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Publication numberUS2371201 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 13, 1945
Filing dateMar 8, 1941
Priority dateMar 8, 1941
Publication numberUS 2371201 A, US 2371201A, US-A-2371201, US2371201 A, US2371201A
InventorsWells Robert D
Original AssigneeWells Company Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Wall construction
US 2371201 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

` March 1*3, 1945.l R. D. WELLS WALL cows'rnqc'rlou Ene'd laren a, 1941 2 sheets-sheet 2 (lttomeg amssufin Patented Mar. 13, 1945 gsEP s 1941 thmush -feetiiy Neesry Wires and glpeveepul tperefor n in straight lines TD; within a 'me by the constructionhtherefereen@ a-l. ingvin material as v.welles vix? its fabricapten.v The blocks are made mayfv of having a. large number of di facturerhan Conventional! 1.0""Sll-b`1" u @fr'ef' In fabricating my WaIL "edgef all having the seme `ge though-blecks ef lsever bljock ing in multiples o f.. a. e v*between used. v Sglch ip loeksmeyl between constrilct a straight wll of eaeh the f ebricetien e; `eq1jx1ers e.3nq between tions. We.1 11s h a,v1 1g"'t w9,mth vmultiple f spaced, parallel tiers ma) 'may be' ing betweef, Sueli vtiersA @D the Size andflfmne .A oven'additlonal bee'rh; suifa where needed,'-s`uch a's fdr' cza'rrl damaged during handling. Prior to being used for wall construction, moreover. auch blocks, al` though theyl areprovided .with interlocking elements, may be stacked readily despite variation'in length, and may. be' removed fromfvthestack'iust as readily. Thil characteristicfena'bl'es my blocks to be used'fortemporary' structures.'A if desired, so

that a wallny be dismantled easily and without damage to 'I'he drawings iilustratediilerent modincations of building block units and wall constructions exemplifying my invention as deilned in the claims appended hereto. t

Figure 1 is a top perspective view-of one type i of wall structure fabricated according to my invention, and showing corner and partition junction constructions, while Figure 2 is a transverse section through a portion of such a wall.

Figure 3 is s perspective view of a portion oi' a similar wall showings reinforcement for supwalitier, illustrating how block buttons or projections interilt with sockets on an adjacent block. while Figures '8 ands are plan views of twov different types of projections or buttons, a longitudinal section through both types of block appearing the same, as shown in Figure '7.

-As has been stated, to obtain maximum uniformity of type, each building block or unit preferably has projections on one edge and complemental sockets located in corresponding positions in its opposite edge, as shown in Figures '1, 8, and 9. The most desirable shape for buttons is that of a truncated right pyramid, which, as shown in Figure 9 at i0, may. be square, although any other equilate'ral pyramid having a multiple of four sides would be. satisfactory. Alternatively, such buttons-may be circular, in the form of truncated right cones i i, as in Figure 8. Such frustoconical `projections are considered to be not as desirable as the square type, for the latter tends to maintain the interiltted blocks in either precisely parallel or precisely perpendicular relationship, depending upon their relative disposition at the time the projection and socket are fitted together.

The height and lateral extent, as well as the spacing oi' such buttons, is largely a matter oi' choice, but I have found that where a block 6 .inches high' is used satisfactory results can be obtained if the buttons are 1 inch in width at the base and V4 inch in height, lthe sockets being slightly deeper so that face to face engagement of the blocks will never be prevented by the top of a button'abutting the bottom of a socket. A wall construction such as illustrated may be satisfactorily produced from blocks having a thickness of 2 inches. If the buttons are located along the median line of the block, therefore, they should be spaced 2 inches apart from center line to center line, with the center line of the end blittonslocated half that distance,4 that is, l inch-from of transverse blocks 4.

because of the staggered relationship of trans? the adiacent block ends. The commencerai sockets, ol.' course, will be spaced .the l'saiinefv distance. apart, and preferably in positions co to the buttons, so that viiii ue directly through oiebiocrfraa button. Blocks having'` such proportions 'are shown in Figures 7,-8, and 9'. Unitli has been fore be 4 inches long: blocks l, with four buttons would be 8 inches long; blocks 6 would be 12 inches long; and blocks 1 would be '14 inches long.

