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Publication numberUS2362176 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 7, 1944
Filing dateMar 25, 1943
Priority dateMar 25, 1943
Publication numberUS 2362176 A, US 2362176A, US-A-2362176, US2362176 A, US2362176A
InventorsHarold Swanson
Original AssigneeHarold Swanson
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Flashlight full-beam electric lamp
US 2362176 A
Abstract  available in
Images(10)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

N?. 7, 1944. l-L SWANSON 2,362,176

FLASHLIGHT FULL-BEAM ELECTRIC LAMP Filed March 25, 1943 lO Sheeis-Shee'c 1 Wnesses:

NOV. 7, 1944. H. SWANSQN 2,362,176

FLASHLIGHT FULL-BEAM ELECTRIC LAMP Filed March 25, 1943 1Q Sheets-Sheet 2 Wm Imm ".MWIILaW/f l NOV. 7, 1944. H SWANSQN Y 2,362,176

FLASHLIGHT FULL-BEAM ELECTRIC LAMP Filed March 25, 1945 10 Sheets-Sheet 5 s El@ Witnesses- H. SWANSON FLASHLIGHT FULL-BEAM ELECTRIC LAMP Filed March 25, 1943 Fglf 294 am@ W@ ll a L o 549 34B I Fi go (5 9 Winesses:

F .5 aso ng' l0 Sheets-Sheet 4 35s 554 35a@ Q Inventor' Nov. 7, 1944. H. swANsoN- 2,362,175

u l FLASHLIGHT FULL-BEAM ELECTRIC LAMP A Filed March 25, 1945 -10 Sheets-Sheet 5 Figog@ Fgolll 44e 45a 'l `445 45e Q y] 454 l ;l Y 449 459 444 44s 45s 452. Fig@ Fig@ Fignm Inven'lor Witnesses:

H. swANsoN 2,362,176

FLASHLIGHT FULL-BEAM ELECTRIC LAMP Filed March 25, 1945 Nqv. 7, 1944.

1 0 Sheets-Sheet 6 Witnesses:

Inventor' NOV. 7, 1944. l SWANSON' v 2,362,176

Filed March 25, 1943 10 Sheets-Sheet 8 Witnesse I Inventor' Mum www Nav. 7, 1944. H is WWWW ON 2,362,176

T FULL-BE Invent AM ELSITLIC L'AMP 10 Sheets-Sheet l() Patented Nov. 7,I 1944 FLASHLIGHT FULL-BEAM ELECTRIC LAMP Harold Swanson, Brownhelm Township, Lorain County, Ohio Application March 25, 1943, Serial No. 480,425

. 8 Claims.

' This invention relates to improvements to increase the etfective illumination produced by the One object of this invention is to show a practical means of constructing a flashlight electric lamp with optical elements that completely sur- -round the lamps light source and gather the light produced into a concentrated beam. These optical elements are described herein as fullbeam refracting elements, and itis through them that the ashlight full-beam electric lamps vwere invented.

A further object is that4 this application, together with my copending applications Serial Numbers 480,420; 480,421; 480,422; 480,423 and 480,424, filed March 25, 1943, is in part a continuation of my full-beam electric lamp application Serial Number 402,778, filed July 17, 1941, in which nearly an exact duplicated description of these inventions were originally presented. The feature which is generic to all these inventions is the full-beam refracting element and its adaptation in construction, and operation to gather the light in nearly all directions from a light source into a concentrated beam, as applied to electric lamps; however on account of the present Patent Ofce regulations restricting the limitations presented in a single application, it

Cil

subsequently continued through the following;

Patent Number 2,097,679, patented Nov. 2, 1937, Patent Number 2,137,732, patented Nov. 22, 1938, Patent Number 2,154,542, patented April 18, 1939, Patent Number 2,222,093, patented Nov. 19, 1940, are adaptable to make ashlight full-beam electric lamps and similar articles.

A further object is that this invention shall be a continuation of my earlier inventions ment'oned in the preceding paragraph, in respect to used to advantage with this application, particularly the full-beam refracting elementsand the many cross combinations possible by their substitution herein.

Other objects of this invention will appear more fully described and illustrated hereinafter.

While it is practical to adapt the improvements of'this invention to a largevariety of electric lamps, the present Patent Oflce regulations restrict the claims that are allowed in a single patent which illustrates more than three types. In the accompanying drawings I have illustrated several types of lamps to show that I have not overlooked the possibilities of many variations to apply these improvements. The one feature which is common or generic to all types shown, is the full-beam refracting elements adapted to flashlight electric lamps, around which this invention becomes apparent by the following in which:

Fig. 1 to Fig. 9 are enlarged sectional views of individual flashlight full-beam electric lamps.

Fig. 10 to Fig. 39 `are enlarged elevational and sectional views of the assembled full-beam refracting elements for 'flashlight full-beam electric lamps. In some views their glass connecting parts are also shown.

Fig. 40 to Fig. 129 are enlarged elevational and.

sectional views of inner full-beam refracting elements for flashlight full-beam electric lamps.

Fig. 130 to Fig, 133 are enlarged light propagation diagrammatic views of the full-beam refracting elements for flashlight full-beam electric lamps.

Referring to Fig. 1 which is an enlarged sectional view of a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having twohollow metal wires I and 2 being the lead-in wires with notched openings cut through the walls near the inner end s for exhausting or gas llling operations; the ends of a coiled electric lamp filament 3 being inserted into the ends of the hollow metal wires I and 2 and clamped` `made from heat resisting glass (only the rear half of element 4 is shown here), are coated on their junctionsurfaces with a thin nlm of suit-` able glass fusing material, and after positioning the filament mount in place. the halves are hermetically sealed together by glass fusion; a

mstandard electric lamp miniature `screw base 5 having a flanged end at 6, with a lead-in wire hole or notched groove 1, is coated on the inside with a. suitable basing cement 8 and cemented to element 4 as shown, with the hollow metal wires I and 2 threaded through the base 5 at 1 and 9; then the lamp is exhausted to a vacuum, or exhausted and filled with an inert gas, at either low or high pressures, up to a safe working pressure, through the hollow metal wires I and 2 which are swaged or flattened and cut off to form the preliminary seals and later the nal seals at I and are made by soldering the ends air tight as they are soldered to the lampbase 5. The parabolic metal reflector I2 shows the relative position of this type of flashlight full-beam electric lamp when used within a hand flashlight case.

