US 2370769 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 6, 1945-.
G. W. BAKER ET AL WALL STRUCTURE Filed June 15, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet l March 6, 1945. G, W` BAKER ETAL 2,370,769
WALL STRUCTURE Filed June 15, 1942 2 SheetS-Sheet 2 Patented M-ar. 6, 1945 y y vUNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE" 2,370,169 WALL STRUCTURE George W. Baker, Chicago Heights, and Nels Nelsson, Chicago, Ill., assilnors to United States Gypsum Company, Chicago, lll., a corporation of Illinois l 'Applicaties June is, 1942, sensi 10,447,036
4 claims. (c1. 'zz-4s) This invention relates to wall structures, and provide a substantially monolithic or so-called more particularly to substantially monolithic r solid partition formed of gypsum boards or the so-called solid partitions, that is, where there is like, and plaster coverings in which the plaster no substantial air space within the wall itself. coverings will remain substantially free from These partitions are ordinarily about two inches cracks of any type for a greatly extended period thick, and it has been common practice to build under all normal conditions. up a plaster base. comprising a single layer of A further object is the provision of a partition gypsum boards or the like, either perforated or of the type disclosed, in which the plaster coverunperforated. ings are loosely or yieldably bonded to the plaster The gypsum boards are ordinarily secured to i0- base in such a manner that sufcient relative selfnarrow studs, all of the boards being in the same adjustment is provided that the normal stresses plane and having their adjacent edges retained in and strains incident to such a structure wil1 not alignment by means of suitable clips. A Acomcrack the plaster coverings. paratively thick layer of plaster is applied to each It is also an object to provide a solid partition side of the plaster base, with which it forms avery l5 of the type disclosed in which'the plaster base rigid bond. When perforated plasterboard is comprises a double or multiple thickness of plasused, the two oppositely disposed plaster layers terboard or the like so supported as to enable are further bonded together and bonded to the slight relative planar movement therebetween and gypsum board by plaster keys which extend comin which the oppositely disposed plaster coverpletely through the perforations. ings are independently bonded to the relatively It has been found that, with the usual rigidly movable plasterboards.
bonded partitions of this type, there is a decided Further objects will be apparent from the tendency for cracks to form in the plaster coatings specification and the appended claims.
after the partition has been erected for a short In the drawings:
time. These cracks may occur at any location on Figure 1 is a side elevation of one embodiment the partition, although they are more apt to apof the invention before the plaster coverings have peer adjacent the joints between the various been applied, and with the Hoor and ceiling indi-- pieces of gypsum boards. Also, when perforated cated in section. board is used, so-called Sunburst cracks appear Fig 2 1S an enlarged detail sectional view taken adjacent the various perforations. It has been on a line substantially corresponding to line 2-2 found that, if the two oppositely disposed plaster of Fig. 1.
layers are not rigidly bonded together, but in- Fig. 3 is a transverse sectional elevation taken stead are loosely or yieldably bonded or supported 0n a line substantially corresponding to line 3--3 so that each side of the partition is capable of 0f Fig. 1.
slight planar movement or self-adjustment rela- 85 Fis. 4 is a fragmentary sectional perspective tive to the 0therany tendency of the plaster to view of a portion of an assembled plaster base crack at the board joints or adjacent the perforausing perforated plasterboard and including a tions or at any other point is substantially comstud or elongated clip and floor and ceiling pletely eliminated. runners.
If the relatively movable plaster layers are not 40 Fig. 5 is a transverse sectional view through a reinforced in some manner, cracks other than the slightly different embodiment in which only one joint and Sunburst cracks may occur; these latlayer of gypsum board is used to form the plaster ter cracks usually extend across the wall diagonalbase and the plaster coverings are loosely or yieldly or otherwise and with no definite pattern. ably bonded to one side thereof.
