US 2369012 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 6, 1945. I H; E. BRALOFF ..2,3s9,012
CONTAINER AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed Mayl4, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet l .1. .J. 2 2s 27 I: 300- 29 HWIIIIII IN VEN TOR.
' ATTORNEY Patented Feb. 6, 1945 UNITED STATES" PATENT OFFICE CONTAINER AND METHOD OF- MAKING THE SAME Henry E. Bralofi, Rockville Centre, N. Y. Application May 14, 1942, SerialNo. 442,972 3 Claims. (01. 229-55) While containers composed of fiber,' as cardboard and the like, are available for the packaging of goods of various kinds, they have not been found to be entirely satisfactory in the packing and distribution of many materials, Where their use would be economically advantageous. For example, in the distribution of oils, paints and other liquid and semi-liquid, and semi-plastic materials, as well as many dry products, which are subject to rapid deteriorationunless protected by moisture-proof packages, theuse of fiber containers has been more or less limited, largely because of the fact that it has been im possible heretofore to economically produce a container that will not only be durably leakproof and impervious to moisture penetration, but will possess the requisite ruggedness without unduly increasing the gross weight of the packaged product. Obviously, in the marketing of paints, oils, semi-liquids and similar materials, which are customarily dispensed in sooalled drums of five gallon or greater capacity, the gross weight is an important desideratum, as is also the capacity of the container to withstand rough handling in shipping.
Therefore, it is the principal object of this invention to provide an all fiber container of-a simple rugged construction, which is relatively light in weight and is particularly responsive to the requirements for packaging: liquids and semi-liquid material, in that it is leakproof and impervious to moisture penetrationin a degree which renders it possible to store the packaged goods for long periods of time, without the constituent material of the container being detri mentally affected, with the resultantleakage and deterioration of the product thatis common in the use of existing types of fiber containers.
It is also an important object of this invention to provide a container possessing the aforesaid advantages and characteristics, which may be conveniently hermetically sealed by the packer of the contained product with a closure which may be subsequently readily removed for dispensing the product and replaced, as desired, to restore the seal andprotect the'remaining contents of the container against deterioration."
' Another object of this invention is to provide an all fiber container, as aforesaid, in which the ends thereof are assembled in the container in elements a manner to I appreciably reinforce the entire structure and' at the same time effect a jointure of the end-forming elements with the continuous wall of the container that. is proof against fiuidleakage and efiectively prevents moisture penetration from within or without.
A further object of my invention is to provide an all fiber container in which a material impervious to moisture is incorporated in-the fiber wall and the end-forming elements, to become virtually a part thereof, the end-forming being reinforced against bending forces and interlocked with the wall of the container in a fluid proofjointure, to resist separation under constant and shifting loads.
My invention also contemplates a container having the foregoing characteristics and a method of producing the same in a manner which may be readily practiced, so that a container conforming to my invention may be most economically manufactured and thereby provide for more extensive use of fiber containers in those industries in which the use of existing fiber containers has been found to be commercially im practicable in packaging their products for dis,- tribution.
Other objects and advantages flowing from the practicing of my invention will become manifest as the description proceeds and I would have it understoodthat I reserve unto myself all rights to the full range of equivalents, in structure andavenues of use, to which I may be entitled under my invention in its broadest aspect, as defined by the appended claims.
In the accompanying drawings, I have shown a preferred form of container conforming to my invention, as produced in accordance with my simplified and economical method of manufacture. a
In the drawings: v
Figure 1 is a view in elevation, partly in section of a container embodying myinvention;
Figure 2-is a magnifiedview in elevation of a section of the upper left hand corner of they container shown in Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a sectional elevation of a part of a container, showing a modified form of closure container a's-"herein shown is 'of a cylindrical configuration and is one such as may be utilized for liquids and semi-liquid material, embodyingan outer tubular wall I and an-..inner wallrformed;
by a tubular sleeve 8 inserted within the outer pressure, in a so-called force-fitting operation, the two tubular sections being frictionally united throughout the area of their opposed surfaces, so that the effect of a unitary structure in strength and rigidity is attained. 1
In the container of Figures 1, 2 and 7, a base I2 of a diameter corresponding to the internal diameter of the tubular wall section I is then inserted therein with its upper marginal surface pressed into close assooiaition'withlthe, lower end of the inner 'sleeve 8. "This base is preferably formed of laminations, of pressed chipboard beitween which a layer of metal foil [3 is interwall-forming tube 1, to provide a container body wall of the requisite circumference, thickness-and internal diameter. These body-forming tubes are preferably, composed of spirally Wound pressedchipboardpthe convolutions or windings -,fo-rming eachmofithe constituent-ilaminations matinginbuttj oints and being bonded .to the convolutionsluponwhich :;they