The thickness of all .these blocks is the same, and, as stated previously, bears a definite relationship to the spacingof the buttons, in the blocks described such spacing being equal to the block thickness. Thus if the blocks are made 2 inches thick the thickness of one block plus the length of a l2-inch block I would equal the length of a 14-inch 5block l, as shown in the drawings. It vwill be seen, therefore, that the thickness of the blocks at their ends is the primary consideration, but ordinarily their thickness would be uniform throughout. Where such large blocks as 6 and 'l are used a smaller block, such as the unit-4, 8 inches in length if the suggested measurements are followed, is provided, to be used as a cross or tie member in constructing the bridging or bonding bulkheads interconnecting the side tiers oi theyvall, without the thickness of the wall from faceto face being excessive. Where such units are used` in the arrangements shown, and which will be described hereafter, the total wall thickness will be l2 inches, which is ordinarily suillcient. The unit 2, shown to be 4 inchesin length, is desirable i'or use in corner constructions and for fabrication of a wall of the type illustrated in Figures 4, 5, and 6. 'I'he smallest size of unit I is used as a filler in this wall.

Despite'the provision of a number of units of diierent size, varying by whole multiples of an increment, here chosen as 2 inches, manufacture ot the blocks is simplified, for they are all of equal and uniform width and height and have the same button and socket pattern, and vary only as to length. Thus one mold typean be provided for casting every size of block, and the length of block to be formed can be established in each case by appropriate end plate location. Other dimensions and other sizes of units may, of course, be provided as desired, but only a few sizes are necessary for the preferred types of wall construction.

With building blocks of the type described various forms of wall commotion are possible, but the two general types illustrated in the drawings Il prefer at present. As shown at the left of Figure 1 a typical course in one of the side tiers of the wall is composed of a continuous row of blocks 1,- each having seven buttons, whereas the alternate rows, with the exception of corner construction, are composed of blocks 6, each having six buttons. disposed in staggered arrangement with respect to blocks l, and separated from eachother by the interposed ends of transverse bonding blocks I perpendicular to the wall tier, and extending toward the opposite wail tier. The outer wall follows the same pattern in having alternate courses composed oiblocks 1 in end.. abutting relationship, with the intermediate courses made up of blocks 6, separated by the ends It will be noted that verse blocks I, as shown best in Figure 2, the

will not be opposite the courses of the inner tier composed of blocks 1.

l The spacing between the inner faces of the inner and outer tiers is shown in Figures 1 and 2 to be equal to the length of blocks 4. Obviously such spacing, and hence the total wall thickness, may be increased or decreased by increments of 2 inches, while using the same type of wall construction, merely by selecting the appropriate length of transverse blocks. These blocks, when arranged as shown to form the intertier bonds,

do not span this space individually, for each has an end projecting into and through either the inner or the outer wall tier. Such embedded end of each block 4 is, of course, provided with a buttonand a socket, the former being received in a complementa] socket in an adjacent block 1, and the socket of such block end receiving a button on the other adjacent block 1. The end of each block`4 will thus be positively connected to the tier courses both above and below it by interlockingelements. The positive interconnection or bonding of the two tiers is completed by the unembedded ends of the transverse blocks being mutually interlocked, by engagement of sockets and buttons, to hold the wall tiers in definitely spaced relationship.

Because one end of each block 4 is embedded within a wall tier, and the spacing between the tiers is equal to the length of a transverse block, therewilll be a space between the inner end of each transverse block and the adjacenttier equal to the thickness of a block. By the arrangement of the bulkheads shown in the drawings these spaces in any given wall are, for each course, all disposed in alignment to form continuous straight corridors extending lengthwise through the wall. Such corridor's enable water pipes, gas pipes, and electrical conduits, indicated at P in Figure 2, to be run lengthwise through the wall, or through a partition, in a direct line. Because of the provision of such corridors itwill be evident that such pipes need not be located in the wall as it is being erected, but maybe inserted through these wall corridors afterward, if the wall corners and partition junctions are vaccessible for making up bends and branch connections. In order to enable such a pipe installation to be made the interior of the corners and partition junctions, must also be unobstructed to enable a pipev to turn so that it may proceed through such a joining wall or partition.

