US 2364656 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
O. l. PRICE lulscm'nc` AcTUA'ron Filed' Oct. 23. 1941 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 @nnss-/fvsfnr aaopeni afee!! 4/ 43d 55e n MT w la. 6.1 w W m A .A E. a .ow 7:21 L... w ,Enc EEC a X/4 L! 5 my application Serfal- No.
.under control of for centering a controlling the -videa construction of Planea Dec. 1i,`- 1944 UNITED STAI oszegryama rmerrca immune V..
Innenrume n" Md.. a oufrporav Application October-2S, 1941, Serial No. 416,288
i 1.2 Claims. (Cl.l75336) My-inventionrelates broadly-to magnetic actuators 4and more particularly to a magnetic actuator ha a. high degree ofrturnin'g torque for relatively low applied' actuating current.
This application is a continuation-impart of 392,166, tiled May, 1941, for Magnetic actuator.
Qne of the oblectsoi a construction` oi.' magnetic .actuator which may be inexpensively manufactured on a quantity production basis and which may be depended upon to produce high turning torque under con. trol ofrelatively low actuating current.
Still another object of my invention is to provide a construction compact -size having high electrical emciency and which develope relatively high turning torque relatively low applied operating current while substantially eliminating development oi' end thrust on the rotatable armature.
A further object of my invention isA to provide a construction of a magnetic winding with magnetic operating faces formed adjacent opposite faces in magnetic plates supported at ends of the magnetic actuator whereby turning torque may be produced under4 control of relatively low applied actuating current.
Anotherffobiect oi' my invention is to provide an arrangement oi magnetic plate members fori 'if of magnetic actuator of small l pairs of faces thereon my invention is to provide ing a ile'ld magnet and'a rotatable armature wherein the rotatablearmature is provided'with coacting with pole pieces forming part of the magnetic actuator where the faces and pole pieces are so formed as to continuously reduce the magnetic reluctance of the magnetic path as the device is actuated, thereby causing rotation of the amature. l
' Other and further objects of my invention reside in the construction of rotatable armature and 'arrangement oi' actuating magnetic pole pieces therefor as set forth more fully in the speciilc'ation hereinafter following by reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 111s a side elevational view oi' the-magnetic actuator of my invention; Fig'. 2 is a top Dian view of the magnetic actuator embodying magnetic actuator having means rotatablerarmature for rotary 7 is a perspective view opposite .en'ds of a magnetic actuator employing anelectr rfagnetic .operating winding and arotatableagaturejournalied with respect thereto in which the rotatable: armature is providedvvith pairs of magnetically cam-shaped faces adjacent magnetically cani-shapedv internal faces on 'the magnetic plates' adjacent lopposite ends of the actuator and lin which non-magnetic inserts' are arranged. having limiting abutiiients thereon tor angular-movement of the actuator.
Stiil'=,anotheii `ohieotof my invention is to pro.
magnetic actuator includma'g'netic actuator wherein s opposite ends vof -theai'maturdooacting v'vith my invention; Fig. 3 is a horizontal sectional view taken on line 3 3 of Fig.'1: Fig. 4 is a horizontal sectional view taken on line 4 4 oi' Fig. 1; Fig. 5
lis a transverse sectional 'view through the magnetic actuator taken on line 5 5 of Fig. 2, the armature being illustrated in side elevation; Fig. 6 is a perspective view of one ofthe laminations constituting the magnetic plates forming the pole faces adjacent opposite ends of the armature; Fig. of the magnetic armature; Fig. 8 is a plan view of a typical magnetic plate showing the arrangement of pole 'faces thereon and illustrating the relationship of the movable armature and the 'spiral faces thereof withrespect to the operatingiaces of the magnetic plate and showing the arrangement o'f the `non-inagnetic inserts in the magnetic plate; Fig. 9 isa schematic view of the electrical circuit through the operating winding of the magnetic actuator; andFig. l0 -shows a modiiled form of magnetic actuator embodying my invention in which an operating member extends froml device in any selected position.
