US 2362075 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 7, 1944. F. s. `KEAHEY, JR
ORDNANCE Filed March 25, 1941 7 Sheets-Sheet 1 Inventor' Frank 3. Keoheglr 39 W QH rrleq Nov. 7, 1944.
7 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. Frank 5. Kaheg Ir.
Nov. 7, 1944.
ORDNANCE Filed March 25, 1941 7 sheets-sheet 3 iTranR S. Kachel; Jr.
Attorney Nov. 7, 1944. F. s. KEAHEY, JR
ORDNANCE Filed March 25, 1941 7 Sheets-Sheet 4 Inventor' Frank 5. Keaheg In @Hort/(14 Nov. 7, 1944. F, s, KEAHEY, JR 2,362,075
ORDNANCE Filed March 25, 1941 7 Sheefcs-Sheet 5 t y .215@A Nov. 7, 1944. F. s. KEAHEY, JR
ORDNANCE Filed March 25, 1941 7 Sheets-Sheet '7 '//w i 7 A53 Fig-7 m5 m;
BY @MM w @ai torwey Patented Nov. 7, 1944 :.sszms onnNANcE Frank S. Keahey, Jr., Detroit, Mich., assigner of eighty-five one-hundredths to Eunice M. Keahey, eight one-hundredths to Paul Oren, and seven one-hundredths to Edward M. Apple,
all of Detroit. Mich.
Application March 25, 1941, Serial No. 385,126
This invention relates to ordnance and has particular reference to a rapid fire, long range gun suitable for anti-aircraft work.
An object of the invention is to provide a weapon which employs the fundamental principles of the internal combustion engine, such as the Diesel type, or the conventional gasoline motor type, to the problem of. projecting at high velocity, and with great rapidity, an extensive sequence of missileintended to do effective Work at high altitudes, or at great distances.
Although the embodiment of the invention as herein disclosed, relates to ordnance, in its broader aspects the invention may be employed to accomplish other useful work where extremely high pressures are a pre-requisite.
A further object of the invention is the provision of a gun which can be fired with such rapidity that ln ordinary practice, a vertible column of missiles can be projected to high altitudes, in much the same manner as a column of water can be projected from a hose.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a machine gun of heavy caliber, the speed of which can be controlled in such manner as to produce a great variety of pressures and velocities, whereby great economies may be effected in its use on close range work.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a gun which develops constant or increased pressures in the barrel during the movement of the projectiles in the barrel.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a gun which has a comparatively low muzzle pressure.
A further object of the invention is to generally improve ordnance, particularly with reference to cost of construction, cost of operation, useful life and range.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a device which makes available for ordnance purposes the advantages and principles of the internal combustion engine, while at the same time employing pressures equal to or greater than the pressures of modern high'explosives. Instead of `a single high peak of pressure which falls rapidly Vas the bullet moves through the barrel, this gun maintains a high pressure throughout the passage because the piston follows the bullet holding the pressure at a high level.
The foregoing, and other objects and advantages of the invention will appear as the description proceeds, reference being made from time to time to the accompanying drawings, in which one embodiment of the invention is illustrated, and in which drawings:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation, with parts broken away and other parts in section, showing a gun embodying my invention.
Fig. 2 is a rear elevation, partly in section, of the device illustrated in Fig. l.
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal view in section, taken substantially on the line 3-3 of F18. 4.
Fig. 4 is a top plan view, partly in section, taken substantially on the line 4-4 of Fig. l.
Fig. 5 is a front elevation of the device, illustrated in Fig. 1.
Fig. 6 is an enlarged view, partly Vin section, taken substantially on the line 6--6 of Fig. 3, with parts broken away to show certain details.
Fig. 7 is an enlarged sectional view taken substantially on the line 1-1 of Fig. 6.
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary rear elevation of the oscillating plate comprising part of the loading mechanism.
Fig. 8A is a vertical section taken through the oscillating plate shown in Fig. 8.