In the wall shown in Figure i the partition. it will be noted, follows the same block pattern and is the same width as the wall proper. The width of the partition may be decreased if no corridors for the reception of pipes are required, either by merely moving e wall tiers closer together so that the inner end of each block 4 abuts the inner face of the adjacent tier, or by replacing blocks 4 with shorter units, or a partition like that shown in Figure 4 may be used in the construction .of Figure/1. Such variations would require a slight rearrangement of the blocks at the junction of the partition with the wall. For such junctions andfor the corner design blocks 2 are convenient for use as spacers, in the manner shown.

As has been pointed out, the wall tiers are preferably only 2 inches thick, but this is insuf-S icient to aord proper bearing for iloor joists J, which are shown in Figure 3. In order to furnish the additional bearing surface desired a double row of blocks 6 ls provided, the extra row being supported by an extra under row of vblocks 1 adjacent to the inner wall tier. These blocks 1 are centrally supported by the transverse blocks 4 beneath them each having an end embedded in the inner tier. Preferably the ends of each such block l abuts the ends of blocks similarly positioned, which will tend to prevent rocking of the blocks on their center bearings, so that a continuous row of blocks occupying awall corridor is provided to act as a foundation for the extra row of bearing blocks 6 above. 'I'he inner ends of the transverse blocks 4 of the course at the level of the extra row of blocks 1, each having one end embedded in the outer tier, will abut the sides of these blocks 1. Between the transverse blocks 4 in the next higher course then will be positioned the extra row of bearing blocksl,

Yends of joists J.

Such Joists may be preformed box units, each of a width which may be equal to the length of a block 1, although this is not necessary. The height of the ends of the joist structure should be equal to the height of a block, however, and preferably provided with sockets for reception of the buttons on the blocks B. In any event the height of the ioist member end portion should be such that its upper surface will be coextensive with the upper face of a course of blocks, so that the next course may rest upon these joist ends which replace corresponding blocks of the inner wall tier. To support roof trusses the blocks may be doubled in a similar manner adjacent the outer tier.

If larger corridors through the wall are de-I sired thegwall construction shown in Figures 4, 5, and 6 may be used. In this case' also, instead ofplacing two different lengths of blocks in the wall faces in alternate courses, the same length block 1 is used, and where transvere blocks are not embedded between them they are spaced by square blocks l. The same expedient might be used in the wall of Figure l, if desired, replacing blocks 1 with units 6 and I in each case, or, if spacers I are used between the ends of blocks 1 shown, units 1 would replace units 5 between the ends of transverse blocks 4. The thickness of the wall between its opposite faces is the same as in the form of Figure 1.

In forming the lntertier bulkheads blocks 2 are positioned transversely of the tiers, directly opposite each other, each having one end embedded in a tier and the other projecting into the interior wall space. Because the spacing between the inner faces of the wall tiers is again equal to the length of a block 4 the inner ends of such blocks 2 will be spaced apart a `distance equal to the length of a block 2. Upon these inwardly projecting ends is supported, entirely between but abutting the wall tiers, a block 4 which,

because of the interengagement of the buttons These corridors Will be twice V 'where it is desired to install pipes or the like.

Figure 1, but they will be located only in every second course of the bulkheads.

Figures 2 and 5, showing the two types of wall in section, indicates the cross-sectional area of the corridors available for housing pipes. In broken lines in these gures are indicated pipes P, which may be threaded through the bulkhead apertures forming the corridors, and may rest directly upon and be supported by the transverse blocks forming the bottoms of such apertures. It will be evident that longer building elements for the same wall thickness may be employed to eliminate apertures through the bulkheads except On the other hand, a narrow wall may be constructed, and when it is desired to leave apertures, aligned to constitute corridors, it will be only necessary to use shorter building units in such corresponding locations in all the bulkheads. Such modified constructions following the same principles will be evident to those familiar with the typical constructions disclosed herein,

A diierent type of partition construction and junction is shown in Figure 4 from that used in Figure 1, although the partition in some or all instances may instead be similar to the main wall construction. Considerable space is saved by using the type of partition shown, but it Will be evidentI that pipes cannot be accommodated in such a partition, for it is of Solid construction. In this partition the wall tiers are in face-to-face contact, and are directly interconnected by block s 2. The appearance of the partiticns face is the same as that of a wall face, since in each course the blocks l are spaced by the end of a block 2, and the blocks 'I in superposed courses are in staggered relationship.

