US 2365066 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 12, 1944. c FULLEYR I 2,365,066
GUARD FOR SHIPS AND THE LIKE Filed Jan. 16, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet l RAW/6,5021% Dec. 12, 1944. G. c. FULLER 2,365,066
GUARD FOR SHIPS AND THE LIKE Filed Jan. 16, 1942 2 sheets-sheet 2 5|i .7. Jwuoniwn CYFUALE/E,
"33 7' xi J Patented Dec. 12, 1944 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE GUARD FOR SHIPS AND THE LIKE Grady C. Fuller, Houston, Tex. Application January 16, 1942, Serial No. 426,971v
' 4 Claims. (01. 114-440) This invention relates to guard for ships and the like.
An object of the invention is to provide a guard of the character described which is adapt-' able for protecting water craft such as battleships, transports, destroyers. or merchant vessels while in route or in port.
Another object of the invention is to provide a guard of the character described which is specially designed for protecting water craft against torpedoes and which will be effective to destroy a torpedo intercepted by the guard.
Another object of the invention is to provide a guard of the character described which may be arranged to shield a vessel moving through the water or to shield and protect a vessel at the dock in port.
The protecting shield may be formed of sections so that in case it intercepts a torpedo and is partly destroyed thereby, a new section can be readily substituted for the destroyed section and the guard thus renewed.
The invention also embodies novel means for exploding charges about the intercepted torpedo so as to effectively destroy the same without injuring the guarded vessel.
With the above and other objects in view, the invention has particular relationto certain novel features of construction, operation and arrangement of parts, examples of which are given in 3 this specification and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein- Figure 1 shows a plan view of a water craft shown protected on each side by the guard forming the subject matter of this invention.
Figure 2 shows a side elevation of a section of an outer net employed.
Figure 3 shows a side elevation of the corresponding section of the inner net employed.
Figure 4 shows an end view of the guard nets releasably supported from a buoyant float show- Each guard comprises an inner net designated v, generally by the numeral 2 and an outer net designated generally by the numeral 3. These nets are preferably formed in sections, a section of the outer net being shown in Figure 2 and a corresponding section of the inner net being shown in Figure 3. The mesh of the nets, or guards, may be formed of wire or fabric ropes or cables or of any suitable material; the mesh Of the outer net being sufficiently coarse to allow a torpedo of the usual size to pass through, but the mesh of the inner net 2 is smaller so as to intercept the torpedo that has partly passed through the mesh of the outer net. The sections of nets may be suspended from the top bars 4 and the sections may be surrounded by depending frames as 5 thus forming sufliciently secure supports for the netting. The outer and inner nets are spaced apart, as shown in Figure l.v They are anchored in spaced relation by suitable tie members as 6 which may be adjusted in length so as to space the nets, of a guard, the required distance apart. They should usually be placed a distance apart equal to about one-half the length of the torpedo as 1 so that when the torpedo has passed through the outer net 3 and its forward end engages the inner net 2, the outer net, containing the explosive charges hereinafter referred to, will be about 0 midway of the torpedo, or approximately so. The
frames of the corresponding sections of the outer and inner nets are connected by the topilongitudinal bars 8 upstanding from the mid-portion of which are the staples 9 to receive the hooks In by means of which the sections of the guards are supported. The guards are supported by floats as I l, or other similar means such as barges,
' or'the like. Depending from each float, there is a fulcrum bar I2 to the lower end of which the corresponding hook I0 is pivoted. One end of a coil spring I3 is attached to the shank of the hook l6 and the other end of this spring isconnected to an anchor l4, depending from the float, by means of a tension rod I5. This spring I3 is strong enough to normally hold the hook ID in position to engage through the corresponding staple 9 so as to form a support for the section; of the guard suspended therefrom. However, should a torpedo strike the guard, it will move the section of the guard withwhich the torpedo engages, inwardly toward the protected vessel and with sufi'icient force to disengage the staple 9 from the corresponding hook Ill.
A cable I6 is attached, at one end, to the staple 9 of each section and this cable is normally Wound into a coilwithin the housing I! of the corresponding float and continues on with its other end connected to a cross-bar I8 mounted to slide on the side rods I9, I 9 which form a track therefor. These side rods I9 are anchored, at one end, to the transverse anchor bar 20 secured on the float and their other ends are attached to the upstanding anchors 2|, 2|.
A cross-bar 22 is slidably mounted on the rods I9 and interposed between this cross-bar and the anchors 2I=and-surrounding saidrods, there arethe-coil springs 23 forming. bumpers. The bars I8, 22 are formed of insulating material and their facing sides carry the electrical contact rings 24 and 25 respectively. These contact rings are normally held apart by the pullsprings 28; 26 which are connected at one end to the, bar I8 and at their other ends to the anchor bar 20.
The numeral 21 designates a source of electrical energy such as a battery which may be located at any suitable place preferably on the float or barge II. An electricalconductor as 28 leads from the contact ring. 25 through the battery 21' andv back to the contact ring 24. This conductor is. suitably insulated and is carried by the cable I6. in
any preferable manner and the conductor 28- electrically connects suitable explosive charges I 29 carried by each section of the outer net 3. These explosive charges are connected into the electrical circuit in'series and, as shown in Figure 2,
they are arranged around each opening through i which the torpedo maypass. Similar explosive charges as? 30'may be carried by the inner net 2 if desired and electrically connected with the battery" 21 in-thesame manner as theexplosive charges 29.