Fig. 9 is a side elevation of the driving pawl shownin Figs. 6 and 7.
Fig. 10 is a front elevation of the driving pawl shown in Figs. 6 and 7.
My improved gun, in the simplest terms, com.
prises a two cycle internal combustion engine in which may be burned petroleum derivatives, alcohol or similar fuels. It has two cylinders; a large, low pressure cylinder, hereafter termed the major cylinder, in which the working pressures will approximate the pressures now employed in so-called internal combustion engines; and a smaller high pressure cylinder termed the minor cylinder, which receives its fuel charge from the major cylinder, when the latter is at its peak pressure, and builds up this pressure on its power stroke until the resulting pressure reaches 16,000 to 24,000 pounds per square inch.
While any desirable caliber is feasible, the gun herein disclosed is intended to shoot one inch diameter projectiles. This projectile is eilicient for anti-aircraft use. With this caliber and these pressures the gun herein disclosed has a vertical range of 36,000 feet.
Referring now more particularly to the drawings, it will be understood that in the embodiment herein disclosed, my device consists generally of a major cylinder I0. a minor cylinder Il, and a rifle barrel I2, secured by threads I2a to the cylinder Il, which, together with the balancing mechanism, and loading mechanism hereinafter described, are mounted on suitable stanchions I3, which are cast integrally with the turn table I4, the latter being secured to a shaft i3, which is journaled in a suitable bearing member I3 formed in the bed plate i1. Roller bearings i3 are interposed between the bed plate l1 and the turn table I4.
The gun is rotated on its vertical axis by means of a ring gear I3 which is secured to the bed plate I1 by cap screws i 1a, and is adapted to mesh with a pinion 23 which is keyed to the shaft 2i, the latter being Journaled for rotation in the boss 22, forming part 'of the turn table I4. The shaft 2i is rotated by the wheel 23, which may be manually or power operated.
The gun is mounted for rotation on its short khorizontal axis by means of the trunnions 24,
which are secured to each side of the cylinder I3. and journaled in suitable bearings 23, which are cushioned in thick blocks of live rubber ze, which are intended to serve as recoil blocks, as discussed in more complete detail later. The recoil blocks 23-are supported in suitable cradles 21, formed integral with the stanchions i3.
, The elevation and depression of the gun barrel are .controlled by means of a quadrant 23 which is secured to the cylinder I3 as at 23, and meshes with a pinion 33, which is keyed to the shaft 3 i the latter being rotated by the wheel 32, either manually or by power.
The major cylinder i is provided with accurately fitted cylinder heads 33 and 34, which are held in place by a. plurality of tie rods 35, and other suitable means such as cap screws 33a. The minor cylinder Il is formed integrally with the cylinder head 34, and its walls are of sumcient thickness to withstand the extreme pressures developed therein.
Within the major cylinder I3 is a large piston 33, and within the minor cylinder Il, is a small piston 31. These pistons are integral with one another and reciprocate in unison. The area of the large piston 33 is substantially 2l times that of the area of the small piston 31.
In Fig. 3, it will be seen that the piston 33 is provided with a passageway 33, which is controlled by a valve 33, and a plurality of passageways 43 (Figs. 3 and 4), which communicate with a passageway 4I, in the interior of the piston 31, the latter being controlled by the valve 42. The major cylinder I3 has a fuel intake valve 43 (Fig. 4), an exhaust valve 44 and a spark plug 43 (Fig. 3), although in'employing the full Diesel principle the spark plug 43, may be dispensed with, and an injector substituted for the carburetor 43h (Figs. 4 and 5)., 'I'he intake valve 43a and the exhaust valve 44 connect with suitable intake and exhaust means, which-are standard practice in the Diesel or gasoline engine art. In this embodiment the intake means include a carburetor 43h (Figs. 4 and 5) and a throttle not shown. The large piston 33 is provided with a piston rod 33a which extends through a suitable bearing 33h in the cylinder head 33. The minor cylinder Il can exhaust only through the passageway 43, which is in direct communication with the interior of the barrel i2, through the slots 43 of the projectile magazine 41, which forms part oftheloadingmechanismshowninl'igaand 7.
