US 2368356 A
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C. HAPPE Jan. 30, 1945.
OIL BURNER Filed June 24, 194:5
OOOOOOOOO INVENTOR CHE/67096151? H42 5 B Y M,M m
ATTOEN EYS the inner sleeve l6 Patented Jan. 30, 1945 UNITED STATES PATENT. OFFICE OIL BURNER Christopher Happe, Granville, Wis. Application June 24,1943, Serial-No. 492,007 8 Claims. (Cl. 158-915) This invention relates to improvements in oil burners. The present application is a continuation in part of, and a substitute for, my application 455,065 filed August 17, 1942, and entitled Burners.
It is the primary object of the invention to provide a novel and improved oil burner which will operate efficiently and with safety to produce a flame without smoke or soot.
This objective is realized in part by the form of the burner casting, the provision of a salt bed therein as hereinafter disclosed for cooperating with a false bottom and other means to vaporize and distribute the combustible fluid and the particular manner in which the burning vapor is further oxidized in a nest of foraminous flues bearing a predetermined relationship vto the base casting. The location of the air inlet with re'ference to the base casting and the bed of salt therein is also important.
With regard to safety, my objectives are realized by the particular outlet arrangement by which excess oil is discharged from the burner.
Other objects of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art.
In the drawing:
Fig. 1 is a view of my improved burner in vertical section, the oil supply and return connections being illustrated in diagrammatic side elevation.
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a view in horizontal section through the base casting with the bed of salt removed and a portion of the false bottom broken away.
Like parts are identified by the same reference I characters throughout the several views.
My improved burner comprises a base casting 5 having a supply duct 6 leading through its bottom to a central outlet at 1 communicating with a set of radial channels 8 which lead to a marginal channel 9'extending around the bottom of the casting in spaced relation to its wall In.
A shown in Fig. 3, the preferred shape of the casting and horizontal section is oval with the exception that a flat end wall H is substituted for what would normally be the smaller rounded end of the oval. Centered above the supply port 1 is an annular flange at l2 about the top margin of the casting, toward which the casting walls converge at l3. Projecting inwardly from flange l2 are the lugs I4 shouldered at IS. A series of coaxial flue sleeve rendered foraminous by numerous holes are positioned above the casting,
being supported by the inner through the port 35 extremities of the several lugs I 4, below the shoulders l5 thereof. The intermediate sleeve I1 is supported on lugs l4 and confined immediately within the flange l2. The outer sleeve I8 is outside of flange l2 and engages the tapering wall l3 for support. Thus, the flange l2 and the shoulders l5 maintain the several sleeves spaced.
The false bottom 20 fits quite closely within the casting 5 with its margin spaced only slightly therefrom. The spacing may be maintained in any desired manner, as by forming tongues 2|, 22 to engage the bottom of the casting and its side walls whereby the false bottom is supported slightly above the bottom of the casting to maintain a vaporizing chamber for the combustible fluid admitted through port I. Carried on the false bottom 20 is a bed of salt 23 which should desirably extend up the side walls of the burner casting, but should expose the center of the false bottom plate 20, immediately above the fuel admission port 1. Thus, the bed of salt provides a craterlike central cavity at 24.
It has been proposed to use numerous minerals in more or less finely divided form in burners, but I have found that rock salt is by far the most desirable mineral. By its comminuted form it distributes the gases, while, at the same time, small quantities of the salt are consumed by the operation of thi particular burner and the vapors completely eliminate smoke and carbon from the flame.
I'he strainer pipe 25 is provided throughout its length with relatively small holes capable of excluding the salt crystals used in the salt bed at 23. Where the tube 25 is exposed at the bottom of the craterlike pocket 24, it may be provided, particularly in its under surface, with larger holes at 26. This pipe opens through the wall of the casting and is connected with a drain pipe 21 leading to an overflow reservoir 28. A secondary outlet to the drain pipe 21 may be provided through port 29 and conduit 30 as a further precaution. The overflow tank 28 should preferably have as great a capacity as the reservoir 3| and the capacity of the pipe 21, 30, should be'entirely adequate to handle all excess oil which may accumulate in the burner. To control oil admission to the burner, a needle valve is provided at 33. A desirable characteristic of the present burner is its ability to handle widely varying rates of fuel admission with a smoke free flame.
