primary bottle closure de Ysigned for more convenient handling is illustrated at 2S in Figure e. rThis primary closure, which for convenience may he called a longs skirted cap, is usually manufactured in molded plastic,I and is threaded to he screwed on to the bottle top. A common length or such caps is la inches. The embodiment illustrated had an outside bottom diameter of 1% inches. The dried hand Si may he severed along the line of perforatioris i-l by twisting the parts above and below the line of perforations in opposite directions. .as a result, the component parts of the. secondary closure retain portions of the revenue stamp both on the cap and on the bottle.
A metal screw cap primary hottie closure i9. having thereover a shrunken band il, is shown in Figure 7. The row ci perforations is shown at ill. Twisting the band apart at the line of periorations causes partei the band to remain on the bottle, as shown at 5l in Figure 5. This portion of the band maintains part of the revenue stamp 38 on the bottle. The portion of the hand remaining on the cap (primary closure) may be left on or removed, as desired. The torn edge of the band el is shown at all.
The `secondary closures may have an ornate edge or edges if desired, and such an embodiment having 5 to.7 serrations per inch is illustrated at il in .Figure 7.
if a circular hole about Ps inch in diameter,
such as that illustrated at 'lo (Figure 7) is placed about /8 inch from the edge of the secondary closure band, it `will adora a means. of removing the entire band from the bottle top. By placing the linger-nail in this hole and scraping it along the bottle toward the near edge of the band, the intervening portion of the band is easily torn to provide a tab which can be taken between the lingers and' pulled to tea-r the band, as desired.
Example I i regenerated cellulose gel band (cast from viscose) having a flat width of 50 millimeters, was perforated with a. series of perforations, of the type indicated at M-g (Figure 6), lying end-to-end around the band and near one edge thereof. This type of band is illustrated in Figure 1. The perforations in the gel band 4were .1% inch in length, with an intervening space of :F5 inch, and were 0.044 inch wide.
The band was slipped over and about the top of a suitable siz'e liquor bottle, closed with a molded screw cap,.and sealed with a revenue stamp. The band was positioned so that the line of perforations was on the junction between the edge of the cap and the neck of the bottle. The resulting package was set aside to dry, whereupon the band shrank and snugly fitted the container. The perforations assumed the shape shown at IB-d (Figure 6) upon drying.-
It was found that such a band endured handling and storage well, and even though the humidity at times became low, there was no "dry splitting. It was found, also, that the seal could be broken by twisting the cap A(the primary closure) in the usual manner with the hand while holding the bottle stationary. The upper portions of the band came away with the cap while the lower portion remained on the bottle, safe.. guardingthe ends of the revenue stamp. The
ary closures of the present invention operate very satisfactorily with each of'these types.
The bands may be formed vof materials other than regenerated cellulose, for example. cellulose/ esters and ethers. While the non-nbrous cellulosic pellicles are the most common type, in some instances pellicular bands formed of non-cellulosic materials such as gelatin, casein and the like, maybe used. Lowly etheried (up to one mol of substitution per glucose unit of the ce1- lulose) alkyl and hydroxy alkyl celluloses such as retained portion is illustrated in Figure 5. 'Ihe torn edge of the lower portion of the band being, below the pouring edge of the bottle did not interfere with the removal of the contents thereof.
Example II A regenerated cellulose gel band having a ilat width of 100 millimeters was perforated as shown in Figure 1. The perforations were rc inch in length and were 0.044 of an inch wide. The band having this design of perforation was applied to a bottle with a wood top cork stopper in the same manner as described in Example I, and had six perforations. 1t was 1.25 inches in diameter, and gave the same results upon drying. The dried band is illustrated in Figure 4.
A long-skirted screw cap provides a better grip so that more force may be applied in breaking the band along the line of perforation. lows that bands designed for this type of cap need not be perforated to the usual extent, and this in turn gives added insurance against "dry splitting. In order that adequate resistance to the twisting force applied to the primary closure may be furnished, it is necessary that the portion of the gel band below the line of perforation should be of .sufficient area to well engage or satisfactorily grip, the bottle neck. l
The problems encountered with shrinkable closures are very-diierent from those involved in the application of other secondary sealing means.