The magazine 41 rotates in a close ntting chamber, the upper haii' of which is machined in the cylinder wall Il and the lower half of which is machined in the hood 32, which is secured to the cylinder il by a plurality of cap screws 32a, making a gas tight chamber. This chamber has a communicating slot 33 through 'l5 which the bullets 43 are dropped from the hopper Il 'Ihe magazine 41 is keyed, as atg41a, to a shaft AI4. through which itis driven ins'yhchronism, with the firing cycles of the gun. Thshaft 34 is keyed into the ratchet plate 3l, as at 33a. A second plate 33, rotating freely on the shaft 34, is oscillated by the connecting rod 31 in a clockwise direction 45 degrees, as viewed from the rear (Fig. 6) during a halt cycle of the engine, during which half cycle comprising the compression stroke, the pistons 33 and 31 are receding from the position shown in Figs. 3 and 4. The plate 33 is oscillated in the opposite direction 45 degrees, during the next half cycle of the engine, in which the pistons 33 and 31 advance on the power stroke to the positions shown in Figs. 3 and 4. The plate I3 -drives the plate 33 during the clockwise oscillation by means of a pawl 33 which engages the ratchet teeth 33h of the plate 33.
The plate 33 is securely locked by the key 33 in a predetermined position, with reference to the barrel Ibore Ila, during the ring half of the cycle to insure perfect alignment between the slots 43 of the magazine 41 and the bore i2a of the barrel. 'I'he key 33 is pivoted on the shaft 33a (Fig. 7) through the bifurcated casting 30 which is bolted to the hood 32 by a plurality of bolts 33a. A spring 3| in compression holds the key 33 in engagement lwith the rectangular locking slots 33c, which are machined in the outer periphery of plate 33 (Figs. 6 and 7) until the key 33 is forced out of engagement by the pawl 33, when the latter is driven outwardly by the spring lla, which has power sufficient to overcome the compression of the spring 3|. The connecting rod 31 is rotatably fixed to the plate 33 by a stud 31a and to the plate 32 by a stud 516. The plate 32 is keyed as at 32a to the oscillating shaft 33 which is journaled in the casting 33. I'he shaft 33 passes through the bearings 34b and 33h (Fig. 3), which are mounted in the bosses 34a and 33a formed integrally with the cylinder heads 34 and 33, and also passes through the member 34a (Fig. l)
which is a downward extension of the bifurcated member 34, which is cast integrally with the cylinder head 33. An arm 33 is keyed, as at 34a, to the shaft 33 and oscillates the said shaft by power delivered through the connecting links 33, 31 and 33. Link 33 is in turn driven by the crank pin 33 which is formed integrally with the main shaft 13, which rotates in suitable bearings 13a, carried in the supporting arms'of the bifurcated member. The shaft 10 carrying the twin eccentric fiywheels 12 is rotated by a crank 1|, which is driven by the main connecting rod 13, which in turn is connected by the pin 13a, to the piston rod 33a heretofore described.
A complete operating cycle will now be explained by reference to Figs. 3 and 4.
When the piston 33 arrives at the extreme advanced position shown in Figs. 3 and 4 and begins its receding movement, a fuel charge is drawn through the intake port 43 (Fig. 4), inasmuch as the valve 43a is free to open when the pressure in the cylinder I 3, between the piston 33 and the cylinder head 34, becomes less than atmospheric. When the piston 33 completes its receding movement and begins its next advance movement, the valve 43a (Fig. 4) is forced closed iby gas pressure causing the pre-compression of the fuel charge slightly above atmospheric pressure between the piston 33 and the cylinder head 34. When this Pressure reaches a predetermined point it causes the valve 33 (Fig. 3) to open, permitting the precompressed fuel charge to enter the firing chamber scavenging the burned charge out of the cylinder i0, in which is positioned the spark plug 43. The fresh charge of incoming gas is then compressed between the piston 36 and the cylinder head 33, a portion of the charge at the same time entering the cylinder i I, as explained below. The charge in the firing chamber of the cylinder III is then exploded by the spark plug 46 a few degrees before the piston 33 reaches the fully receded position.