My invention is directed are utilized for effecting rotary movement of the armature. There v are noV appreciable thrust forces. The magnetic is the result yof extended investigation, research and development.` I n experimenting with variousy constructions of'm'agnetic devices, I discovered that with `-al magnetic actuating member on one end only ofthe the thrust vencoun tered in the neutral 'position (that is, a position ofthe armature where it would neither move clockwise norlcounterclockwise) the energy necessary to overcome'the end thrustof each end ofthe device, thereby 'facilitating the mounting of the to a construction of all available forces actuator oi' my invention the armature V illustrated in Figs. 6 and 8 'ing and align the laminations.
II has a shirt I Ia extending from the peripheral ltures indicated at faces are carried by the armature adjacent opposite ends thereof. The magnetic plate members through which the faces of the armature extend are shaped to coact with the faces on the amature. The external faces on the armature and the internal faces on the plate members are so formed as to continuously reduce the magnetic reluctance of the magnetic path through the armature as the armature is angularly shifted. That is to say, the coacting faces are so formed that they coact to continuously reduce the magnetic reluctance of the magnetic path therethrough so as to produce rotary movement. The faces of the armature are composite in contour including radially extending faces and curved faces that coact with faces on the plate members to reduce the magnetic reluctance of the magnetic circuit to produce rotary motion.
Referring to'the drawings in detail, reference characters I, 2 and 3 designate laminated magnetic plate stampings which are stacked upon each other to form one ofthe pole pieces of the magnetic actuator. Reference characters l, 5
and 8 represent similar magnetic plate stampings which are stacked to form the opposite end ofthe magnetic actuator. A pair of magnetic end frame members 1' and 8 are arranged between the sets of stacked plates. The plates are normally aligned with respect tc the end frame members 1 and 8 by means of dowelpins indicated generally at 9 and Il in Figs. 2 and 3 which project through for example, at Ia and Ib in the plate member -in the end plates and into the end frame members 1 and 8. To insure the'precision assembly of the magnetic actuator bearings for the angular movement of the rotary member, I provide stamped en'd plates of non-magnetic material represented at II and I2. These end plates are preferably formed of phosphor bronze and-are each provided with sklrted edge portions at opposite ends adapted to extend over at least one thickness of the stacked magnetic plates and form a confinpositioning means therefor and serve to For example. end plate skirt I Ib extendplate I2 skirt 12b extending plate II and through the aligned apertures indicated, for example, at Ic and Id in the magnetic plates I, 2 and-I, and into screw threaded aper- Il in the magnetic end frame members 1 and l.' End plate II is provided with a circular outstruck projection Il from which the inwardly directed annular sleeve bearing portion I1 extends. The end plate I2 has a similar outstruck circular portion II with which there is integrally formed the inwardly extending annular sleeve bearing portion I i. A mounting platev magnetic actuator adjacent each A aligned apertures as represented.l r
screws Il extend throughl 20 is provided for supporting the magnetic actuator. The mounting plate 20 is centrally apertured at 2l for receiving the outstruck circular portion IB of the end plate I2. The mounting plate 20 is apertured at 22 foi` the passage of the flat headed screws 23 which extend through aligned apertures in the stacked plates 4, 5 and t and into'the magnetic end frame members 1 and 8 as indicated at 24. The mounting plate 20 may be secured in any desired position by means oa lug 25 and the apertures 2G in the mounting p te.
The actuating winding for the magnetic actuator is formed by a pair of windings21 and 28 schematically shown in Fig. 9 and illustrated in Figs. 1, 4, 5 and 10 as wound upon the coil support form 29. To facilitate maintaining the p0- sition of the windings, I provide circular end plate centering members and 3i, which include inturned annular sleeve-like end portions 30a and lla which extend toward each other and provide bearings for the angularly shiftable armature indicated generally at 32,. The end plate centering members l0 and 3| are each formed from non-magnetic material such as brass and serve as supporting means for the coil form 2l and windings 21 and 2l thereon.
The windings are so connected that current is normally supplied to winding 4,21 from current supply circuit indicated at 33|, through contactor 34 whic The current in the starting this winding and which carries switching means including the contactoru which when opened causes the excitation of winding 2l which is 'a high resistance holding winding. Windings 21 and 2l thus coact to impart angular movement to armature 32 and to hold armature 32 in its shifted position.