are superimposed .by an adhesive Y, agent cas lsilie cateoflsoda, to -,pno'drrcexa section 43f ,the requisite thickness. In producing .the inner wtubulartsleeve 8,alayer=of metal can .9 isintroduced-ata predetermined stageclo'f ithelchipboard .lwindingiopen ation and spirally .esuperimposed thereon, 1 I the edges of its. convolutions. 'inioverlappina ene gagement, .the subsequent windingsyofchiphoard or fiberlbing. in turn,super mposed.upon .themeta1 -foil,.i;o ,attain..the :desiredwall .thickness, .as described. LA permanentbondgbetween the. meta1 "foil surfaces ,and-gthe. .opposedfiber surfaces and ,thepunion of lthe'. overlapped .slniaces ofgthe metal foillis .obtained'bycoating the foil .Witha cementitious material, .fasa icasein. adhesive, the metalioils asithus .em-be'ddedsin 'theflfibre tube and the lbonding .of .the chipboard glamina, pro.- ducing a tube .Lha'vin'g all oft the' e attributes of a homogeneous .structure, .s'imilarly.,.to the outer tube, linsresisting disintegration, together with the "strength rigidity nthatifiow from. the spi,
rally wound construction; lPrfeferably themieta foil is introduce'din thewinding df"the' I 8, .when the wall sectionhasbeen built ,pito
approximately. one'hal'flofi' itstultimate thickness,
it be'inglmanifest thatithe metal'ffoil witnits oven,
' lapping convolutions presents a continuous sur I tomandibottomcendscwill::beiapproximatelyiflquidistantlyrspaced from-zjthe conti uousendscofothe posed tand-unitedeto the fiber on either side thereby an adhesive, as previously described, the
chipboard laminations treated with a bonding agent; 'as thepreviously recited silicate of soda, being/inseparably united in a pressing operation, whereby the metal foil becomes, in effect, an integral-part of the base unit, a series of concentrio. grooves l4, l5 and-J5, being pressed-into he ase surface t effi ct an oppos t pl eme t of he "base ma rial inthe .jformationrplf the reinforcin ribs 11, 118 and i9 to 'resist bending forces. i
,Air tai rins Zl jf s ira y wp lncl'chip nard, prod c d similarly o t e u e "1, havin an ex: temal diam te approxima el cor s on in 'fto 'tbei tie nail me o t e outer wal .tub 'il i next entere 'therein unde ",n ess re n a fie cefitpperation. "The'"upl1er ledgeyof this ring adjacent itsrou-ter face is undercutgas at "20q ,"to impart. to it a isteppedifonnation, the undercut portion" abutting'upon the juxtaposed surface of "the base in 'alinementwith-"the "opposed end of the inner "sleeve' it, "whilethe :longer portion 20b entered inth outermost "base groove fffl. There+ fore,"a's-the' -ring'is urged into its ultimate positionzwithin thesleeve 8; the baseiis pressed-into close frictional 'associationwith the end "of-the sleeve in an enddisplacement ;or deformationpf the sleeve-material in conforming "to the'portion Offthe marginalyrib H and the relativelyjdepressed' surf-ace --i-n the peripheral zone of the "base upon-which it= abuts,;to' interlock' the opposedsur 'facesin a =plurality-ofzones l or horizontal planes and' provide -an hermetic '--j ointure'," the seal b'einjg augmented by'the laterally exerted pressure firiduced by the interengagement of the ring flange frictional engagement of -the per-ipherrw ;of-- the for-@e fitted kteles'coped sections o'f=the appropriouter wall section 1, as indicated atslafll-tandabl,
imFi-gure :1. Theiexternalsdiametercof theinner sleeve 8 correspondsaapproximatelyltothe.internah diameter of the .puter tube :8 the ,tolerance being, just. ,sufiicient 'fortentering' the sleevesyvithe in .theltube "'1 WandJfoIcingLit -,to. its. ultimate coperatinggu-positionlthereinlmden,axiallylapplid ate lengths to i 'obtain 'the required s teppedgupper edge iform'ation', for #engagement with'mhe base menfloer -asaiust describeih iliol lowing =the assembly i of :thebase-forming' eiements iin'tthe :containertstructurepas just de scri'hed,-.zthe outeri surface of thevwall-forming tube 1:1 t is zper'ipheral'ly grooved, ast-at 2]; while thesinnerafacezofuthecretaining IiHgflQHiSZgIOQBZd assat 22 and 213, athe igrooye ;.21 :beingetstaggeren relatively 11 217116trWQ '1il1g: I0OeS; for :circumferre nfc eme eqfz h tur gofithe opposed abuttin sllriaces base assembly, thesealin'g :at'this point is. sup! plemented by the force-fit engagement of the periphery-of the closure with the wall ,1 of the container and the augmented security afiorded thereto by the lateral pressure ofthe protruding edge 25a of .the ring 25 entered in the'closure groove 28. Similarly to the base-retaining ring, the closure-retaining ring 25 is circumferentially grooved as at 2'1 and 28, while theperiphery of the wall-forming section 1. isgrooved as at 29, for likewise stiffening 'or reinforcing these projecting surfaces against bending under vertically applied forces. The opposed. ends of the split closure-retaining ring embody a tongue 30 and a complemental s'lot 30a formed for interlocking engagement, the slot and tongue respectively being of the thickness of, the wall, so that. when the tongue is entered in the slot the cross-sectional area of the ring is uniform throughout its .circumference, the ring being seated within the container wall I in closure-retaining position, as described, with the tongue and slot in interlocking engagement and theopposed tongue and slot defining surfaces mated to provide, in effect,-an uninterrupted locking ring; Toremove the closure, the tongue may bepried out of engagement with the embracing slot by means of any suitable implement, and the ring then dislocated inwardly in a slight upward movement for contracting disengagement from the .closure and the surround-.- ing wall of the container. Torestoreithe seal, following the reapplication of the closure, the tongue and slot are interlocked and the ring pressed into seated position in'engagement with the closure and the wall of the container, as pre-' viously described.