However, if one layer of plaster is reinforced by Fig. 6 is a detail sectional view through a parthe plasterboard to which it is applied in the tition and illustrates another embodiment includusual bonding manner, and the opposite layer is ing a non-bonding agent between a reinforced reinforced by stud-like channels orthe like with plaster covering and the plaster base.
a substantially non-bonding or bond-weakening Referring to the drawings in detail, the embodiagent between the plaster layer and the gypsum 0 ment'illustratedinFigs. 1, 2, and 3,inclusive,com board, then all cross or diagonal cracks vare also prises a floor runner I and a ceiling runner 2 sesubstantially eliminated. cured to the floor and ceiling 3 and 4, respectively,
The present invention provides for such selfas shown in Figs. 1 and 3. adjustment between the plaster coverings, and it These runners may be of any suitable type is, therefore, an object of the present inventionto adapted to permit slight relative planar movement or self-adjustment of wallboards supported thereby to form a plaster base. The runners are preferably of more or less resilient sheet metal substantially U-shaped in cross section, with a at web and outstanding anges as shown. The
edges 5 of the flanges may be outturned slightly,
as illustrated in Fig. 3, to enable easy insertion of studs and panels therebetween. The runners may be secured to the iioor and ceiling by means of stub nails 6 driven through suitable holes in the,
contemplates the use of any suitable supporting 'j means permitting the previously mentioned relative planar self-adjustment of the elements of the nished wall.
The stud-ding 9 shown in the drawings is substantially S-shaped in cross section and comprises a central web IB and oppositely disposed flanges Il which are so related that the edges of the gypsum boards l2 may be inserted between 'the web and each oppositely disposed flange, so
that the boards are in overlapping relation in the stud and the edges thereof are embraced snugly between the web and the respective flanges in the manner illustrated in Fig. 2.
The plaster base is preferably a two-ply gypsum board structure, as shown, and the boards may be yieldably secured together by means of small staples I2a or the like, whereby the boards are capable of slight relative planar movement. The staples illustrated are not essential, but instead it is contemplated to use small nails or ceiling runner by friction of the runner flanges against the sides of the stud. a
j ,The nange l o! the ceiling runner 2 is somewhat wider than the opposite flange 1, so that the end of the stud may rest against this depending danse while it is being inserted into the runner. This depending ilange is also of assistance in'dlrectingtthe upper edges of the gypsum boards into the runner. The upper edge of a board panel may be rested against the depending ange 8 and raised upwardly into the runner and then seated into the floor runner and moved laterally into engagement with a stud. The boards, when assembled, are supported in the iloor runner as shown in Figs. 1 and 3, with their edges engaged in the stud, as shown in Fig. 2.
The studs may be of any desired length, but preferably terminate short of at least one of the runners, as shown in Fig. 3. If desired, they may be of suillclent length to extend into both runners. Also, if desired, the boards only may extend into the runners to support the partition, and the S-shaped members may then function merely as elongated clips for aligning the edges ci the boards in shiplap relationship therein.
l The S-shaped type of stud or clip disclosed herein presents many advantages in that it may easily and cheaply be formed merely by rolling elongated strips of thin sheet metal, which metal may be of suiiicient resilience to retain the edges of the boards snugly therein.
The plasterboards or the like are preferably of ceiling height to form comparatively large paneis, and they may be vof either ordinary imperforated plasterboard or of the usual perforated type to provide a more efficient plaster bond. In the embodiment shown, the plaster base panels are of ceiling height. However, the invention also contemplates the use of small size plasterdo board or the like which may be supported in the wires or other suitable means for securing the boards nonrigidly together so thatthere may be some slight self-adjusting movement therebetween. The boards are offset relative to each Y other in the manner illustrated, so that they provide a substantially shiplap joint within the confines of the studding, one of the boards entering the studding to be embraced between the web and a flange and the other board terminating adjacent the side of the stud.
Thick plaster coverings i3 andld are applied to the respective sides ci the partition, and these coverings form a substantially rigid bon-d with the adjacent boards. Each plaster covering, together with the layer of board to which it is bonded, is slightly movable or self-adjustable relative to the other plaster covering and its support, and, therefore, stresses and strains are not transmitted from one side of the partition to the other with suflicient force to cause plaster cracks.
The outer edges ofthe stud flanges i I are preferably curved or rolled outward slightly, as shown at l5, to permit the edges oi the gypsum boards to easily be entered into the studding, and these outturned portions preferably terminate short of the upper end of the stud as shown. This enables the upper end of the stud to be easily inserted in the ceiling runner 2 and to be retained in alignment therein. The stud preferably terminates short of the floor runner l and the upper end of the stud is retained in the resilient studdlng in the same manner as illustrated and described herein, and, if desired, any adjacent free edges of the plasterboards may be secured together or retained in alignment by means of lclips applied thereto in the usual well known manner.