When a secondary sealing is made with paper and other non-shrinkable materials, the secondtory.
i the thickness of the band, the probable humidities to which the package will be exposed, the amount of leverage afforded by the particular primary closure, the size of the band with respect to the size of the bottle, etc. i
In' general, for a regenerated cellulose band in the neighborhood of 0.017 of an inch in thickness,
a perforation of inch to 5/8 inch in long dimension, with an intervening space of 1% inch to ts inch, is preferred. Such a band has a thickness of approximately 0.003 or 0.004 to 0.005 inch in the dry state.
It has been convenient to describe the invention in terms of secondary closures for bottles containing distilled liquor, but it is to be understood manufacture of such tubes is described in detail in U. S. A. Patent No.' 2,141,776 (Vautier 8: Fays) The cutting of such tubes into bands is described in U. S. A. Patent 1,647,489, and cutting plans are illustrated in Figures 7 and 8 of U. S. A. Patent It fol-fM application Serial .No.' 287,727 (Creadick) The most convenient way of perforating the band's is to punch through the two thicknesses of the same while it is in a flat or collapsed condiary seal is placed upon the container in its inal `tic screw caps and metallic screw caps are the type most commonly encountered. 'I'he second- 'I'he bands may be suitably decorated by pig-7 mentation and printing. Typical procedures are described in U. S. A. Patents No.- 2,141,744 (Evans) and 1,997,769 (Fletcher).
.The primary purpose of this invention was to design a secondary closure band which: could be opened by twisting, andthe specific description was made on that basis, but itshould be noted p that the line of perforations in a dried band of this invention will also serve as a tear line. A row of circular holes will not serve as a tear line. With the bands of this invention a tear can be made from one edge to the line of perforations and continued circumferentially around that line. For example, one can take hold of one of the serration tabs at the top ofthe band of Figure 7, and by pulling it, easily start a tear that can be continued down to the line '14, and if the tear is then directed around the neck of the bottle, it will continue along the aforementioned line It (or any other tear line present in the band), with the result that access tothe contents of the bottle is easily gained and the lowerportion of the government stamp is still rmly secured to the b'ottle by lmeeiis of that portion of the band below the line of teen Similarly, by breaking out a tab from the hole 1e, as previously described, a tear may be made up to the line oi perforations.
With the present invention the bend may be ruptured neer the junction of the bottle end its primary closure by means of e. twist, as in the usuel act of unscrewing `the primary closure. e result, access to the contents of the bottle is simple and easy. Periorations oi the design and dimensions described above are resistent to dry splitting duriirl?,r storage and handling. A portion of the band remains in place to provide a,
` 'safeguard in retaining e. portion oi the revenue stamp as long es desired. An importent adventege of the present invention lies in the "fact that the perforation of the gel band adds only slightly to the cost thereof. Furthermore, the perioretions oi the secondary closure being of pleasing and regular design and neatly arranged around the bend, edd to the attractiveness thereof.
.ds many apparently Widely'diierent enaboclioblong perforetions consisting of circular holes I joined by a slit lying end-to-end thereebout.
2. n combination, a container having an open top with e closure therefor, end en open tube of fs regenerated cellulose disposed on the container,
said tube overlying the adjoining portions of the container and its closure, and having e. line of oblong pcrorations lying end-to-end thereabout, said perforations consisting of circuler cut-outs joined by s, slit, there being three perforations for each 1.25 inches of tube circumference.
3. The combination comprising e. bottle or like container, a, primary closure therefor. and a. secondary closure comprising e. tough regenerated cellulose pelliculer sleeve occupying e position about adjacent portions of the bottle and its primary closure, the sleeve being maintained in position by being tightly stretched in the manner resulting from being dried in seid position, and 2S. e line of elongated perorations extending encito-end around the seid sieeve, the said periore' tions being of the shape resulting from drying e,