As in the base assembly, the ring 25 mayconsist of two force-fitted telescoped tubular sections of appropriate lengths to obtain the requisite stepped edge formation for engagement with the closure in the manner previously set forth; Both of the constituent sections may be split and embody a tongue and slot interlock corresponding to the counterparts of the ring 25, to-admit of their disconnection from the container, as a unit, or only the inner section may include this interlock, the outer ring section being continuous or of a split type, preferably with an oblique line of cleavage. I i Y I In the embodiment of the invention shown in Figure 3, the closure 40 is preferably composed of two concentric discs 42 and 43 of 7 different diameters, of pressed 1 fiber, which are ce-' mented together to forma diaphragm type unit having a stepped edge, as at 4|,- and having em- 'bedded therein a layer of material impervious to moisture, as indicated at 40a, similarly to the closure of Figures 1, 2 and '7. In addition to this embedded layer of moisture resistant or repellent material, or in lieu thereof, theinner surface of the closure may be faced with such a material. The closure 40, similarly to the closure 24, is pressed into seated position within the body section 1 of the container, in abutting engagement with the contiguous end. of the innersleeve 8 A retaining ring 44, preferably of hard vulcanized fiber, is then forced into the end of the body section 1 to an ultimate position in engagement with the horizontal and vertical defining surfaces of the circumferential stepped edge 4|, the crosssectional dimension of the wall of the ring corresponding to the width of the base of the stepped edge, so as to insure a tight fit and form an hermetic jointure between the closure an the container body. The ring 44 normally may be slightly elliptical in'shap'e, so that as its major diameter portion .is forced into the.,container body, the ring will expand in conforming engagement with the opposed surfaceof the-body se.c' tion 1, to increase the effective pressure between the ringand the container wall. g
Following the seating ofthe ring 44,=as just de: scribed, the opposed circumferential surfaces of the'ring and of the body section I are interlocked I tongue 43 and the complemental slot 48, the
' tongue being provided with a tabt49, whereby its dislocation from the slot may-be readily accomplished in an inward contractingmovement of thering.- I
In the modified forms of the retaining ring 44, as shown in Figures 5 and 6,. theeflicacy of the seal is enhanced. The ring of Figure-"5,
as will be seen, embodies a circumferentialflange 'St' at one end which is adaptedto overlie the. vertical seam formed by the mating ofthe op-' posed surfaces of the' ring and body sectionj'l, in abutting engagement with the outer-end of said section, while, as shown in Figure 6, the flange 50 instead of terminating in a horizontal plane in registration with the outer wall-of the container, is extended-downwardly thereover, as at 5|. This'extension 5!, disposed" parallel" to the body of the ring 44 forms an annular slotin I of an effective seal. I, The closure assembly shown in Figure '7 corwhich the end ofthe body section! is entered-in close frictional association with thedefining surfacesthereof, in the seating of the ring in enclosure 40, as previously'de diaphragm typeis employed, whether in the formation of one or both end seals," it will e-apparent that in addition to the frictional jointure' of the closure with the container andretaining ring surfaces, the pressure diaphragm characteristics which flow from the superimposed smaller disc section which forms; the outer face of the closure add materially to the mai tenance responds generally to that "of the; showing. of Figures 1 and 2, the closure-retaining means consisting of two rings 52 and; 53 of unequal lengths and different diameters; The ring'52 is adapted to be telescopically entered in the ring 53 seated in engagement with the surrounding container body section 1 and the marginal surface of the closure 24, in .alinement with'the end surface of the inner sleeve 8 of the container, for projection of its lower edge into'the outermost groove 26 of the closure, in the manner and for the purposes previously set forth. The two rings 52 and 53 maybe subsequently interlocked with the body section 1 by the simultaneous formation of the complemental interengaged ribs and recesses, indicated at 54 and 55 in a crimping opterminate. in registration; as shown, or the. inner ring, may be flanged as in the of Figures 5 and 6, to overlie the registering ends of the outer ring, and thesurrounding container. 7
As. will be apparenn in all of the. embodiments shown, the endeforming members are engaged the. inner sleeye 8 of. the container under pressure and locked in sealin position in a manbody section I of the gadfl mz I I section, a. pair of endforming members, each being entered in said outer section in peripheral engagement therewith and in surface abutting engagement with the juxtaposed end of said iiiner section to efiect an hermetic jointure of the opposed surfaces, each of said end-forming mem hers: being'provided with a groove adjacent the periphery thereof and a retaining ring for rein forcing the security of said j dinture, entered in each end oft-saidouter section in-circumie-rential engagement therewith, one end edge of said ringhaving a stepped formation in abutting engagement respectively'with the groove and the periph eral'edge oi said end-forming member, the other edge of said ring being in registration with the container base-defining edge of said outer section.