The space above the salt bed 23 and extending into the flues l6, l1, l8 comprises a mixing and combustion chamber to which air is admitted in the flat end wall I I. Combustion in the chamber, well below the sloping wall l3 thereof, highly heats such wall, and the heat is conducted through the heavy wall of the casting to the heavy base thereof so that whatever fuel arrives through the admission port I, subject to the control of valve 33, is vaporized below the false bottom 20. The central part of the false bottom, immediately above the admission port, is also highly heated and, being made of metal or other heat conducting material, asslsts in the vaporization.
Due to the form of the false bottom, and the fact that the bottom is centrally imperforate and affords passage to vapors only adjacent the exterior wall of the chamber where an opening is provided by slightly spacing the false bottom from the chamber wall. the vapors formed therebeneath can escape only around the perimeter of the false bottom and through the bed of salt 23. This is important in that all of the combustible gases tend to pass upwardly in relatively close proximity to the wall of the casting. The air admitted through port 35 tends to pass to the center of the chamber and to become distributed in the open cavity or crater 24 of the salt bed, thereby uniformly combining its oxygen with the combustible vapors moving up the walls subject to the distribution effected by the salt bed.
It will be noted that the burning gases can escape only through the inner fiue l6 and the intermediate flue l1 except insofar as some of the gases may pass outwardly through the holes in sleeve ll to the interior of sleeve l8. These several sleeves, in the particular combination shown, serve as pressure equalizing chambers in which an excess of combustible gas will tend to push outwardly while, if there is a smaller quantity of combustible gas formed in the burner, the air will tend to move inwardly. In either case, complete combustion results and use of the burner for substantial periods fails to show any deposits of soot or any smoke either in the sleeves l6, l1, [8 or the stove or furnace in which the device is used.
Each month or so, it may be necessary to add to the salt bed 23 a very small quantity of renewal salt. For example, in specimen burners in actual use, measuring approximately 10" across the casting on the line represented by the duct marked 8 in Fig. 3, it is only necessary to renew the salt bed to the extent of perhaps a tablespoon of salt in a month's operation.
In use, the salt bed tends to glaze at its surface but to retain its porous substance and its crystalline surface appearance. It is an important part of the burner and no one of numerous other materials with which I have experimented will, in the particular burner combination disclosed, provide satisfactory opera- Whenever it is desired to remove the false bottom for inspection or cleaning of the vaporizing chamber therebeneath, the screen tube is unscrewed and the false bottom is pulled from the chamber by means of a tab at 36 with which it is provided. 7
As in other burners of the same general type, the burner is started by first opening valve 33 to admit a desired quantity of fuel, which may, if desired, be sumcient to cover the upper surface of the false bottom plate 20. Thereupon a wisp of paper thrown into the crater or cavity 24 of the salt bed 23 will ignite this fuel and the heat given off by the burning of this initial charge will vaporize further fuel admitted beneath the plate and thus initiate the proper functioning of the burner. The control valve 3: may be opened as little or as much as desired, as the burner will function satisfactorily without smoke or soot throughout its entire range of capacity.
While my improved burner is adapted to operate on many kinds of fuel, one of its advantages lies in the fact that it will operate successfully on fuel which the ordinary burner flnds it diflicult to handle. Montana black fuel oil burns clean in my improved burner and with a tremendously hot flame, at a considerably higher tem-.
perature than the flame of pure kerosene. This plentiful and inexpensive oil is not only successful in my burner at full capacity, but may be operated at any rate up to full capacity without smoke. Thus a stove, furnace or oil burner may be heated to any temperature with a single burner using inexpensive fuel in accordance with this invention.