Referring to Fig. 2 which is an enlarged sectional view of a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two hollow metal wires I3 and 'I4 being the lead-in wires with notched openings cut through the walls near the inner ends for exhausting or gas filling operations; the ends of a coiled electric lamp filament I6 being inserted into the ends of the hollow metal wires I3 and I4 and clamped or spot-Welded together, forming the filament mount; two halves of an inner fullbeam refracting element I1 (see Fig. 43 to Fig. 45 for details) being made from heat resisting glass (only the rear half of element I1 is shown here), are coated on their junction surfaces with a film of suitable glass fusing material, into which the filament mount is positioned, enclosed, and hermetically sealed by glass fusion to form the inner full-beam refracting element assembly; four quarter full-beam refracting elements |8 (see Fig. 31 to Fig. 33 for details), being made from heat resisting glass (only the two rear quarters of velements I8 are shown here) are coated on their junction surfaces with a thin film of suitable glass fusing material, and after positioning the inner fullbeam refracting element assembly in place the quarters are hermetically sealed together by glass fusion; a glass circular connecting plate I with lead-in wire holes for hollow metal wires I3 and I4, and another glass plate 2| are coated all around their edges at I9 and 28 respectively with a lm of suitable glass fusing material (see Fig. 31 to Fig. 33 for details), and after positioning with elements I8 as shown, the plates I5 and 2| are hermetically sealed thereto by glass fusion; a standard electric lamp miniature screw base 22 having a flanged end at 23, with a lead-in wire hole or notched groove at 24, is coated on the inside with a suitable basing cement 25 and cemented to the plate I5 as shown, with the hollow metal wires I3 and I4 threaded through the base 22 at 24 and 26; then the lamp is exhausted to a vacuum, or exhausted and filled with an inert gas, at either low or high pressure, up to a safe working pressure, through the hollow metal wires I3 and I4 which are swaged or fiattened and cut off to form the preliminary seals and later the final seals at 21 and 28 are made by soldering the ends air tight as they are soldered to the lamp base 22.

Referring to Fig. 3 which is an enlarged -sectional view of a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two hollow metal Wires 29 and 30 being the lead-in wires with notched openings cut through the walls near the inner ends for exhausting or gas filling operations, the ends of a coiled electric lamp filament 3| being inserted into the ends of the hollow metal wires 29 and 38 and clamped or spot-welded together, forming the filament mount; two halves of a full-beam refractng. element 32 (see Fig. 19 to Fig. 21 for details) being made from heat resisting glass (only the rear half of element 32 is shown here) and coated on their junction surfaces with a thin film of suitable glass fusing material, and after positioning the filament mount in place, the halves are hermetically sealed together by glass fusion; a standard electric lamp miniature screw base 33 having a flanged end at 34, with a leadin wirehole or notched groove at 35, is coated on the inside with a suitable basing cement 36 and cemented to the element 32 as shown, with the hollow metal wires 29 and 30 threaded through the base 33 at 35 and 31; then the lamp is exhausted to a vacuum, or exhausted and filled with an inert gas, at either low or high pressures, up to a safe working pressure, through the hollow 'metal wires 29 and 30 which are swaged or flattened and cut off to form the preliminary seals and later the final seals at 38 and 39 are made by soldering the ends air tight as they are soldered to the lamp base 33.

Referring to Fig. 4 which is an enlarged sectional view oi a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two regular three-piece electric lamp lead-in wires 40 and 4|, a glass exhaust tube 42, and the outer glass fiange 43, all hermetically sealed together by glass fusion, with heat applied all around the flange neck 44; the ends of a coiled electric lamp filament 45 are clamped or spotwelded together with the inner ends of the lead-in wires 40 and 4I holding the filament 45 in focusing position; two halves of a full-beam refractng element 46 (see Fig. 124 to Fig. 126 for similar detail) being made from heat resisting glass (only the rear half of element 46 is shown here), en`

closing the filament 45; the edge of the flange 43 is coated with a film of glass fusing material all around at 41 and (or without coating if desired) hermetically sealed by glass fusion with the outer glass cup 48 at 41 (see Fig. 34 to Fig. 36 for similar details); then the lamp is exhausted to a vacuum, or exhausted and filled with an inert gas, at low pressure, through the contracted glass exhaust tube 42 which is heated and tipped off at 49; a standard electric lamp miniature screw base 58 having a flanged end 5|, with a lead-in wire hole or notched groove at 52, is coated on the inside with a suitable basing cement 53 and cemented to the neck of the flange as shown with the lead-in Wires 48 and 4| soldered to the base at 54 and 55.

Referring to Fig. 5 which is an enlarged sectional view of a jflashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two regular three-piece electric lamp lead-in wires 56 and 51, a glass exhaust. tube 58, and the outer glass bowl 59 (see Fig. 10 to Fig. 12 for details) all hermeticaliy sealed together by glass fusion, with heat applied all around the bowl neck 60; the ends of a coiled electric lamp filament 6| are clamped or spotwelded together with the inner ends of the leadin wires 56 and 51 holding the filament 6I in focusing position; two halves of the inner fullbeam refracting element 62 (see Fig. 103 to Fig. 105 for detail) being made from heat resisting glass (only the rear half of the element 62 is shown here) enclosing the lament 6|; an outer full-beam refracting element 63 (see Fig. 10 to Fig. 12 for detail) being made from heat resisting'glass, is set into the bowl 59 around the element 62; the upper flanged brim of the bowl 59 is coated with a film of glass fusing material all around at 64 and (or without coating if desired) hermetically sealed by glass fusion with the glass bowl cover 65 at 64; then the lamp is exhausted to a vacuum, or exhausted and filled with an inert base 91 having a flanged end at 98 with a lead-in wire hole or notched groove at 69, is coated on the inside with a suitable basing cement and cemented to the neck of the bowl as shown, with the lead-in wires 56 and 51 soldered to the base 91 at 1| and 12.

