US 2361570 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 3l, 1944. J. M. J. RlBoD 2,361,570
GUN CARRIAGE Filed `0G11. 31, 1941 -3 Sheets-Sheet 1 ATTORNEYS C. 3l, 1944. J, M J. RIBOUD 2,361,570
GUN CARRIAGE Filed Oct. 5l, 1941 5 Sheets-Shea?l 2 5 5 lNvENToR i Leafs/Marca J//zff/.P/a//a En; BY, V//l//W//l/l/ fa S'wwwd llllllll ATTORNEYS Ot. 31, 1944. 1 M J, RlBQUD 2,361,570
' GUN CARRIAGE Filed oct. 31, 1941 3 sheets-sheet 5' Z 72 72 .7 l i g M5124 i| l f y Zd l? l f Tn j?! Jia ,D a 00/ I' /Zi I i f4 ad 124i I 5w l 1240 T: w FZ 563 ,ff 45 I 45 ATTORNEYS.
Patented Oct. 31, 1944 Md., assignor to Specialty Equipment and Machinery Corp., New York, N. Y., a corporation of Maryland Y Application October 31, 1941, Serial No. 417,260
In the course of modern, extremely mobile type of warfare, the intelligent offensive use of armored motor-driven mobile gun carriers, such as tanks, armored cars, and the like, has presented agrave problem to the defense. Conventional field pieces',` while having in most instances effective firing power, fail to aord any adecpzlateprotection to the gun crew, all too often a fatal handicap in combat against tanks, and their use becomes relatively inefficient. The solution to the problem presented by a tank attack is probably a defense by more heavily armored tanks of perhaps equal or even greater fire power. Tanks,
however, are complicated devices; expensive to` construct, time consuming in their building, and need the services of one or more trained and expertoperators. I have sought to provide a weapon which may, but necessarily need not, be used to combat tanks. My device, while designed for combat from a fixed site, is not self propelled as are tanks, but is mounted for travelling movement by a lorry, tractor or the like. My device is relatively inexpensive, comprising easily fabricated and assembled parts, is easily operable by relatively untrained personnel, and provides adequate protection to the gun crew during combat conditions.
The main object of my invention, therefore, is theI provision of an armored enclosure which, while not self propelled, may easily and quickly be moved from one place to another.
Another object of my invention is the proof a gun platform in an armored enclosure which has a multiple point support so that same may be levelled easily and quickly to provide adeouate support for the firing platform.
Another object of my invention is the provision of a gun platform in an armored enclosure, which has a single point support at one end thereof and multiple point supportr at the other end.
Alriother object of my invention is the provision of a gun' platform in an armored enclosure which has"` a three point' support. at least two of which points are separately adjustable.
rAri'o'tl'rer object of my invention is the provision of a gun platform in an armored enclosure which has support means at one end thereof simultaneously adjustable laterally and vertically.
A further object of my invention is the provision of an armored enclosure having a manually revolvable gun turret'.
A further object of my invention is the provision' of an armored enclosure comprising a circular dome or turret'. and overlying shield members therefor, which shields may be shifted laterally about the dome.
A further object of. my invention is the provision of an armored enclosure comprising a dome or turret, a gun projecting out therefrom, and shield members to counterbalance the weight of the gun when in one position, the shields being laterally' shiftable to provide additional protection for the turret in another position.
A further object of my invention is the provisi-on, in a gun carriage, of a number of bearing rings, one-,of which supports a dome-like gun turret for rotation about the gun platform, and another of which supports a pair of shield members and the shields are laterally slidable about the turret,
Other and further objects of my invention will be pointed out below, and others will be apparent fromthe following description of an illustrative embodiment.-
My invention is to be limited, not by the disclosure, since it may be departed from without departing from the spirit of my invention, but only by the annexed claims,
In the drawings` annexed hereto; forming a part of this speci-iication:
Figure 1 is an elevational View of one form' of armored enclosure constructed according to and embodying my invention;
Fig. 2V is a top plan view thereof;
Fig. 3 is a vertical crosssection along the line 3-3 of Fig. 1 with the `shield members disposed on opposite sides of the turret;
Fig. 4 is a vertical cross section along the line 4--4 of Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 is a front elevational view of the formof device illustrated in Fig. 1; and
Fig. 6 is a rear elevational view thereof.
Referring to the drawings',
In essence, my device consists of a movable carriage on which is mounted an armored domelikev turret or cupola which may be rotated 360 about the horizon, the. turret not only` serving to support a gun, but also to protect the crew. The gun supporting platform is provided with a multiple point support, and as a special feature, slidable turret overlying shields are provided which not only may be employed to aord greater protection for the gun crew, but also to counterbalance the weight of the gun during rotation of the turret.