- It is to be-understood that. each section of the guard: and each'fioat orbarge corresponding thereto-are provided with theelectrical equipment above described forfiring the explosive charges of the corresponding section. The:ex-xplosive charges 29; 30 are provided with detonator caps having priming'charges through which filaments of the electrical conductors pass so that when an electrical circuit is completed through the wiring circuit; the explosive charges will be ignited.
The guards should be arranged a suitable distance from the vessel to be protected, preferably a distance of from two hundred to three hundred feet.'- If the vessel is in motion, a guard should be? arranged on each-side of it and these assembled guards may be moved alongwith the vesselby means of draft vessels such-as tugs. 3I. -In. case the vessel is in portpa singleguard may surround the exposed side of it with the ends of the guard I attached to suitable 'stationary'anchors so: as to spacethe guard the required distancefrom the vessel.
Should a torpedo strike the'guard, it' will ordinarily pass through the outer net 3 as indicated in Figure 6 and :its forward end will engage against the inner net 2 with considerable force moving the section of the net toward thevessel and with sufficient force to disengage the corre sponding staple 9 from the hook I 0, the spring- I3 yielding to permitthis. Thesection ofthe guard encountered by the torpedo will be moved toward the vessel a suflicient distance tounwind the surplus supply'of thecable I6 in the housing IT-and will then exert a pull on said cable sum cient to pull the bar I8 along the track I9 until the rings 24 and 25 make electrical contact, thus completing a circuit through the caps of thee!!- plosive charges, igniting the primer-charges and causing an explosion of the charges-29; At this time, these charges will surround the mid-portion of the torpedo. This portion of the torpedo is usually formed into a compressed airtank with relatively thin walls and the explosion will cause the torpedo to be broken in two at its mid-portion and the ends will drop to the bottom.
If the inner mesh 3 of the section is provided with explosive charges 30, these will be exploded at the same time at the forward end of the torpedocausing an. explosion of the charge in the torpedocarried atthe forward end thereof. This explosion will occur while the torpedo is at a sufllcient distance from the protected vessel to prevent injury thereto. In-the embodiment illustrated in Figure '7, the
subside margins of the net 2 may be overturned at approximately right angles toward the net 3.
Should-the forward: end of the torpedo I strike the net 2 at an angle other than a right angle, it would .have a tendency to slip or skid off of the net andpassonxbys Theoverturned.margins 2a, 2a of the net 2, as illustrated in Figure 7, are provided to preventithisand to engage with the forwardend unhead of the 'torpedo so that this section of. the-netwill be moved'forwardly with the torpedo to cause; closure of the electric switch as hereinabove explained.
The series of floats. or barges, as I I', may be flexibly connected together by'means' of flexible ties orycables as 32' and, if it shouldbe. desired, the. sections of; the inner: netting as 'well as the sections of the outer netting or 'each guard may hes-connected together." by. flexible tie members which.:wouldreadi1y'break in case the section is encounteredby aitorpedo so as to' release that section from the remaining portion of the guard. Accordingly, when the destructive explosionoccurs. and the .tDIDdO is: destroyed; only that section: of the: guardwhichintercepted the torpedo will be destroyed and maybe. readily replaced. In *this'connection it is to be understood that a reserve supply of net sections should be kept available on. the protected vesselfor making the necessary repairs. These reserve net sections may be 1 carried on the tugs or barges.
At the lower end of the'iorward section of each guard, there are theforwardly directed guides 33, 33,- whose upper surfaces taper forwardly" and downwardly so that as they move forwardly through the water, they will exert a downward pull on the netting to-maintain the guards taut.
The guards should extend down into th water a'ydistancedepending-on the draft of the vessel belng-protected,; usually a; distance of approxi-' mately thirty feet; beneath the water level although this distance may be varied in accordance with the requirements of the particular vessel being protected.
Accordingly; incase a torpedo is projected toward the vessel, it will pass partly through the outer net 3 and its forward end will engage the inner net 2 and; as the torpedo cannot pass through the inner-net 2; it'will move the section of the guard, encountered by it, inwardly toward the vessel unwinding the cable"v I3 and closing the corresponding electrical circuit and causing an explosion of the charges surrounding the torpedo, thus destroying the torpedo'before it is close enough to the vessel to cause injury to the latter.'
The drawings and description are illustrative merely whilethe broad'principle of the invention will be defined by the appended claims.
What I claim is:
1: A guard for water craft comprising a pair of aprons spaced apartand adapted to be submerged, one of said apron forming an open work carrier, explosive charges on said carrier, the other apron being positioned to intercept a torpedo moving through the carrier, 2. buoy for supporting the guard in the water, a source of electrical supply, firing means for the charges, electrical conductors connecting said sounce with said firing means and, including an electric switch ar-- ranged to be closed upon movement of the intercepting apron by the torpedo.
2. A guard for water craft comprising a pair of aprons spaced apart a distance less than the length of the torpedo to be intercepted, buoyant means for suspending the guard in the water heneath, one of said aprons forming an open work carrier, explosive charges on the carrier, the other for intercepting a torpedo moving through the water toward said craft, buoyant means to which said intercepting means is releasably connected,
'an explosive charge carried by said intercepting means and means arranged to be rendered active upon release of the intercepting means and further movement of the intercepting means by the torpedo after such releas and effective to cause detonation of said charge. v
4. A guard for water craft comprising a pair of aprons spaced apart, means for suspending the guard into the Water beneath, one of said aprons forming an open work carrier, an explosive charge on the carrier, the other apron being positioned to intercept a torpedo moving through the carrier while the torpedo is adjacent said explosive charge, a source of electrical supply, firing means for the charge, an electrical conductor connecting said source with the firing means and including an electric switch arranged to be closed upon movement of the intercepting apron by the torpedo.
GRADY C. FULLER.