Referring to Fig. 6 which is an enlarged sectional view of a flashlight full-beam electric lamp: having two hollow metal wires 13 and 14 being the lead-in wires with notched openings cut through the walls near the inner ends for exhausting or gas filling operations are inserted through the holes in the outer glasstube 15 (see Fig. 22 to Fig. 24 for detail) the ends of a coiled electric lamp filament 15 being inserted into the ends of the hollow metal wires 13 and 14, and vclamped or spot-welded together, forming the filament mount within the tube 15; the filament mount is positioned, and a mass of glass fusing material is coated around the hollow metal wires 13 and 14, both inside and outside of the tube 15, and then hermetically sealed in place by glass fusion at 11 and 18; two mica or other suitable material washers 19 and 80 are snugly fitted inside of the tube 15 to support the center of two halves of the inner full-beam refracting elements 8| and 82 (see Fig. 91 to Fig. 93 for detail) being made from heat resisting glass, enclosing the filament 16; the flanged edges of the tube 15 are coated-with a film of suitable glass fusing material all around at 83 and 84 and r(or Without coating if desired) hermetically sealed by glass fusion with the outer glass lenses 85 and 8B all around the edges at 83 and 84; a standard electric lamp miniature screw base 81, with its open end cut horizontally cylindrical to form fit the tube 15, is coated on the inside with a suitable basing -cement 88 and later heated for cementlng together; a formed thin metal clasp 89, having a hole at 90, and a raised groove at 9| affording clearance for the seal at 11, is place over the hollow metal wire 13 and tightly wrapped around the tube 15 with the ends inserted into the base 81 and soldered together at the base rim junction, while the other hollow metal wire 14 is threaded through the base end eyelet at 92; then the lamp is exhausted to a vacuum, or exhausted and filled with an inert gas, at either low or high pressures, up to a safe working pressure. through the hollow metal Wires 13 and 14 which are swaged or flattened and cut off to form the preliminary seals and later the final sealsat 93 and 94 are made by soldering the ends air tight as they are soldered to the clasp 89 and the end of the lamp base at 92.

Referring to Fig. 7 which is an enlarged sectional view ofl a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two hollow metal wires 95 and 96 being the lead-in wires with notched openings cut through the walls near the inner ends for exhausting or gas filling operations; the ends of a coiled electric lamp filament 91 being inserted fusion; a standard electric lamp miniature screw base 99 having a flanged end at |00, with a leadin wire hole or notched groove at |0I. is coated on the inside with a suitable basing cement |02 and cemented to element 9| as shown, with the hollow metal wires 95 and 99 threaded through the base, 99 at |0| and |03; then the lamp is exhausted to a vacuum, or exhausted and filled with an inert gas, at either low or high pressures,

up to a` safe working pressure, through the hollow metal wires 95 and 99 which are swaged or flattened and cut off to form the preliminary seais and later the final seals at |04 and |05 are made by soldering theends air tight as they are soldered to the lamp base 99.

Referring to Fig. 8 which is an enlarged sectional view of a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two hollow metal wires |06 and |01 being the lead-in wires which were previously made integrally with a pin-head electric lamp |08 (see previously mentioned Patent 2,222,093, for details of pin-head electric lamp) two halves of a full-beam refracting element |09 and ||0 (see Fig. 28 to Fig. 30 for details), being made from heat resisting glass, are coated on their junction surfaces with a thin film of suitable (only the rear half of element 98 is shown here) are coated on their junction surfaces with a thin film of suitable glass fusing material,l and after positioning the filament mount in place, the halves are hermetically sealed together by glass glass fusing material, and after positioning the pin-head lamp |08 in place, the halves are hermetically sealed together by glass fusion; a standard electric lamp miniature screw -base having a lead-in Wire hole or notched groove at l2, is coated on 'the inside withA a suitable basing cement ||3 and cemented to element |09 and H0 as shown, with the hollow metal wires f |06 and |01 threaded through the base at ||2 and H4; then the pin-head electric lamp is exhausted to a vacuum, or exhausted and filled with an inert gas, at either low or high pressures, up to a safe working pressure, through the hollow metal wires |06 and |01 which are swaged or flattened and cut off to form the preliminary seals and later the nal seals at H5 and ||6 are made by soldering the ends air tight as they are soldered to the lamp base IH.

In Fig. 8 it is obvious that the pin-head electric lamp |08 can be Completely made as an individual lamp, with the final seals near the pinhead lampbulb, and notched openings cut through the walls of the hollow metal wires |06 and |01 near the nal seals for exhausting or gas filling the chambers within the element |09 and H0.

Referring to Fig. 9 which is anV enlarged sectional view of a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two hollow metal wires lll and ||8 being the lead-in wires with notched openings cut through the walls near the inner ends for exhausting or gas filling operations, are inserted through the holes in the outer glass tube 9 (see Fig. 16 to Fig. 18 for detail); the ends of a coiled electric lamp filament |20 being inserted into the ends of the hollow metal wires ||1 and |I8, and clamped ory spot-welded together, forming the filament mount Within the tube H9; the filament mount is positioned, and a mass of g/lass fusing material is coated around the hollow' metal Wires lll and I I8, both inside and outside of the tube H9, and then hermetically sealed in place by glass fusion at 2| and |22; two halves of the full-beam refraeting element |23 and |24 (see Fig. 16 to Fig. 18 for detail) being made from heat resisting glass, are

- coated with a thin film of suitable glass fusing glass fusion with the outer glass tube H9 at |25 and |26, enclosing the filament |20; a standard electric lamp miniature screw base |21, with its open end cut horizontally cylindrical to form fit the tube H3, is coated on the inside with a suitable basingQ cement |23 and later heated for cementing together; a formed thin metal clasp |29, having a hole at |30, and a raised groove at I3! affording clearance for the seal at I2I, is placed over the hollow metal wire l1 and tightly wrapped around the tube |I9 with the ends inserted into the base |21 and soldered together at the base rim junction, while the other hollow metal wire ||8 is threaded through the base end eyelet at |32; then the lamp is exhausted to a vacuum or exhausted and filled with an inert gas, at either low or high pressures, up to a safe working pressure, through the hollow metal wires ||1 and H8 which are swaged or flattened and cut off to form the preliminary seals and later the final seals at |33 and |34 are made by soldering the ends air tight as they are soldered to the clasp |29 and the end of the lamp base at |32.

Before proceeding to describe Fig. 10'to Fig. 129, it might be well to rst qualify some of the terms used herein. The terms or phrases which I have particularly in mind are those referred to as the full-beam refracting elements, the polar axis, and the equatorial axis which are described in the following paragraphs.

When light rays are radiated from any light source, each ray propagates in rectilinear movement from such light source until it is stopped by absorption, reflected, or refracted off from such path. 'I'he integral paths formed by the light rays from a point light source for any interval in space, would diagrammatically constitute a sphere; but as a point is only a theoretical consideration, it resolves then that the light source must occupy space, which when confined to small dimensions, the light ray paths. generate a spheroid in space for such interval.

It is the main object of this invention to devise a means by which all or nearly all of the light rays of such sphere or spheroid shall be gathered into a useful beam, much like lenses or concave mirrors gather only part of the light rays into a beam.