An additional portion of this burning charge from the firing chamber of the cylinder Ill passes through the channels 40 into the main channel 4i formed in piston 31 and then through the valve 42 into the cylinder ll, igniting and further increasing the pressure of the charge of fuel which had previously entered the cylinder Il as explained herein above. The pressure in both the cylinders l and Ii will be about 1,000 to 1,500 pounds per square inch immediately after the liring of the charge, as in conventional internal combustion engines. The piston 33 driven by the burning charge of fuel toward the advanced position (Fig. 3) overcomes the counterforce of the piston 31, Ibecause of its greatly superior area. The charge in the cylinder il rapidly increases in pressure as the piston 31 advances which causes the valve 42 to close. As the piston 31 continues to advance the pressure in the cylinder Ii increases moving the bullet 43 slightly forward in the bore i2a of the barrel I2, until it comes in contact with the rifiing of the barrel. When the pressure in the cylinder il reaches a predetermined peak value the bullet 49 is forced through the rifling and along the bore i2a. of the barrel I2. One of the most effective characteristics of this gun is the maintenance of a propelling pressure behind the bullet which is practically uniform and only slightly lower than the peak pressure, because the advance of the piston 31 increases the pressure at about the same rate that the forward movement of the bullet tends to reduce it. This results in a propelling thrust greatly superior to that of powder guns without greatly exceeding the peak pressure of such powder guns. Thus a velocity much greater than is possible with powder guns is imparted to the bullet, giving it extremely long range and great striking power.
After the ejection of the bullet any remnants of gas in the cylinder Il are exhausted through the barrel bore I2a and the gases of combustion in the cylinder i0 are exhausted through the valve 44 as explained hereinafter.
At the predetermined point where it is desired to exhaust the burned gases from the cylinder i0, through the exhaust valve 44, the cam 14, which is formed integrally with the main shaft 10, forces the valve stem 15 forward against the pressure of the compression spring 13 through suitable bearings not shown mounted in the bosses 13 and 11, formed integrally with the member 64. This opens the valve 44 permitting the burned charge of gas in the cylinder i0 to be exhausted, immediately after which the incoming charge of gas passing through the -port 39 scavenges out the remnants of the burned charge of gas in the cylinder I0 as explained above. The valve 44 is then closed by the pressure of the spring 16 against the collar 11, inasmuch as the cam 14 will have rotated to such a position as to permit the valve stem 15 to return to the closing position.
The rate of fire or speed of the gun is adjustable by a conventional throttle not shown. As the effective pressure of the gas charge propelling the bullet varies with the speed or rate of nre. the velocity of the bullets and therefore the range oi' the gun are likewise variable, which permits adjustment as conditions warrant.
The rate of fire normally varies from 500 to 1000 shots per minute with a muzzle velocity of 5000 to 7000 feet per minute. i
As stated above the live rubber blocks 23 are intended to serve as a recoil mechanism of great simplicity as contrasted to the recoil mechanisms conventionally employed with powder guns.
The operation of these rubber blocks is made fully effective by the supplementary effects of the reciprocating pistons 3B and 31, which recede as the bullet advances from the gun muzzle largely neutralizing the backward thrust or kick imparted to the gun by the bullet.
The movement of the pistons 36 and 31 tending to disturb the balance of the gun about the horizontal axis through the trunnicns 24 is counterbalanced by the eccentric flywheels 12 which have their heavy sections disposed oppositely to the location of the crank 1I.
A spring or power driven loading or feeding device not shown may be added if desired to force entry of the bullets 49 into the magazine 41 at a rate greater than that of a gravity operated hopper as illustrated.