her to produce a'iointure oi tortuous characteristics, which produces a most effective hermetic seal for the container, which. may be further reudered fluid-penetration proof 7 by the application of a suitableadhesive to the meeting surfacesof thecooperating components of the end-formin assemblies.
f-desired, the opposed surfaces; of. the outer and i ner tubular walbicrmin elements I and a m y i I be o ded with a. suitable adhesive and; likewise,
2. A container comprising a fiber body formed of inner and outer tubular sections, the inner section embodying a coextensive surface of material impervious to moisture. embedded therein, the endszoi said inner section being spaced in-,
' wardly at the. contiguous ends of said outer secthe. inner surface of said sleeve may be rendered impervious to moisture and, the; detrimental action of substances that may be packed in th con tainer by suitable coatings or facing with. the appropriate resistant materiaL, orsuch coatings or facing may be employed in lieu'of the layer oi moisture-proof metal, foil embeddedv in, the sleeve.
For-packaging certain diffierent, materials, the f container maybe variously treated, internally and externally,;to protect. the fiber or the con ten-ts against possible deterioration, as the case may been For example in a container designed 4 (for packaging oils, grease and similar viscous-ma and economic-ally produced and will possess, these attribute that are essential in the provision of apracticalfiber container for commercial aindindustrial purposes, one that is especially respou: sive to the requirements of marketersi ofliquids and semi-liquid materials for the reasons-herein:
before set forth.
1. A containercompri'singa fiberbody formed 'tion, a pair or "annular endei ormingmembers,
each being entered in saidiouter section in peripheral engagement-therewith andzembody ng co acting reinforcing grooves and; ribs formed on the. opposite surfaces thereof, and a retaining ring. entered in each end of said outer section in circumferential engagement therewith, the entered end of said ring beingconformed to. enter one of the grooves of said end-donning member in proximity to the periphery of said member and to bear upon saidend: forming 'member beyond said groove in al'mement with the end of said inner section in abutting" enga ement with the opposite surface of said endrforming member in the: area of the'marcinalone of said reinforcing 1 ribs and outwardly thereof to the periphery of said end-forming member, the opposed'meeting sm'fzaces'of said sections and said end-iormins m mber formin an. hermetic seal: for the end of said container.
3'.-,,A container comprising a body formed of i ner and outer tubular sections) the ends of said inner section" being spaced inwardly of: the coniefloussends of the outer'sectiou a. p r of flat annu ar c der ng members, ach being en,- tered in said outersection, in peripheral engage ment therewith and embodying coasting: consen tr-ic reinforcing groove and ribs formed on, the
opposite surfacesfthereon; and aretaining ring entered in each end oi'saidouter section in circumierential engagement therewitln the entered end elf-said ring enga ng the. outer suriace ofsaid member andexertine p f ssu're "thereon to urge said member into irictional'engagement. with the of inner and outer tubular sections, the inner scc 1 7 tion embodying a. coextensive surfaceof. mate.- rial impervious to moisture embedded therein, the ends. of said inner section being equidistanthl spaced from the contiguous ends of said outer opp sed end of: said inner section, a; portion at said ring, beingengaeed within'the outermost groove of the endiormmg, member to exert pres.-
sure laterally thereon said inner-and outer tubular sections and said retaining rings I being formed of spirally-wound pressed fiber with mated defining edgesin butting engagement to present. uniform internal and external surfaces, the, inner tubular body section having a spirally wound layer of a material impervious to moisture embedded in the fiber, windings, the ccnvolution .oi said material being, disposed'in overlappin engagement along their-edges to forrn a. continuous surface. coextensive with thearea of said inner