This means by which nearly all light rays of a sphere or spheroid are gathered, I have named and described as the full-beam refracting elements; first, by reason of, that it gathers the light in nearly all directions from a concentrated light source, which is nearly or practically all of the light rays therefrom to form a light beam having a minimum angle of divergence. The losses in some cases being as little as ten percent (10%) of the total light, due to lead-in wire obstructions, uncontrollable surface reflections of the glass elements, and light absorption of the glass. Such small losses are obtained when the light source` is very small in proportion to the glass full-beam refracting elements surounding it. The smaller the light source, the narrower the divergence angle of the light beam'for the same elements surrounding it. When the fullbeam refracting elements are very large, their mass of glass also increases which reduces the light ray intensities by absorption; even the most transparent quartz has a light ray intensity loss by absorption of approximately two percent (2%) for each ten centimeters (10 cm.) of light ray path traveled therein, and for most boro-silicate heat resisting glasses, the loss is approximately thirty percent (30%) for ten centimeters (10 cm.) thickness. Second, by reason of, that the light gathering means is accomplished principally by refraction of Alight rays. In some surfaces, reflection of light rays being accomplished by what is commonly known as total refraction,l like in a ninety degree (90) reflecting prism; when the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle for dense to rare (glass to air) refraction, light rays emerging from such surfaces refracts backy into the glass and obey the laws of reection with practically no intensity loss. I might state here that much dispute has been among physicists regarding this phenomenon as to whether the light rays actually emerge from the refracting (or reiiecting) surface or not and' much theory could be written about the subject; however, research from most experiments about it seem to indicate that each light ray emerges to a distance just less than its own wave length, and is refracted back into the glass. The sine of the critical angle being the numerical reciprocal of the refractive index, for a given wave length and known material. In the full-beam refracting elements, the light rays leaving the light source chamber, are refracted at least once, if the ray is not on the optical center.' The paths of the refracted light rays are shown diagrammatically in. Fig. 130 to Fig. 133, for some of the full-beam refracting elements. In Fig, 10 to Fig. 129 are shown the full-beam refracting elements with some of their adjoining parts, all being made from glass or other suitable material, moulded or otherwise formed around an axis which is explained as follows:

In geometry, it is known that a sphere or spheroid can have three apparent axes which are ninety. degrees (90) apart; for example take the earth, one axis would extend from the north pole to the south pole through the center and is known as the polar axis or true geographical axis of the earth; another theoretical axis would be on the equator extending from the prime meridian to the one-hundred-eighty degree (180) meridian through the center; another theoretical axis would be on the equator extending from the ninety degree (90) west longitude meridian to the ninety degree (90) east longitude meridian through the center; these are the three axes and each one is ninety degrees (90) from either of the others.

In describing Fig. 10 to Fig. 129, only two axes, or two types of construction, each about an axis, are used, which I refer to only for convenience of differentiation, as the polar axis and the equatorial axis respectively. lThese axes are ninety degrees apart similar to the axes in the preceding paragraph. Some refracting elements are constructed around only one axis, while others `are constructed around both axes. These two types of construction will be more apparent after studying the drawings, Fig.` l0 to Fig. 129, 'in comparison with each other.

In Fig. 10 to Fig. 129, the details are generally symmetrical about their center lines, and for convenience, so as not to crowd the numbers, I have shown the numbers designating details of either half indiscriminately, and in only one view.

In Fig. 10 to Fig. 129, each part is shown by three views in third-angle Orthographie projection, a plan or top elevation, a side elevation, and the lower one being a center sectional View.

Referring to Fig. 10 to Fig. 12 collectively which shows enlarged views of the refracting elements and enclosing bowl for a ashlight full-beam electric lamp; having the inner full-beam refracting elements |35 and |36 (see Fig. 103 to Fig. 105 for details) being made from heat resisting glass; an outer refracting prismatic ring element |31 having a cone frustum body, whose flanks form a 90 (approximate) prism light reflecting surface at |38, with a flat surface at |39, and a central hole whose surface at |40 is shaped to a convexlens cross-section, around elements |35 and |36; a glass bowl |4|, and a glass cover |42, are made to just enclose elements |35, |36,

and |31; bowl I4| being a cone frustum bowl,

whose inside flanks at |43 are slightly curved outward so as to be free from contact with the light reflecting surface at |38 except at the top and bottom rims of element |31; bowl |4| having its insidebottom surfaceat |44 embossed to a shallow cone frustum to hold elements |35 and |36; bowl |4| having a cylindrical hub |45 with hole |46 for the glass exhaust tube |41; bowl |4| having a flanged brim at |48 which fits the thin edge or flange at |49 of'cover M2; cover |42 having a crown ring surface at |50 which r is shaped to a convex'lens cross-section, with a circular flat at |5|, and a circular thin edge or flange at |49; cover |42 being at at |52, and having its center surface at |53 embossed to a shallow cone frustum to hold elements |35 and |36; lead-in wire grooves |54 and |55 are formed in hole |46 of bowl |4I. Element |31 is constructed around the polar axis.

Referring to Fig. 13 to Fig. 15 collectively which shows enlarged views of the refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements |59 and |51 being made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at |58; each element |56 or |51 having a semi-cylindrical body, and a light source chamber which is formed by a semi-circular ring surface at |59 shaped to aconvex lens cross-section, with two semi-cone surfaces at |60 and |6| whose flanks are shaped to a convex lens cross-section; each'element |56 or |51 having two semi-cone chambers at |62 and |63 whose flanks form 120 (approximate) prism light reflecting surfaces at |-64 and |65 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber; lead-in wire grooves are formed at, |66, |61, |68, and |69.

Elements |56 and |51 are constructed around the polar axis.

Referring to Fig. 16 to Fig. 18 collectively which shows enlarged views of the refracting elements and connecting tube for a flashlight fullbeam-electric' lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements and |1| being made from heat resisting glass; each element |10 or |1| hav- Y lng a cylindrical body at |12 with one end formed into a convex lens surface at |13, and the'other end cone frustum shaped at |14 with a curve at |15 which approximates a parabolic light reflecting surface at |15 and then curving into a 135"A (approximate) prism light reflecting surface |14 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber; the inner end of each element |10 or |1| lis recessed into a light source chamber which isformed by a cone surface at |18; a glass yconnecting tube |19, with lead-in wire holes at |80 and |8|, is made to just flt over the cylindrical body at |12. Elements |10 and -|1| are constructed around the equatorial axis.