1. In a burner of the character described, the combination with means providing a chamber, and a false bottom with an imperforate central portion, of fuel connections for the admission of fuel beneath said false bottom, said chamber having an air inlet, and a bed of salt resting on the false bottom at least about the walls of said chamber, said bed of salt partially filling said chamber adjacent said walls and having a central crater substantially exposing an imperforate part of said false bottom.
2. An oil burner comprising a chamber hav ing an imperforate bottom, exterior s'de walls with an upwardly converging portion at its top and a top discharge outlet, a false bottom having an imperforate central portion, said chamber and false bottom constituting means for the distribution of fuel and said chamber having a liquid fuel supply duct opening below said false bottom, said false bottom being substantially continuous and imperforate from side to side of said chamber except adjacent the exterior walls thereof, whereby fuel vaporized below said false bottom will flow upwardly in proximity to the exterior walls of the chamber, means for admitting air to said chamber, and a bed of salt about the walls of said chamber and supported at least in part on said false bottom and below said air admission means.
3. A burner comprising the combination with a chamber having a bottom, means for admitting fuel to the bottom of the chamber, and a side wall provided with air admission means, of a bed of salt extending around the walls of said chamber below the air admission means and having a central craterlike cavity and means for directing admitted fuel to flow through said salt bed at points remote from the center of said cavity toward said walls.
4. The device of claim 3 in which the means last mentioned includes a false bottom extending over the bottom of said chamber and having an imperforate central portion spaced from said side wall, and a marginal portion providing gas passage means in proximity to the side wall of said chamber and upon which false bottom said salt bed rests, said false bottom having 2 its imperforate portion at least substantially exposed at the .central cavity of said salt bed.
5. A burner of the character described comprising the combination of a chamber having a combustion space and a top wall partially enclosing said space and provided with a discharge opening above said space, a flange about said opening, supporting means integral with said flange projecting into said opening, and a series of foraminous flues in mutually spaced relationship, at least one flue being outside of said flange and another flue carried by said means within said flange, said means being discontinuous whereby to afiord access through said opening for gases to pass from said combustion space to the flue last mentioned.
6. In a burner oi the character described, the combination with a chamber providing a combustion space and having a top wall portion provided with a discharge port and a flange about said port, of supporting lugs projecting inwardly from said flange and each provided with a shoulder, an inner foraminous flue tube carried by said lugs within their several shoulders, an intermediate foraminous flue tube carried by said lugs adjacent said flange andin spaced relation to a third foraminous flue tube carried by said wall portions externally of said flange and in spaced relation to the intermediate flue tube.
7. An oil burner comprising a chamber casting having a bottom, a side wall extending about the bottom and convergent wall portions integrally connected with the wall and having an inwardly and to a discharge opening materially smaller than the cross section of the chamber within the casting, a false bottom within the casting subupwardly inclined portion leading said false bottom,
the tube first mentioned, and
stantially continuous across the central portion thereof and affording an upward outlet only in proximity to said wall for vapors formed therebenea said casting having an oil inlet leading to the space within the said casting beneath and an annular bed of salt on said false bottom lying interiorly against said wall, said bed of salt having a central crater in which at least a central portion of vsaid false bottom is at least substantially exposed, said salt serving to distribute in said chamber the vapors issuing through the bed of salt from beneath the false bottom, the integral upwardly inclined wall portions of the casting serving to receive heat from vapors burning in said chamber for conduction downwardly through the casting to vaporize oil beneath said ialse bottom and the portion of the false bottom exposed by said crater being adapted to receive heat for furthering the vaporization of 011 beneath the false bottom, the casting having, above the level of the salt bed, and below its said converging wall portions, inlet means for air to support combustion of the vaporized oil.
8.,I'he device of claim 7, in which the casting is provided above the level of the false botwith an oil discharge outlet, and a screen extending from said outlet through a portion of the annular bed of salt and constituting means for leading to said outlet unvaporized oil ac- 4 cumulating within the bed of salt.