Figure 6 shows the type of constructio-n which may be employed for supporting floor joists, so that they will rest on a suiiiciently wide bearing.

Because in this type of construction apertures adjoining the inner wall tier are not available, blocks l are supported centrally on blocks 4 in position adjacent to but spaced from the inner wall tier, s0 that the inner ends of blocks 2 embedded in the inner tier will abut the sides of such blocks l. Because of the interposition'of the ends of blocks 2 in the corresponding course the adjacent ends of the blocks of such a row will be spaced apart by the width of a block, as shown, which blocks will be prevented from tipping, however, because, as in Figure 3, they are anchored at top and bottom by socket and button interengagement with blocks 4 above and below them. Of course if a longer unit were used for such under row of extra blocks they could mutually abutthough supported at their centers.

This lower row of inner blocks l will then serve to support above them the extral bearing row of blocks 1, which latter blocks are interposed between transverse blocks 4. The ends of the floor joist units J will then span this upper extra row of blocks 1 and the adjacent wall tier. It will be evident that the adjacent ends of transverse blocks 4 will also aid in supporting the joists.

The same width ofv bearing will thus be afforded by this construction as by that shown in Figure 3, although the bearing zones will be spaced apart a distance equal to the thickness of one block. The same type of preformed joist as previously described may be used, the end of which is preferably the same height as that of a block, to occupy one course of thetier. Similarly if roof trusses are to be supported the additional row of bearing blocks will be placed adjacent to the outer Wall tier instead of the inner tier, since such trusses are supported from the outer edge of the wall.

The corner constructions and partition junctions have not been described in detail, for various arrangements of blocks may be used depending upon where such corners and junctions come in the wall. A typical satisfactory arrangement is shown clearly in' the drawings for each type 'of construction. The principal features of importance are the arrangement of the type of block shown for making diierent styles of wall proper. for different partition requirements, and for providing adequate bearing support for iloor joists and roof trusses, as has been described, all by the use of a few sizes of blocks of the same pattern. v

For the wall of Figure 1 only four sizes of blocks are required, namely, blocks 2, 4, 6 and 1, while for that of Figure 4 only four sizes are required, namely, blocks I, 2, 4 and 1. The number of block sizes needed may be reduced even farther for walls of certain dimensions, or for walls which do not require uniformity and symmetry of appearance in the exposed wall faces.

What I claim as my invention is:

1. A wall structure composed of building blocks defining an outer and an inner tier disposed in spaced, parallel relationship, bulkheads interconnecting said outer and inner tiers, ad-

jacent bulkheads being correspondingly apertured to denne Ia straight corridor extending lengthwise through the wall, means extending lengthwise through such corridor and supported from the bulkheads,l and members within the wall interposed between adjacent bulkheads and supported from said means constituting a bearing member for a structure supportedby the wall.

2. A wall structure composed of building blocks defining an outer and an inner tier disposed in spaced, parallel relationship, bulkheads interconnecting said outer and inner tiers composed of superposed courses of building blocks, and correspondingly apertaired to define straight corridors extending through the bulkheads, supporting members received one in each bulkhead aperture of such a corridor and centrally supported by such bulkhead, and members interposed between said bulkheads and supported by and spanning adjacent ends of said first members, and constituting bearings for a structure supported by the wall.