Referring to Fig. 19 to Fig. 2l collectively which show enlarged views of the refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp;

.|16; lead-in wire grooves are formed at |11 and having two half full-beam refracting elements |82 and |83 being ma-de from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at |84; each element |82 or |83 having a semi-cone frustum body whosel flanks form a 90 (approximate) prism-light reflecting surface at |85 with a small semi-cylindrical flat on the large end at |86 and a base attaching semicylindrical hub at |81; each element |82 or |83 having a light source chamber which is formed by a semi-circular ring surface at |88 shaped to a convex lens cross-section, with two semi-cone surfaces at |89 and |90 whose flanks are shaped to a convex lens cross-section; each element |82 or |83 having two semi-cone chambers at |9| and |92 whose flanks form 120 (approximate) prism light reflecting surfaces at |93 and |94 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber; lead-in wire grooves are formed at |95, |96, |91, and |98. Elements |82 and |83 are constructed aroundA the polar axis.

Referring to Fig. 22 to Fig. 24 collectively which show enlarged views of the refracting elements and enclosing tube for a flashlight fullbeam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements |99 and 200 (see Fig. 91 to Fig. 93 for details) beingv made from heat resisting glass; a glass tube 20| with flared anges at 202 and 203, is made to just fit around elements |99 and 200; lead-in wire holes at 204 and 205 are formed in the tube 20|; two plano-convex glass'lenses 206 and 201 having thin edges or flanges at 208 and 209`that-are made to flt the flanges at 202 .and 203 of tube 20| and enclose elements |99 and 200.

Referring to Fig. 25 to Fig. 2'7 collectively which show enlarged views ofthe refracting ele-l ments for .a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 2 |0 and 2|| being made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 2|2; each Velement 2|0 or 2|| having a semi-circular body which is crowned around the outer surface at 2|3 to form the shape of a convex vlens cross-section, and a' base attaching semi-cylindrical hub at 2|4; each element 2|0 or 2|| having two semi-conical chambers whose flanks at 2I5 and 2|6 are conical shaped with curves at 2|1 and 2|8 whose cross-section approximates parabolic light reflecting surfaces at 'M1 and 2|8 and then curving into 135 (approximate) prism light. reflecting surfaces at 2|5 and i 2|6 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber, and shaped to a shallow cone at 2|9 and 220;- each element 210 and 2|| having a semi-circular light source chamber which is formed by semi-circular double cone surfaces at 22| and 222; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 223, 2244, 225, and 226.V Elements 2|0 and 2|| are constructed around thepolar axis.

Referring tov Fig. 28 to Fig. 30 collectively which show emarged views of the refracting elements for `a flashlight full-beamA electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 221 and 228 being made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 229; each element 221 or 228 having a body" which is flat on one face 230 and semicylindrical von the opposite side therefrom at 23|, with the end at 232 made semi-cylindrical and mitered to form a (approximate) prism light reflecting surface at 233; each element 221 or 228 having a base attaching semi-cylindrical hub at 234; each element 221 or 228 having its center of the light source chamber, and tapering to a cone frustum at 238; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 239, 240, 24|, and 242. The light source chamber and the semi-cylindrical body at 23| is constructed around the equatorial axis, while the semi-cylindrical end at 232' is constructed parallel to the polar axis which passes through the center of the hub 234.

Referring to Fig. 3l to Fig. 33 Icollectively which show enlarged views of the refracting elements and connecting plates for a flashlight fullbea'm electric lamp; having the inner full-beam refracting element 243 (see Fig. 43 to Fig. 45 for details), and four quarter full-beam refracting elements 244, 245, 246, and 241, all being made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 248 and 249; each element 244, 245, 246, or 241 having a quadrant cylindrical body with upper and lower parallel fiat rims at 250 and 25|, and tapering inward to quadrant cones whose flanks form 120 (approximate) prism light reflecting surfaces at 252 and 253 for light rays radiating from the center of` the light source chamber within element 243; each element 244, 245, 246, or 241 having a quadrant spherical chamber at 254 enclosing element 243; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 255 and 256; two glass circular connecting plates 251 and 258 fitting the elements 244, 245, 246, and 241 on their respective rims at 250 and 25|; leadin wire holes at 259 and 260 are formed in the lower plate 258. Elements 244, 245, 246, and 241 are constructed around the polar axis.

Referring to Fig. 34 to Fig'. 36'collectively which show enlarged views of the refracting elements and enclosing cup for a ashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refractingy elements 26| and 262 (see Fig. 124 to Fig. 126 for similar detail) being made from heat resisting glass; a cylindrical glass cup 263 with a fiared brim at 264, is made to just fit over elements 26| and 262; an outer glass flange 265 having a shallow cylindrical cup at 266, and a hub at 261 with a hole at 268 for the glass exhausttube 269, is fitted into the end of cup 263 with the ange at 265 fitting the cup brim at 264 and enclosing elements 26| and 262; lead-in wire grooves at 210 and 21| are formed flange 265.

Referring to Fig. 37 to Fig. 39 colltively which show enlarged views of the refracting elements and connecting tube for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 212 and 213 being made from heat resisting glass; each element 21,2 or 213 having a cylindrical body at 214, tapering into a cone frustum whose flanks form a 120 (approximate) prism light reflecting surface at 215 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber; the inner end of each element 212 or 213 is recessed into a light source chamber with a. small convex lens surface at 216 and a cone frustum at 211 whose anks are shaped to a convex lens cross-section; lead-in Wire grooves are formed at 218 and 219; a glass connecting tube 280 with lead-in wire holes at 28| and 282, is made -to just fit over the cylindrical body at 214.

in hole 268 of the outer Elements 212 and 213 are constructed around the equatorial axis.

Referring to Fig. 40 to Fig. 42 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lampi having two half full-beam refracting elements 283 and 284', each being an hemisphere made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 285; each element 283 or 284 having a light source chamber which is formed by a semi-circular ring surface at 286 shaped to a convex lens cross-section, with two semi-cone surfaces at 281 and 288 whose flanks are shaped to a convex lens cross-section; leadin wire grooves are formed at 289 and 290. Elements 283 and 284 are constructed around the polar axis.

Referring to Fig, 43 to Fig. 45 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 29| and 292 being made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 293; each element 29| or 292 having an outer semi-circular ring surface at 294 shaped to a convex lenscros's-section, with two outer semi-cone surfaces at 295 and 296 whose flanks are shaped to a convex lens cross-section; each element 29| or 292 havinga light source chamber which is formed by a semi-circular ring surface at 291 shaped to a convex lens cross-section, with two semi-cone lsurfaces at 296 and 299 whose flanks are shaped to a convex lens cross-section; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 300 and 30|.

Elements 29| and 292 are constructed around the polar axis.

Referring to Fig. 46 to Fig. 48 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 302 and 303 being made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 304; each 'element 302 or 303 having an outer semi-circular ring surface at 305 shaped to a convex lens cross-section, with two outer semi-cone surfaces at 306 and 301 whose flanks are shaped to a convex lens cross-section; each element 302 or 303 having an hemispherical light source chamber at 308; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 309 and 3I0. Elements 302 and 303 are constructed around the polar axis.