The angularly shiftable armature or rotor 32 is shown more clearlyV in perspective view in Fig. 'I
be observed that sets of caxnfrom which it will shaped faces 3S and are provided adjacent opposite ends of the rotor. Each set of cam-shaped faces is composite in contour and includes radially extending faces 35a and 35b'and face 35! for the set of cam-shaped faces 35 and corresponding radially extending faces 36a and lib and face Iii for the cam-shaped faces 36 of the armature, as shown in Fig. 5. Theradially extending faces are connected at their outer extremities with the curved cam-shaped faces which I have indicated, for example, in Fig. 8 as 25e and 35d. The curved cam-shaped faces terminate in chordal faces lle and 35j which connect with parallel extending faces 35a and 35h respectively. Both ends of the angularly shiftable armature are symmetrically constructed and the shaped pole faces as explained coact with the sets of pole faces formed by the magnetic laminations constituted by magnetic plates I, 2, l3, and I, 5, l.
These stacks of magnetic plates are apertured to permit the passage of the shaped magnetic faces at each end of the amature. 'Ehe magnetic plates have correspondingly shaped apertures which provide pole faces coacting with the magnetic faces on the angularly shiftable armature. Each of the magnetic plates includes curved portions which I have represented at l1 and Il and angularly extending portions 3l and Il. The angularly extending portions Il and Il are paralsubstantially chordal with respect to the cylindrical body portion o! the armature 32. The laminated platesare cut out on oppositesides of the center thereof along ases-,cse 3 angular lines indicated at 4l and I2 and within A changes in these proportions and angular relathese cut out portions I provide non-magnetic v tionships maybemadeand that therearenoliminserts formed 'from any suitable material such itations intended by the illustrative proportions as brassandindicafed at and u. These non( siven in 8. The magnetic plate and the magnetic inserts .I3 and u constitute limiting 5 armature have been shown in enlarged, view in stops for the angular movement of the armature. order to properly illustrate the essentil details 'I'hatis`tcsay,the nonmagneticinsert I Ihas a thereof. It will be understood that the cy1inface 43a extendingin a plane substantially paraldrical portion I2 oi' the armature has the end por, e iel to'diametrical lines through the actuator, with tions thereof adequately clearing the stacked end a face IIb extending tiaily parallel to the 1 0 plates I, 2, 3, and l, 5, I,-`so that the armature transverse'axis of the magnetic plate interconmay angularly shift with respect thereto.
nectedby a tace llc which isch-set from the face It will be understood that the magnetic frame Il but which extends in a plane parallel thereto. of the magnetic actuator while shown closely The non-magnetic insert u has a correspondingly conforming with the shape of the actuating windarranged set of faces, that is, al face a sbstan- 15 ings 2l-28 may have other conilgurations a1- tially parallel with the face 43a, a face 'Mb subthough the shape shown has been found to be stantially parallel to the face lib, and the face particularly effective. The importantv feature c substantially parallel to the face llc. In each and aspect of my invention is the shaping of the instance these faces of the non-magnetic inserts magnetic faces of. the rotor and the magnetic coact with the cam-shaped faces of the rotor. 80 faces of the @outing end plates for the reduc- That is to say, the non-magnetic faces b and tion of magnetic reluctance inproducing angularl b constitute'abutments for magnetic faces k35a roduce the same as magnetic faces and Il coaet-with magnetic result and does not necessarily heveto be eem mees f and e m movement 0f 25. shaped as applied in mechanics. The rotor 'may ht f erall in `e n. The external faces licandlld on thearmachemce Them ug o gen y m ture Bre S0 Shped with respect t0 th internal 3 beo designed that they will produce the effect faces n and n on the magnetic plete members of cams, or will reduce magnetic reluctance and i' path through the armature is continuously reyet may'not have the appearance o cams- While I have described my inventioneln certain am preferred embodiments, I desire thatit be un- Y A "keine mm3 member u is looped wund 3edel-stood that -modincations may be madeand the 4armature and'is fastened at the end a -thet no limitations upon my inventionjere im thereof in a socket formed in the end' of the tended otherth movement. The rotor can be made in a varie e and #Ib of the set of cam shaped faces 35, where; et different shapes which wm p ty uen m eti and n 'tstnct'l staand :sa with respect to curved faces u and ses?, afge wm be y aces of the magnetic faces may imposedb th armature I! and is fastened at the opposite' end theeppended elnf'ybe y @scope-0! l at b in a socket formed in one ofthe end plates I el d represenA ted at l. The wire-like spring member is 40 Iewhatterstpetemfag'md sm t secure b' for operation beneath the circular outmagri iactuh. rlsin in bi a- -struckproiectionIofendplate,II.-'Ihespring l A etc mmm g com n ends t0 yieldably bias the armature to a position non a' met frame n electromagnetic 3emv v I 45 angularly shiftable armature member journalied fmm'mmetm we u n n' en the v eue with respect to each end of said magnetic frame end plate whereby magnetic excitation of the acand having a centrally disposed magnetic portiriating winding 'i-- eii'ects rotary movement tion locatedwitmn-md electmm o the armature.