The device as a whole is indicated by reference numeral I0 and consists of a metal platform I2 of generally rectangular shape, which may have `depending skirt portions I 4, I4 of armor plate pivotally secured on all four sides thereof. Flaps I6, I6, also of armor plate are provided, hinged at I8, I8 to the lower edges of skirts |4, to overlie the lower portions of the platform, so that form I2 and axle 30 is illustrated in Fig. 6. A
pair of vertical drop links 32,-32 rigidly secured to the underside of platform I2 and depending therefrom, are provided at their lower ends with inverted U-shaped collars 34, 34 within which 'l axle 30 is slidably received. As shown, axle 30 is curved downwardly and its lowest portion is directly underneath the center of the platform. Normally, links 32, 32 straddle the center of the axle in order to maintain platform I2 levelk with respect to wheels 22,` 22." Collars 34 have'a close sliding fit with axle 30, and when wheels 22, 22 are not level, the gun supporting platform I2 may be laterally shifted along axle 30, as by means of a manuallyv operable rack and gear arrangement-,or other suitable means and as a result, either side Vmay be shifted back and forth along the curvature of laxle 38 and thus raised or lowered, as needed, in order to bring the platform I2 to true horizontal level. The suspension of platform I2 on axle'30, despite the pair of supporting wheels 22, 22 and the two straddlelegs 32, 32, is the full functional equivalent of a single point suspension with the provisionof this curved axle whereby either side of platform I2 may be raised or lowered to bring both sides level.
The other end of platform I2 is supported by a pairof individual mounted legs 40, 40. Each leg 48 y,is pivotally secured tovplatform I2 for trans-l verse swinging movement inside and under platform I2, and vertically downward by pin 42. Legs 40 are of lhollow metal construction, and are provided on their outer sides with 'a channelled head piece`44. Skirt portion I4 depending from the sides of the platform is suitably apertured so that when leg 40 is swung into vertical position, the headpiece 44 will extend'V through the opening'in the skirt I4, and al lock bar artively simple and expeditious matter. The front jack legs may be raised or lowered individually, and the rear of the platform may be shifted along the bent-axle, or by a suitable manually actuated rack and gear mechanism, or other- WISE.
As above stated, rearaxle 3|)v is,v curved along the arc of a circle, and ythe gun-supporting platform may be slid laterally along the axle. The purpose of this construction is as follows: when bringing the platform to a horizontal level by adjusting the height of the jack legs, the sliding lateral motion along the curved axle is equivalent to adjustment around a point which is the center of curvature of the axle. In. other words, although the gun-supportnig platform ultimately is supported by two jack legs and two wheels in the rear so as to have abroad base for stability, it is brought to true level by adjustments of three points of support, two of which are real, and the other one is about a single point. When the levelling is completed, the platform may be solidl locked on the curved axle.
Such horizontal levelling is quite necessary for easing the rotations of the turret when it is rotationally unbalanced by the combined weight cf the gun and the shields.
The two front legs 40,40 may be steered by means of steering rod |22 (see Figs.v2-and 5). Each end of rod |22 is pivotally connected to a shaft |28, at the level of the rotational axis of legs 40, as at 6|) (see Fig. 5). morder to permit legs 40, 48 to be swung inside the frame housing. The bottom of each shaft |28 is secured to a yoke member 62, the arms of which encircle the axle on which the wheels 48 are mounted. Posts I 28, |28 are also of telescope con struction so as to expand and contract inlength with the legs 40, 40. Suitable openings 64, 64 are provided to receive the steering posts |28 whensame are folded up inwardly. Thus, wheels 48, 48 are provided with steering means which serve also to keep them parallel. during turning movement. The steering gear includes, as above, rod |22, shafts |28, |28, yokes 62, 62, andlocks |24, |26 are provided to secure rod |22 when folded up against the enclosure. t
During travelling movement, legs may be folded insidevor alongside the platform, and the device is supported by the rear wheels and by the moving agency, as a tractor or the like, by serangement 4B is provided on the outside of skirt I4, adjacent the aperture, to engage the channel 0n the head piece and thus lock the leg in against any removal from the verticalposition.
A widetread wheel `48 maybe mountedl at the bottom of each leg 4 0, inside a bearing 50,
which is supported by a `threaded hollowshaft 52 telescoping with a shaft 54 fixed inside the leg. A helical worm gear nut 56 secured within leg 40, is mounted about shaft 52, so that shaft 52,'
and wheel 48 can be raised or lowered as de! sired. As desired, a flat plate having its underside suitably channelled, may be employed in-y stead of wheels 48 on the bottom of the jackv legs 40, 40, but while the plates mean better recoil resistance, their use entails loss of the use of the wheels for moving purposes.
A horizontally level firing platforml is extremely desirable.` A three point support is the minimum required for stability, and I achieve this inv my device by the one point rear axle support, and the two individually articulated front jack legs. By means of this arrangement, levelling the gun-supporting platform becomesa relae curement of tongue'66 thereto. Of course, if desired or needed, the front legs 40, 40 may be lowered during travelling movement to help support the platform, andV they maybe steered by bringing rod |22 'down from the platform, pivoting postsI |28 out also, and manually directing same.