Referring to Fig. 49 to Fig. 51 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 3|| and 3|2 being made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 3|3; each element 3|| or 3|2 having an outer semi-circular ring surface at 3|4 shaped to a convex lens cross-section, with two outer semi-cone surfaces at 3|3 and 316 whose flanks are shaped to a convex lens cross-section; each element 3| or 3|2 having a light source chamber which is formed by a semi-cylindrical surface at 3|1, with two semi-cone surfaces at 3|8 and 3|9; lead-in wire grooves are formed at V320 and 32|. Elements 3|| and 3|2 are constructed around the polar axis.

Referring to Fig. 52 to Fig. 54 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 322 and 323 each being an hemisphere made from heat resisting gls and fitting together on their center line `function surfaces at 324: each element 322 or 323 having a light source chamber which is formed by a semi-cylindrical surface at 325,` with two semi-cone surfaces at 326 and 321;

lead-in wire grooves are formed at 328 and 329. Elements 322 and 323 are constructed around the polar axis. I

Referring to Fig. 55 to Fig, 57 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 330 and 33| being made from heat resisting glass and ttingl together on their center line junction surfaces at 332; each element 330 or 33| having an outer semi-cylindrical surface at 333 with two outer semi-cone surfaces at 334 and 335; each element 339 or 33| having a light source chamber which is formed by a semi-circular ring surface at 336 shaped to a convex lens cross-section, with two semi-cone surfacesfat 331 and' 338 whose flanks are yshaped toa convex lens cross-section; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 339 and 340. Elements 330 and 33| are constructed around the polar axis.

Referring to Fig. 58 to Fig. 60 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half .full-beam refracting elements 34| and 342 Veach being an hemisphere made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 343; each element 34| or 342 having a light source chamber which is formed by a cone surface at 344; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 345 and 346. Elements 34| and 342 are constructed around the equatorial axis. a

Referring to Fig. 61 to Fig. 63 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a ashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full--beam refracting elements 341 and 348 each being an hemisphere made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 349; each element 341 or 348 having a light source chamber which is formed by a cone surface at 359 whose flanks are shaped to convex lens crosssection; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 35| and 352. Elements 341 and 348 are constructed around the equatorial axis. y

Referring to Fig. 64 to Fig. 66 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting e1ements for a flashlight full-beam electric4 lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 353 and 354 each being a cone made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 355; each element V353 or 354 having a light source chamber which isv an outer cone surface at 362 whose flanks are shaped to a convex lens cross-section; each ele- `ment 359 or 360 having a light source chamber which is formed by a cone surface at 363 whose flanks are shaped to a convex lens cross-section;

lead-in wire grooves are formed at 364 and 365.

Elements 359 and 369 are lconstructed around the equatorial axis.

Referring to Fig. 70 to Fig. 72 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting4 elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 366 and 361 each being a semi-cylinder made from heat resisting. glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 368; each element 366 or 361 having both ends formed into semi-cone surfaces at 369 and 310 whose flanks are shaped to a convex lens cross-section (surfaces 369 and 310 appear in the illustration to be almost spherical; however if they were made with longer radii, then their cone shape would be more apparent) each element 366 or 361 having a light source chamber which is formed by a semi-circular ring surface at 31| shaped to a convex lens cross-section, with two semi-cone surfaces at 312 and 313; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 314 and `315. Elements 366 and 361 are constructed around the polar axis.

Referring to Fig. .73 to Fig. '15 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 316 and 311 each being a semi-spheroid made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 318; each element 316 or 311 having a light source chamber which is formed by a semi-elliptical ring surface at 319 shaped to a convex lens cross-section, with two semi-conoid surfaces at 380 and 38| whose flanks are shaped to a convex lens cross-section; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 382 and 383.

Elements 316 and 311 are constructed around the 384 and 385 being made from-heat resistingglass;

each element 384 or 385 having a conicalbody which is formed into a cone frustum whose anks form a 12.0 (approximate) prism light reflecting surface at 386 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber; each element '384er 385 having its large end formed into a convex lens surface at 381, and the small end recessed into a light source chamber which is formed into a small convex lens surface at 388, with the other inner surfaces at 389 formed into a cone frustum whose flanks are shaped to a con- Vex'lens cross-section; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 398 and 39|. Elements 384 and 385 are constructed around the equatorial axis.

Referring to Fig. '19 to Fig. 8l collectively vwhich show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp;

having two half full-beam refracting elements 392 and 393 being made from heat resisting glass; each element 392 or 393 having a conical body which ls formed into a cone frustum whose fianks form a (approximate) prism light reflecting surface at 394 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber; each element 392 or 393 having its large end formed into a convex lens surface at 395, and the small end recessed into a light source chamber which `is formed by cone frustum surfaces at 396 and 391; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 398 and 399.v Elements 392 and 393 are constructed around the equatorial axis'.

- Referring to Fig. 82 to Fig, 84 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two `half full-beam refracting elements 400 and 40| being made from heat resisting glass; each element 400 or 40| having a conical body which is formed into a cone frustum at 402 with a curve at 403 which approximates a parabolic light reflecting surface at 403 and then curving into a 135 (approximate) prism light reflecting surface at 402 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber; each element 400 or 40| having its large end formed into a convex lens surface at 404 and the small end recessed into a light. source chamber Whichis formed by a cone surface at 405; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 406 and 401. Elements 400 and 40| are constructed around the equatorial axis.

Referring to Fig. 85 to Fig. 87 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp;

y having two half full-beam refracting elements end recessed into a light source chamber which is formed into a small convex lens surface at 4|2,

with the other inner surfaces at 4|3 formed into a cone frustum; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 4|4 and 4|5. Elements 408 and 409 are constructed around the equatorial axis.

Referring to Fig. 88 to Fig. 90 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 4|6 and 4| 1 being made from heat resisting glass; each element 4|6 or 4| 1 having a conical body which is formed into a cone frustum whose flanks form a 120 (approximate) prism light reflecting surface at 4|8 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber; each element 4|6 or 4|1 having its large end formed into a convex lens surface at 4|9, and the small end recessed into a light source chamber which has a small circular flat surface at 420, with the other inner surfaces at 42| formed into a cone frustum whose flanks are shaped to a convex lens crosssection; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 422 and 423.- Elements 4|6 and 4|1 are constructed around the equatorial axis.