u e om and u on ing winding and having pairs of symmetrically is as follows:- v
60 arranged magnetic pole vfaces adjacent each end' msite ends thereof which project into theantheres! extending continuously from a radial nular sleeve beu-ins portions" and Il c! the positions aeurved sun-lace and eonnectingwitn actuator embodying myinvention. The angular having cylindrical ons on opposite end. relationships selected have ptovaivery eifective i .non-magnetic end platem inpracticeandtheproporticnsshownhave-been tosaid endpiatesandprcvidingbm.
- structure in such manner as netic pole faces extending continuously from a radial position adjacent the cylindrical extensions through a curved surface to a plane surface displaced from the axis of the armature and connected with a plane surface extending tangential to the cylindrical extensions adjacent opposite ends of said armature in alignment with the sets of pole faces formed in each of said magnetic end plates, a central magnetic portion of said armature located within said actuating winding, said magnetic armature operating to continuously reduce the reluctance of they magnetic path between said pole faces and said magnetic end plates while ture relative to said journals which coact with the field structure in such manner as to continuously reduce the reluctance of the magnetic circuit causing rotation of the armature through a predetermined limit of travel when the field winding is energized.
4. A magnetic'actuator of compact size comprising an electromagnetic field structure, field pieces for said structure, a rotatable core, bearings for positioning said rotatable core within said eld structure, extended shafts at each end of said rotatable core Journaled in said bearings, faces on the magnetic field structure at each end, symmetrically arranged faces on each end of the core, said faces being continuous and consisting of radial portions extending from said shafts,
curved portions connected therewith. chordal portions displaced in parallel relation on opposite sides of said shafts and tangential portions extending from said shafts normal to said radial portions ofl such contour as to coac't with the faces of the magnetic field structure to continuously reduce the reluctance of the magnetic circuit thereby causing rotary motion of the core through a predetermined limit of travel, and means for taking off power from one end or both ends of the rotatable core.
5. A magnetic actuator of compact size having an electromagnetic field structure, a fleldwinding associated with said field structure, a rotatable armature positioned within said field structure, said armature extending through the field structurel and having composite continuous faces consisting of a curved portion, a chordal portion,
plates, an angularly of the rotatable armature being integrally related and formed from one piece rotatable as a unit, a shaft protruding from one of the ends of the rotatable armature to provide meanslfor taking off power from one of the ends of the amature through a predetermined `limit of travel, the faces on said armature being rpectively radial,
tangential, curved relative to said Shaft, and formed in planes displaced from opposite sides of said shaft and extending parallel to each other.
7. A magnetic actuator comprising in combination a magnetic frame, an electromagnetic actuating winding disposed within said frame and having an axial bore extending therethrough, an angularly shiftable armature member journalled with respect to each end of said magnetic frame and having a centrally disposed magnetic portion located within said electromagnetic actuating winding and having pairs of symmetrically arranged magnetic pole faces coacting with said magnetic frame consisting of composite radial portions, tangential portions, curved portions and parallel extending portions displaced from the axis of said angularly shiftable armature member and shaped to continuously reduce the reluctance of the magnetic circuit through said armature member as said armature is angularly shifted with respect to said magnetic frame.
8. A magnetic actuator comprising in combination a closed magnetic frame having magnetic end plates at each end thereof, sets of pole faces formed in said magnetic end plates, an electromagnetic actuating winding disposed within said frameand having a bore therethrough aligned with the sets of pole faces in said magnetic end shiftable magnetic armature having cylindrical extensions on opposite ends thereof, non-magnetic end plate members sea radial portion and a tangential portion at each end of the armature of such contour as to coact with corresponding mating faces on the field to cause continuous reduction of the magnetic reluctance of the magnetic circuit thereby producing rotary motion through a predetermined limit of travel when the field winding is energized.