Cooling means may also be employed with this device in certain applications although the construction of the device is such that in ordinary practice the scavenging action of the device as described will keep it relatively cool.
This gun may be mounted on a truck, car, boat or airplane or other suitable place. It will be understood that certain modifications may be made in practicing this invention, all of which are intended to be within the scope of the appended claims.
Having described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. In a gun of the character described, the combination of a large primary cylinder, a comparatively small secondary cylinder, a piston in said primary cylinder having an extension forming a piston for said secondary cylinder, an exhaust outlet for said secondary cylinder, means adapted to charge the said primary cylinder with an explosive mixture, and a controlled passageway connecting said primary and said secondary cylinders and arranged to permit the entrance of an explosive charge into said secondary cylinder from said primary cylinder.
2. The combination defined in claim 1,in which the controlled passageway between the primary and secondary cylinders is arranged to permit the entrance of part of the explosive charge into said secondary cylinder on the movement of said primary piston in one direction.
3. The combination defined in claim 1, in which the cylinders are in axial alignment and an increased compression of the explosive charge in the secondary cylinder is accomplished by the movement of the primary piston in one direction.
4. The combination defined in claim l, in which the exhaust outlet of said secondary cylinder is in communication with the gun barrel.
5. The combination defined in claim 1, in which the exhaust outlet of said secondary cylinder is in communication with the gun barrel,
and there are projectile feeding means associated with the gun barrel and said exhaust outlet.
6. The combination defined in claim 1, in
which the exhaust outlet of said secondary cylinder is in communication with the gun barrel, and therey areprojectile feeding means associated with the gun'barrel and said exhaust outlet, thev operation of said projectile feeding means being synchronized with the ring of the explosive charge in said secondary cylinder.
7. 'I'he combination defined in claim 1, including a piston rod to which is connected the said primary and secondary pistons, the said piston rod being connected on the exterior of the cylinders to a counter-balancing mechanism, adapted to dampen the recoil of said pistons.
8. The combination defined in claim 1, including a common piston rod to which the primary and secondary pistons are attached, the said common piston rod being connected on the exterior of the cylinders to a counter-balancing mechanism, adapted to dampen the recoil of said pistons, the said counter-balancing mechanism in.` cluding one or more eccentric ily wheels.
9. The combination defined in claim l, including projectile feeding means, the said exhaust outlet of said secondary cylinder being in communication with the` gun barrel, and said projectile feeding means are associated with the said gun barrel and said exhaust outlet, the said projectile feeding means including a gas tight chamber, a cylindrical magazine rotatable in said chamber, projectile carrying openings in said magazine and means for indexing said openings with the said exhaust outlet and the bore of the gunbarrel. V
10. The combination ydeiined in claim l, in
aseaovs which said controlled passageway between the two cylinders comprises an axial passageway through the primary and secondary pistons and a pressure valve in said passageway.
11. The combination denned in claim 1, in which the means to charge the primary cylinder include a passageway extending through said primary piston, and a pressure operated valve in said passageway.
l2. In a gun of the character described,the combination oi a large primary cylinder, a com, paratively small secondary cylinder, a piston in said primary cylinder having an extension forming a piston for said secondary cylinder. an e'xhaust outlet for said secondary cylinder, intake, and exhaust means for said primary cylinder, and means communicating between said primary and said secondary cylinders and arransed to ,permit the direct entrance of an explosive charge into said secondary cylinder from said primary cylinder.
13. The method oi' projecting a missile which consists of compressing in a primary chamber, a
mixture of combustible fuel and air to a pressure of not to exceed 1500 pounds per square inch, transferring some of said compressed mixture to a secondary chamber, exploding the mixture in said primary chamber and said secondary chamber, utilizing the resulting force of said explosion to further greatly compress the contents of said secondary chamber, and then releasingv the products oi combustion from said secondary chamber against a missile.
FRANK S. KEAHEY, Jn.