Referring to Fig. 91 to Fig. 93 collectively which s how enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp;

having two half full-beam refracting elements 424 and 425 being made from heat resisting glass; each element 424 or 425 having a conical body which is formed into a cone frustum at 42'6 with a curve lat 421 which approximates-a parabolic light reflecting surface at 421 and then curving into a 135 (approximate) prism light reflecting surface at 426 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber; each element 424 or 425 having its large end formed into a convex lens surface at 428, and the small end recessed into a light source chamber which is formed CII by a cone surface at 429 whose flanks are shaped to a convex lens cross-section; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 430 and 43|. Elements 424 and 425 are constructed around the equatorial axis.

Referring to Fig. 94 to Fig. 96 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements lfor a flashlighty full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 432 and433 being made from heat resisting glass; each element 432 or 433 having a conical body which is formed into a cone frustum Whose flanks form a 120 (approximate) prism light reflecting surface at 434 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber; each element 432 or 433 having its large end formed into a prismatic lens with two circular refracting surfaces at 435 and 436 respectively, and the small end recessed into a light source chamber which has a small circular flat surface at 431, with the other inner surfaces at 438 formed into a cone `frustum whose flanks are shaped to a convex lens cross-section; lead-in wire grooves arevformed at 439 and 440. `Elements 432 and 433 are constructed around the equatorial axis.

Referring to Fig. 97 to Fig. 99 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp;l

having two half full-beam refracting elements 44| and 442 being made from heat resisting glass; each element 44| or 442 having a cone frustum body whose flanks form an approximate parabolic light reflecting surface at 443 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber, being an hemisphere at 444; each element 44| or 442 having its outer end recessed with a cone frustum surface at 445 and further recessed at 446 to provide for a lens surface at 441; leadin wire grooves are formed at 448 and 449. Elements 44| and 442 are constructed around the equatorial axis.

Referring to Fig, 100 to Fig. 102 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 450 and 45| being made from heat resist.- ing glass; each element 450 or 45| having a cone frustum body whose flanks form an approximate parabolic light reflecting surface at 452 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber, being an hemi-spherold (or any other suitable shape) at 453; each element 450 or 45| having its outer end recessed with a. cone frustum surface at 454 and further recessed at 455 to provide for a prismatic lens with two circular refracting surfaces at 456 and 451 respectively; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 458 and 459.

Elements 450 and 45| are constructed around the lamp; having two half full-'beam refracting elements 460 and 46| being made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 462 each element 480 or 49| having a semi-circular body with ends recessed into semi-'cones Whosev flanks form 120 (approximate) prism light reflecting surfaces at 463 and 404 for light rays radiating from the center of the light 'source chamber; each element 460 or 46| being crowned around its outer surface at 465 to form the shape of a convex lens crosssection; each element 460 or 46| having a light source chamber which is formed by a semi-cirn ing glass and fitting together on their center line cular ring surface at 408 shaped to a convex lens cross-section, with two semi-cone surfaces at 461 and 468 whose flanks are shaped to a convex lens cross-section; lead-in lwire grooves are formed at 469 and 410. Elements 460 and 46| are constructed around the polar axis.

Referring to Fig. 106 to Fig. 108 collectively which showvv enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a. flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beamrefracting elements 41| and 412 being made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfa'cesat 413; each element 41| or 412 having a semi-circular body with ends recessed into semi-cones whose flanks form 120 (approximate) prism light reflecting surfaces at 414 and 415 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber; each element 41| or 412 being crowned around its outer sur-` face at 416 to form the shape of a convex lensA which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 482 and 483 being made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 484; each element 482 or 483 having a semi-circular body with ends recessed into semi-cones, whose flanks formsemicone surfaces at 485 and 486 with curves at 481 and 480 which approximates parabolic light reflecting surfaces at 481 and 488 and then curving into 135 (approximate) prism light reflecting surfaces at 485 and 468 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber; each element 482 `or 483 being crowned around its outer surface at 489 to form the shape of a convex lens` cross-section; each element 482. or 488 having a light source chamber which is formed by two semi-cone surfaces at 480 and 49|;

lead-in wire grooves are formed at 492 and 493. Elements 482 and 483 are constructed around the polar axis.

Referring to Fig. 112 to Fig. 114 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a. fiashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 494 and 495 being made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 498; eacli element 494 or junction surfaces at 501; each element 505 or 506 having a semi-circular body with ends recessed into semi-cones whose flanks form 120 (approximate) Iprism light reflecting surfaces at 508 and 509 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber; each element 505 or 508 being crowned around its outer surface at 5|0 to form the shape of a convex lens crosssection; each element 505 or 506 having a light source chamber which is formed by a semi-cylinder surface at 5| with two semi-cone surfaces at 5|2l and 5|3 whose flanks are shaped to a convex lens cross-section; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 5|4 and 5|5. Elements 505 and 506 are constructed around the polar axis.

Referring to Fig. 118 to Fig. 120 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a fiashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 5|6 and 5|1 being made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 5|8; each element 5|6 or 5|1 having a semi-circular body with ends recessed into semi-cones, whose flanks form semi-cone surfaces at 5|9 and 520 with curves at 52| and '522, which approximates parabolic light reflecting surfaces at 52| and 522 and then curving into 135 (approximate) prism light renecting surfaces at 5|9 and 520 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber; each element 5 B or 5| 1 being crowned around its outer surface at 523 to form the shape of a convex lens cross-section; each element 5|6 or 5|1 having a light source chamber which is formed by two semi-cone surfaces at 524 and 525 whose flanks are shaped to a convexm lens cross-section; lead-in Wire grooves are formed at 526 and 521. Elements 5|6 and 5|1 are constructed around the polar axis.

Referring to Fig. 121 to Fig. 123 collectively which show enlarged Viewsy of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements528 and 529 beingmade from heat resisting glass andk fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 530; each element 528 or 529 having a semi-circular body with ends 495 having a senil-circular body with ends recessed into semi-cones whose flanks form 120 (approximate) prism light reflecting surfaces at 491 and 488 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber; each element 494 or 495 being crowned around its outer surface at 499 to form the shape of a convex lens cross-section; each element 494 or 495 having a light source chamber which is formed by a semicircular ring surface at 500 shaped to a convex lens cross-section, with two semi-cone surfaces at 50| and 502; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 503 and 504. Elements 494 and 495 are constructed around the polar axis.