3. A wall structure composed of building blocks denning two tiers disposed in spaced, parallel relationship, and bulkheads interconf necting said tiers, all the blocks incorporated in both of said tiers and in said bulkheads being of the same thickness and each block having projections along one edge equally spaced apart distances-substantially equal to the blocks thickness and complemental sockets in corresponding positions in its opposite edge, such projections and sockets being of the same extent lengthwise and transversely of the blocks, all the blocks in a given layer of all said bulkheads having corresponding ends embedded in the same layer of one tier and having their opposite corresponding ends all spaced from the same layer of the other tier to denne a linear corridor extending uninterruptedly lengthwise through the wall space alongside the latter tierl each adjacent pair of said embedded bulkhead block ends being spaced apart by one tier block in the same layer, abutting such ends, having an even number of projections and sockets, and being of a length at least as great as the length of such bulkhead -same ofsaid r'st A g 2,371,201 blocks, the same layer-'fof the other tier, which l defines such corridor; being composed of blocks having an oddnumber ofprojections and sockets, one more of each than the tier blocks in the tier abutting the embedded' ends of the bulkhead blocks in such layer, and oi' a length equal to the length of a latter tier block plus the width of a bulkhead block, the tier blocks in the tier layers adjoining the embedded ends of such bulkhead blocks also having an odd number of projections and sockets, and being equal in length to the blocks in such given layer. of the other tier, the projection and socket o! the tier embedded end of each bulkhead block being engaged, respectively, with the socket and projection midway between the ends of the tier blocks in the adjoining tier layers, and a projection and a socket of the other .end of each bulkhead block being engaged, respectively, with a socket and a projection of the blocks in the adjoining bulkhead layers.

4. A wall structure composed of buildingblocks defining two tiers disposed in spaced,

number oi projections and sockets and being of a length at least as great as the length of such bulkhead block, and the tier blocks in the tier layers adjoining such embedded bulkhead block end being of a length greater than such bulkhead block and such tier blocks and having an odd number of sockets and projections, the projection and socket of the tier embedded end of each bulkhead block being engaged, respectively, with the socket and projection midway between the ends of the tier blocks in the adjoining tier layers, and a projection and a socket of the other end of each bulkhead block being engaged, respectively, with a socket and a projection of the blocks in the adjoining bulkhead layers.

`5. A wall structure lcomposed of building blocks dening `two tiers ydisposed in spaced, parallel relationship, and bulkheads interconnecting said tiers, all the blocks `constituting both of said tiers and saicl bulkheads having projections and complementalvsockets of identiparallel relationship, and bulkheads interconnecting said tiers, all blocks incorporatedI in both of said tiers and in said lbulkheads being of the same thickness and each block having projec-l tions along one edge equally spaced apart distances substantially equal to the blocks thickness and complemental sockets in corresponding positions in its opposite edge, such projections andsockets being of the same extent lengthwise and transversely of the blocks, all the blocks in la given layer oi all said bulkheads having corresponding ends embedded in the same layer of one tier and having their opposite correspending ends all spaced from the same layer oi the other tier to define a linear corridor extending uninterruptedly lengthwise through the wall space alongside the latter tier, the tier blocks abutting the embedded end o! each bulkhead block and in the same layer having an even c'al shape, such projections and sockets being of the same extent lengthwise and transvers'ely of th'e blocks, each bulkhead block having one end embedded in one tier interposed between abutting tier blocks vin the same layer having equal, even numbers of projections, and such bulkhead block end having a projection and a socket engaged, respectively, with a socketvandfa projection midway between the ends of blocks in the adjoining layers of saidtier having equal, odd

numbers of projections, the 'odd lnumber of projections on each such tier block exceeding by one only the even numbers of projections on said abutting tier blocks in the layer in whichV the end of the bulkhead block is embedded, and the other end of each bulkhead block being incorporated in the bulkhead and having a projection and a socket engaged, respectively, vwith a sock- 40 et and a projection ot blocks in the adjoining bulkhead layers.

ROBERT D. WELLS.

cna'rrr'rcirs coansc'rrox.

Patent No. 2,571,201.

Maren 15, 19h5.