6. A magnetic actuator of compact size having an electromagnetic structure, magnetic faces on each end of said electromagnetic structure, a rotatable armature having symmetrically disposed faces at each end thereof coacting with faces of the magnetic structure, the coacting faces 15 cured to said magnetic end .plates and providing bearings for said extensions, pairs of magnetic pole faces adjacent each end of said armature in alignment with the pole faces in said magnetic end plates, the magnetic pole faces on said armature. and the pole faces in said magnetic end plates including coacting curved portions coextensive with coacting portions which extend in spaced parallel relation to each other in both said armature and magnetic end plates and being'so shaped as to continuously reduce the reluctance of the magnetic circuit therethrough as said armature member is shifted with respectto said magnetic frame and means on one of said cylindrical extensions for attaching a device to be angularly shifted by said magnetic actuator.
9. A magnetic actuator comprising in combination a magnetic frame, an electromagnetic actuating winding disposedv within said frame and having an axial bore extending therethrough, an angularly shiftable armature member journalled with respect to each, end of said magnetic frame and having a centrally disposed magnetic portion located within said electromagnetic actuatinl winding and having pairs of'magnetic pole face adjacent each end of said armature member magnetically coupled with each end of said magneti frame, the ends of `said magnetic frame heini formed from laminated sheets and means em bracing the opposite edges of certain of sai sheets for aligning said sheets relative to eac other.
10. A magnetic actuator comprising in combi nation al closed magnetic frame having magneti end plates at each end thereof, sets of pole faoi formed in said magnetic end plates, an electr( magnetic 'actuating winding disposed within n:
aaeacse frame and having a -bore therethrough aligned with .the sets of pole faces in said magnetic end plates, an angularly shiftable magnetic armature having cylindrical 'extensions on opposite ends thereof, non-magnetic end plate members se- ,cured to said magnetic end plates and providingr bearings for lsaid extensions, pairs of magnetic pole faces adjacent each end of said armature in alignment with the sets of pole faces formed in said end plates, said end plates being formed from laminated sheets, the extremities of said non-magnetic end plate members embracing the edges of said laminated sheets for maintaining said sheets in position and means on one of theA cylindrical extensions for attaching a load to be angularly shifted by said magnetic actuator.
11. A magnetic actuator comprising in combiinserts in each of said magnetic end plates constituting abutment stops with respect to the radially extending portions of said magnetic armature for limiting the angular movement of said armature and means on one of said cylindrical extensions for attaching a'device to be angularly nation a closed magnetic frame'having magnetic end plates at each end thereof, sets of pole faces formed in said magnetic end plates, an electromagnetic actuating windingdisposed within said frame and having a bore therethrough aligned A with the sets of 4pole faces in said magnetic end plates. an angularly shiftable magnetic armature having cylindrical extensions on opposite ends thereof, non-magnetic end plate members secured to said magnetic end plates and providing bearings for said extensions, pairs of pole faces adjacent each end of said armature consisting of curved portions and coextensive portions extending in spaced parallel relation, portions extending radial and tangential with respect to the said cylindrical extensions and' normal to each other in coacting alignment with the pole faces in each of said magnetic end plates and non-magnetic shifted by said magnetic actuator.
12. A magnetic actuator comprising in combination a closed magnetic frame having magnetic end plates at each end thereof, sets of pole faces formed in said magnetic end plates, an electromagnetic actuating winding disposed Within said frame and having a bore therethrough aligned with the sets of. pole faces in said magnetic end plates, an angularly shiftable magnetic armature having cylindrical extensions on opposite ends thereof, non-magnetic end plate members secured to said magnetic end plates and providing bearings for said extensions, pairs of pole faces adjacent each end of said armature consisting of curved portions and coextensive portions extending in spaced parallel relation and portions extending radial and tangential with respect to the said cylindrical extensions and normal to each other in coacting alignment with the pole faces in each of said magnetic end plates, angularly shaped non-magnetic inserts on diametrically opposite sides of the central axis of said armature and constituting abutments for the radially extending 'portions of said magnetic armature for limiting the angular movement of said armature and means on one of said cylindrical extensions for attaching a device to be angularly shifted by said magnetic actuator.
` OSBORNE I. PRICE.