Referring to Fig. 115 to Fig. 11'1 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 505 and 508 being made from heat resistrecessed into semi-cones whose flanks form (approximate) prism light reflecting surfaces at 53|`and 532 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber; each element 528 or 529 having its outside furrowed into semi-circular grooves, which has the cross-sectional shape of a prismatic lens, with light refracting surfaces at 533, 534, and 535; each element 528 or 529 having a light source chamber which is formed by a semi-cylinder surface at 536, with two semi-cone surfaces at 531 and 538 whose flanks are shaped to a convex lens crossvsection; lead-in wire grooves are formed atv 539 and 540. Elements 528 and 529are constructed around the polar axis. i l

Referring to Fig. 124 to Fig. 126 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beamrefracting elements 54| and 542 being made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line `iunction surfaces at 543; each element 54| or 542 having a semi-circular body with ends recessed into semi-cones whose anks form approximate parabolic light refiecting surfaces at 544 an'd 545for light rays radiating from the Center 0f the light source chamber, being an hemisphere at 5135; each element M or 5112 having its outside formedrinto semi-cone frustum surfaces at 561 and 553, and furrowed at 549 and 550 to provide for the semi-circular crowned surface at 551 formed to a convex lens cross-section; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 552 and 553. Elements 551 Vand 552 are constructed around the polar axis.

Referring to Fig. 127 to Fig. 129 collectively which show enlarged views of the inner refracting elements for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having two half full-beam refracting elements 5511 and 555 being made from heat resisting glass and fitting together on their center line junction surfaces at 555; each element 554i or 555 having a semi-circular body with ends recessed into semi-cones whose fianks form approximate parabolic iight reflecting surfaces at 551 and 5,53 for light rays radiating from the center of the light source chamber, being an hemi-spheroid. (or any other suitable shape) at 559; each element 555 or 555 having its outside formed into semicone frustum surfaces at 565 and 551, and furrowed at 552 and 553 to provide for semi-circular grooves which have the cross-sectional shape of a prismatic lens with light refracting surfaces at 561i, 555, and 555; lead-in wire grooves are formed at 551 and Elements 555 and 555 are constructed around the polar axis.

Before proceeding to describe Fig. 130 to Fig. 133, it might be well to state that these illustrations represent only two sets of diagrams` with Fig. 130 and Fig. 131 as one set; Fig. 132 and Fig. 133 as the other set. Each set of diagrams are for the same light source and full-beam refracting elements, which have the same identifying numbers in both diagrams. The difference between diagrams, of each set, being the lightray lines, which are shown separately in two diagrams, rather than superimposed .upon one another in one diagram, thereby avoiding graphic confusion.

In Fig. 130 to Fig. 133, when drawing the lightray lines in each diagram, the refractive index of one and six-tenths (1.6) was used. This refractive index approximates a sodium D-ray (5893. Angstroms) in medium silicate flint glass. This refractive index would make a critical angle of thirty-eight degreesY and forty-two minutes (3842) for glass to air refraction, and'any light-ray whose angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle, would be refracted back into the glass like reflection on a back surfaced mirror (a common looking glass) however inasmuch as all reflecting surfaces can be mirror coated, the critical angle limits can be disregarded in these diagrams.

While Fig. 130I to Fig. 133, together with diagrams referred to inthe preceding paragraph, do not show all of the full-beam refracting elements described herein, yet they present a fair average of them, and by studying these diagrams with the full-beam refracting elements that they represent, comparable diagrams for the other refracting elements can be easily approximated. By keeping in mind that each arrowed line in the diagrams represents the approximate path of a light-ray, and that other light-rays approximately parallel to these lines are also propagated with them, then these diagrams become more or less self explanatory. v

Referring to Fig. 130 and Fig. 131, which are enlarged diagrammatic 'views showing the light propagation within a full-beam refracting element for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp;

having the full-beam refracting elements 559 and 510 (similar to element 46 in Fig. 4) enclosing the light source 511. In Fig. the light-rays are shown by arrowed lines 512 (several dozen shown) radiating from tangent surface points of the light source 511. in Fig. 131 the light-rays are shown by arrowed lines 513 (several dozen shown) radiating from surface points at the center of the light source 511. lines 512 illustrates the propagation of light-rays radiating from points on one extreme edge of the light source 511 in clockwise fashion, and when viewed within a mirror, they appear from the other extreme edge in counter-*clockwise fashion; while lines 513 illustrate light-rays from the center or half way between these two extremes; then it is obvious that light-rays from any other point on the light source 51, would propagate on lines somewhere between lines 512 and 513. Light radiating from the light source 511 emerges from elements 555 and 511i in a circular beam resembling adouble concave disk, which can be focused together into a'single conical beam with a parabolic reiiector as shown in Fig. l, thereby gathering the light from a light source in nearly all directions therefrom and focusing it into a single concentrated light beam.

Referring to Fig. 132 and Fig. 133, which are.

enlarged diagrammatic views showing the light propagation within a full-beam refracting element for a flashlight full-beam electric lamp; having the full-beam refracting elements 5143 and 515 (similar to elements i?! and 32 in Fig. 6) enclosing the light source 516. In Fig. 132 the light-rays are shown by arrowed lines 511 (several dozen shown) radiating from tangent surface points of the light source 515. In Fig. 133 the light-rays are shown by arrowed linesVV 513 (several dozen shown) radiating from surface points at the center of the light source 515. Lines 511 illustrate the propagation of light-rays radiating from points on one extreme edge of the light source 51S in clockwise fashion, and when viewed within amirror, they appear from the other extreme edge in counter-clockwise fashion; while lines 518 illustrate light-rays from the center or half way between these two extremes; then it is obvious that light-rays from any other point on the light source 51.6, would propagate on lines somewhere between lines 511 and 518. Light radiating from the light source 516 emerges from elements 514 and 515 in two opposing conical beams, which can be brought together into a single conical beam with a parabolic reiiector as shown in Fig. 1, thereby gathering the light from a light source in nearly all directions therefrom and focusing it into a single concentrated light beam.

It would be a tremendous task to show by drawings, all of the possible combinations to make full-beam refracting elements which are basicly illustrated in this invention together with my copending applications Serial Numbers 480,- 420; 480,421; 480,422; 480,423 and 480,424; however the elements would be all primarily based around the construction of the light source chamber in combination with other refracting (or reflecting) surfaces used integrally therewith. The designs of the light source chamber surfaces would start with two opposing cone surfaces like shown in Fig. 84 and would end with a sphere or spheroid, as shown in Fig. 99er Fig. 102. Starting in with Fig. 84, there are four (4) line surfaces or cusps shown at 405 in the cross-sec-

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Classifications
U.S. Classification313/110, 313/114, 313/30, 313/315
International ClassificationH01K1/28, H01K7/00, H01K1/30
Cooperative ClassificationH01K1/30, H01K7/00
European ClassificationH01K1/30, H01K7/00