RQBERT D. WELLS.

v It is hereby certified that4 error appears in the printed specification ofthe above numbered patent requiring correctionas fbllloNs: Page 5, first column, lline 5, c1eim5., after' the Mord ifamine", inserti? `1ayer; andlthat the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the'case" teigne Patent office.

signed and senesi-,his 12th 4any of June, A. D. .1915. 4'

(Seal) Leslie Frazer I Acting Comissioner of Patente.

-same ofsaid r'st A g 2,371,201 blocks, the same layer-'fof the other tier, which l defines such corridor; being composed of blocks having an oddnumber ofprojections and sockets, one more of each than the tier blocks in the tier abutting the embedded' ends of the bulkhead blocks in such layer, and oi' a length equal to the length of a latter tier block plus the width of a bulkhead block, the tier blocks in the tier layers adjoining the embedded ends of such bulkhead blocks also having an odd number of projections and sockets, and being equal in length to the blocks in such given layer. of the other tier, the projection and socket o! the tier embedded end of each bulkhead block being engaged, respectively, with the socket and projection midway between the ends of the tier blocks in the adjoining tier layers, and a projection and a socket of the other .end of each bulkhead block being engaged, respectively, with a socket and a projection of the blocks in the adjoining bulkhead layers.

4. A wall structure composed of buildingblocks defining two tiers disposed in spaced,

number oi projections and sockets and being of a length at least as great as the length of such bulkhead block, and the tier blocks in the tier layers adjoining such embedded bulkhead block end being of a length greater than such bulkhead block and such tier blocks and having an odd number of sockets and projections, the projection and socket of the tier embedded end of each bulkhead block being engaged, respectively, with the socket and projection midway between the ends of the tier blocks in the adjoining tier layers, and a projection and a socket of the other end of each bulkhead block being engaged, respectively, with a socket and a projection of the blocks in the adjoining bulkhead layers.

`5. A wall structure lcomposed of building blocks dening `two tiers ydisposed in spaced, parallel relationship, and bulkheads interconnecting said tiers, all the blocks `constituting both of said tiers and saicl bulkheads having projections and complementalvsockets of identiparallel relationship, and bulkheads interconnecting said tiers, all blocks incorporatedI in both of said tiers and in said lbulkheads being of the same thickness and each block having projec-l tions along one edge equally spaced apart distances substantially equal to the blocks thickness and complemental sockets in corresponding positions in its opposite edge, such projections andsockets being of the same extent lengthwise and transversely of the blocks, all the blocks in la given layer oi all said bulkheads having corresponding ends embedded in the same layer of one tier and having their opposite correspending ends all spaced from the same layer oi the other tier to define a linear corridor extending uninterruptedly lengthwise through the wall space alongside the latter tier, the tier blocks abutting the embedded end o! each bulkhead block and in the same layer having an even c'al shape, such projections and sockets being of the same extent lengthwise and transvers'ely of th'e blocks, each bulkhead block having one end embedded in one tier interposed between abutting tier blocks vin the same layer having equal, even numbers of projections, and such bulkhead block end having a projection and a socket engaged, respectively, with a socketvandfa projection midway between the ends of blocks in the adjoining layers of saidtier having equal, odd

numbers of projections, the 'odd lnumber of projections on each such tier block exceeding by one only the even numbers of projections on said abutting tier blocks in the layer in whichV the end of the bulkhead block is embedded, and the other end of each bulkhead block being incorporated in the bulkhead and having a projection and a socket engaged, respectively, vwith a sock- 40 et and a projection ot blocks in the adjoining bulkhead layers.

ROBERT D. WELLS.

cna'rrr'rcirs coansc'rrox.

Patent No. 2,571,201.

Maren 15, 19h5.

RQBERT D. WELLS.

v It is hereby certified that4 error appears in the printed specification ofthe above numbered patent requiring correctionas fbllloNs: Page 5, first column, lline 5, c1eim5., after' the Mord ifamine", inserti? `1ayer; andlthat the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the'case" teigne Patent office.

signed and senesi-,his 12th 4any of June, A. D. .1915. 4'

(Seal) Leslie Frazer I Acting Comissioner of Patente.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification52/505, 52/567, 52/592.3
International ClassificationE04B2/30
Cooperative ClassificationE04B2/30
European ClassificationE04B2/30