Fig. 4 illustrates the use of perforated plasterboard as assembled to form a plaster base. In
this embodiment, the boards I2b are provided with perforations I 6, which perforations are usually in longitudinal and transverse rows. It will, therefore, be apparent that, when the two layers of boards are assembled in the staggered relationship shown, the perforations in the respective boards will be out of alignment and, therefore, the two oppositely disposed plaster coverings will not be keyed together. If desired, the perforations may be coated with a suitable nonbonding lacquer or the like, so that there is no rigid bonding of the plaster therein.
A slightly different embodiment is illustrated in Fig. 5, in which a single layer of plasterboard may be used to form a plaster base. In this embodiment, the edges of the boards l2 are inserted in overlapping relation in the stud 9, as illustrated, and each board is provided on at least one side with a coating i1 to provide a comparatively-weak bonding surface. This coating may be of any suitable type such as sodium silicate, asphalt, aluminum foil, or other suitable material, so that a substantially weakened bond is provided in a mannerto enable slight relative plaiai movement of the plaster coverings I8 an It win be apparent that. in the embodiments herein illustrated and described, or their equivalents, a substantially monolithic or so-called solid partition may be provided, in which partition there is suflicient yieldability throughout the assembly to permit relative self-adjustment of the opposed plaster coverings and to thereby prevent cracking of these coverings irrespective of whether imperforate or perforated plaster base panels are used in the construction.
Fig. 6 illustrates an embodiment wherein one side of the plaster base i2 is provided with a substantially non-bonding surface or -coating 20 to which a thick layer of plaster 2l is applied. The
plaster layer is reinforced with channels 22 or` the like or S-studs 23 may be used. The plasterboard edges may be secured together by means of the usual clips 24 and a plaster layer 25 is applied in the usual manner to the'bonding surface of the boards I2. This latter plaster layer is reinforced by the plasterboards and the ODDOSte non-bonded layer 2l is reinforced by the studlike members 22 or 23 and relative planar selfadjustment between the two layers is permitted by the non-bonding agent 20. The Wall is therefore substantially crack-proof under all normal conditions.
It is intended, of course, that the invention should not be limited to the speciiic embodiment or embodiments disclosed herein, since modifications may be made, and it is contemplated, therefore, by the appended claims to cover any such modications as fall within the true spirit and scope of this invention.
Having thus described this invention, what is claimed and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
1. A partition construction comprising a plasterboard panel, a first continuous monolithic layer of plaster extending across one face of said panel and bonded thereto, and a second continuous monolithic layer of plaster extending across said panel on the opposite face thereof from said rst plaster layer, and facewise yieldable bonding means between said panel and said second plaster layer, whereby the first plaster layer' and the panel bonded thereto may yield facewise with respect to the second plaster layer.
2. A partition construction comprising two plasterboard panels having edge portions adjacent each other, a rst continuous monolithic layer of plaster extending across both of said panels, and a. second continuous monolithic layer of plaster extending across both of said panels on the opposite side ot said panels from said rst plaster layer, one face of each panel being bonded to a plaster layer; and facewise yieldable bonding means between each panel and a' juxtaposed porplaster extending across both of said panels, and
a second continuous monolithic layer of plaster extending across both of said panels on the opposite side of said panels from said first plaster layer, one face of each panel beingfirmly and rigidly bonded directly to a p1aster1ayer to pro'- vide a substantially monolithic two-ply rigidly bonded composite sheet, and facewise yieldable bonding means between each panel and a juxtaposed portion of the plaster layer which extends across the opposite face of said panel, whereby a plaster layer and the panel bonded directly thereto may yield facewise with respect to the other plaster layer without cracking either plaster layer.
4. A partition construction comprising two plasterboard panels having edge portions adjacent each other, a first continuous layer of plaster extending across both of said panels, and a second continuous layer of plaster extending across both of said panels on the opposite side of said panels from said rst plaster layer, one face of each panel being firmly and rigidly bonded directly to a plaster layer to provide a compositeA substantially monolithic two-ply rigidly bonded composite sheet, a facewlse yieldable bonding meansbetween each panel and a juxtaposed portion of the plaster layer which extends across the opposite face of said panel, whereby a plaster layer and the panel bonded directly thereto may yield facewise with respect to the other plaster layer without cracking either plaster layer, said facewise yieldable bonding means comprising a thin coating between each panel and a plaster layer, of such material and thickness that direct bonding between each panel and said plaster layer is substantially reduced.
" GEORGE W. BAKER.
y NEIB NELSSON.