My armored enclosure, indicated generally by reference numeral I0, comprises a dome-shaped turret 10, formed of armor plate and provided with a plurality of horizontally arranged viewing slits or openings 12, '|2, so that the crewwithin the turret may look out therethrough'and 'command the horizon. Turret 'I0 is rotatable, and is supported for rotation on a. main bearing ring'14 which is mounted atop platform I2, see Fig. 3. Turret I2 is provided with an outwardly extending shelf portion I6 which rests on rollers 'I8 clisposed on the floor of the bearing ring 14. Manually operable turret rotating crankmeans 82 are provided, operatively connected to pinionV 84 and gear 86, actuation of which crank 82 will Other .Suitable rotating means may be provided,
This is essential, y
but the desideratum is easily manually operable rotating means. More than one gear ratio may be provided-if desired, for faster or finer rotational movement of the turret.
A gun 92 is mounted atop platform I2 turret 10, projecting out therefrom through a suitable opening 93. The gun and its recoil mechanism are mounted inside turret 10 in the conventional manner, and the gun may be elevated or depressed through conventional manually operable crank and gear mechanisms.
A floor 94 is provided within turret 10 for rotation therewith, which platform is suspended from turret 10 by means of shafts or drop links 96, 96. Shafts 96, 96 are slidably secured within vertically apertured encircling collars 98, 98 mounted on the inner walls of turret 10.V Suitable crank means as |00 may be provided on each of these collars 98, 98 whereby as desired during movement, the height of floor 94 may be raised above the level of rear axle 30 in order to clear ground obstructions, but during use, the floor may be lowered so that the crew inside the turret can have the viewing openings 12, 12 at eye level.
In addition to the main bearing ring 14, I provide a sub-bearing ring |02 on the turret or the platform, which subring has formed therein an annular groove or trackway |04, Sub-ring |02 also has formed as a part thereof an upwardly projecting outer wall |06 at its outer margin, the purpose of which will be explained below. I provide a pair of shield members ||0, I|0, also of armor plate material, and mount them for sliding movement on the sub-ring |02. Each shield member ||0 has an inside extension ||2 which fits into ring trackway |04, and has also an outside extending skirt portion I|4 which reaches out and down over the main and subbearing rings 14 and |02. The wall portion |2 projecting out and upwardly from sub-ring |02 is received and held captive within the recess I6 formed Within each shield member ||0 between the extension |12 and the outer extending skir* H4 (see Fig. 3).
Shields ||0, ||0 are concentric with turret 10, that is, they have approximately the same degree curvature as turret '|0 and each shield I0 is preferably about sixty degrees in lengthwise dimension, and substantially as high as turret l2. Shields I |l), I0 are preferably not too heavy to be shifted about turret 10 manually, although if desired, suitable mechanism may be provided for such purpose. The shields ||0, ||0 are notched or cut out as at H8, ||8 so that when they are shifted together in front of the opening 93, the gun 92 may project therethrough. Manually operable locks |20, |20 may be provided on the wall of turret 10 either in front of gun 92, or on the opposite side of turret I2 from gun opening 93, to lock the shields in either position.
The turret 10 and shields I0, I I0 are thus seen to be mounted on two bearing frames or rings. The main frame 80 and the sub-frame |02 are shown to be separate members, although they need not be, and they may be mounted together or separately. The turret itself rotates on the main frame, and the shields slide about on the upper sub-frame. As shown in Fig. 3, the extension 16 from turret 10 defines a shelf which rests upon rollers 18.
Shields I0, I0 are an important feature of my invention. During an engagement, when gun 92 is directed towards the enemy, and maximumprotection for the crew within the turret is` desired, shields ||0, ||0 may be xed in front of gun 92, as shown in Fig. 6.
Gun 92 is quite heavy, as are shields ||0, ||0, and if their total weight were concentrated at any one point of the turret, it would prove to be an extremely difficult matter to manually rotate the turret when the platform has not been levelled. When the enclosure is being shifted from one site to another, it must be ready for any emergency, as a surprise attack from an unexpected quarter. At such times, the gun crew riding within the turret, must be ready to man and operate the gun at an instants notice. If the weight of the gun and shields were concentrated at one point, it might perhaps require too much time to bring the gun to bear, and the delay might well be fatal. Therefore, during travelling movement, shields l0, ||0 are locked on diametrically opposite side of turret 10 from gun 92, in order to balance the weight of the gun and make easier manual rotation of the turret.
Having now described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A gun carriage comprising a platform, and adjustable means to support same horizontally in spaced relation to the ground, a bearing ring on said platform, a circular dome-like turret revolvably mounted 0n said ring, a gun disposed within said turret projecting out therefrom, means on the platform to counterbalance the weight of the gun and means to mount the counter-balancing means for concentric movement With respect to the turret, said counter-balancing means being shiftable about the turret independently thereof and in substantially concentric relation thereto.
2. A gun carriage as in claim 1 in which a second bearing ring is provided and the counterbalancing means comprise a plurality of arcuate plates mounted on said second ring for lateral movement about the turret independently of the turret.
JACQUES MARCEL RIBOUD.