US 2372790 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
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Patented Apr. 3, 1945 DRIER Charles E. Morgenstern, St. Joseph, Mlch., as-
signor to Nineteen Hundred Corporation, St. Joseph, Mich., a corporation of New York Application September 12, 1941, Serial No. 410,515
This invention relates to a drier, and more particularly, to a clothes drier of the rotating drum or tumbler type and having heating and air circulating means associated therewith,
In order to facilitate the drying of clothes and particularly clothes which have been washed by the so-called home laundry" washing machine, it is desirable not only to remove the surplus water from the clothes such as may be done by a centrifugal extractor, but it is also desirable to further dry the clothes by circulating warm air thereoyer and therethrough. One of the features of the present invention is to provide a drying machine which includes a rotating drum which gently tumbles the clothes through a circulating stream of warm air.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a novel drying mechanism having the above referred to characteristics.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a drier having a rotating drum in which the articles to be dried are tumbled, and passing a stream of warm air through the drum while the articles are being tumbled therein.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a clothes drier of the rotating drum type in which the peripheral surface of the drum is heated and in which air is circulated axially through the drum.
Another and still further object of the present invention is to provide a novel method and means for drying clothes and other articles.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide novel driving mechanism for a rotating drum clothes drier.
Still another and further object of the present invention is to provide a novel means for heating and drying clothes and other articles.
The novel features which I believe to be characteristic of my invention are set forth with particularity in the appended claims, My invention itself, however, both as to its organization, manner of construction, and method of operation, together with further objects and advantages thereof, may best be understood by reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is an isometric view of a clothes drier incorporating the novel features of the present invention;
Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view of the drier taken on a plane passing from the front to the rear of the machine through the center thereof as taken along the line IIII of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is an irregular sectional view of the Figure 4 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view of one of the ribs in the rotating drum;
Figure 5 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view through the door in the front of the machine;
I Figure 6 is a view similar to Figure 2, but showing a, modified form of drier; and,
Figure 7 is a rear vertical sectional view taken immediately inside the rear of the casing or shroud and looking toward the operating mechanism.
Referring now to Figures 1 to 5 of the drawings, which illustrate a preferred embodiment of the present invention, there is illustrated therein a rotary drum drier I having a shroud or casing II which encloses the operating parts of the mechanism. As may be seen best in Figure 1, the shroud or casing II has a sloping upper front wall portion I2 which is provided with a series of louvres l3 which extend not only over the greater portion of the sloping wall l2 but also extend down into the lower vertically extending wall portion M. A clothes door I is provided in the sloping wall portion l2 and the central portion of this door is also provided with a series of louvres I6 through which air may circulate. As may be seen best in Figures 2 and 3 the bottom of the drier I0 is closed off by a base plate H which has a short upstanding wall flange I8 and an outer lip portion IS. The side walls of the casing or shroud II are provided along their lower edge with a complementary lip formation 2| which is welded or otherwise suitably secured to the lip portion IQ of the base H.
The rear of the casing or shroud II is provided with a rear panel Ill having louvres I42 therein to permit the free influx of air in a manner presently to be described. The top of the casing or shroud II is provided with a top wall portion or cover plate 22. An inturned flange 23 is provided on the top wall portion 22 and is arranged to be seated on a complementary inturned flange 24 on the side walls 20 and on the complementary inturned flange 25 formed on the sloping front wall portion l2,
Rotatably mounted within the housing or shroud H is a drum 26 which is arranged to receive and gently tumble the clothes as they are being dried. The drum 26 includes a cylindrical metal shell 21 having radially outwardly turned flanges 28 and 29 at either end. The shell 21 is made of a solid, imperforate piece of metal in contrast to the usual wire mesh screen heretofore employed. This has been found to prevent drier as taken along the line III-III f Figure 2; accumulation of lint which is always present in perforated cylindrical drums. A drum end or conical shell portion is welded or otherwise suitably secured to the front end of the cylindrical shell 21. a radially outwardly turned flange portion 3| being provided for cooperation with the flange 28 on the shell 21. The drum end 30 has a large central aperture 32 which is defined by a forwardly turned flange 33. A portion of the conical drum end 30 adjacent the forwardly turned flange 33 is perforated as at 34 to permit free circulation of air therethrough, as well as through the central opening 32.
The rear end of the drum 26 is provided with an end ring plate 35 which is in the form of a flat annulus which is welded or otherwise suitably secured to the radially outwardly turned flange 29 on the cylindrical shell 21. The opening which is left by the annulus 35 is covered by a wire screen 36 which is retained in place by an angle ring 31. The drum 26 is carried on a rigid spider 38 which has three legs 39, which are riveted or otherwise suitably secured to the annulus 35. The spider 38 has a central hub portion 40. Although this spider 38 may be formed in a wide variety of manners without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, it is preferably formed of a plurality of parts, the hub portion 40 being one part and the radiating arms 39 being a separate and additional part. In such event, the central hub portion is provided with short stub arms 4| to which the long arms 39 are secured in any suitable manner.
The drum 26 is rotatably mounted on a short shaft 42 which in turn is carried in two spaced bearing members 43 and 44. The bearings 43 and .44 are carried on two pedestals and 46, respectively. As is clearly shown in Figure 3, the bearing 44 is bolted to the pedestal 46 a at 41. The bearing 43 is similarly secured to its pedestal 45.
As an inspection of Figure 2 will clearly show, the shaft 42 is mounted at an angle to the base and more particularly is mounted along an axis perpendicular to the inclined front wall portion l2. To this end, the pedestals 45 and 46 are mounted on a pair of inclined ribs 48 which are u-shaped in cross section a shown in Figure 3, and which are riveted to the base plate H as at 49. It will, of course, be understood that the hub 40 is press-fitted or otherwise secured to the shaft 42 for rotation therewith and accordingly the drum 26 is arranged to be driven by t e shaft 42 when the latter is positively rotated. Mounted on the shaft 42 between the bearings 43 and 44 is a propeller or fan 58. The propeller or fan 50 includes a plurality of blades 5| which are carried on a propeller hub 52. The hub 52 includes a pair of cylindrical central bearing sleeves 53 which permit independent rotation of the propeller or fan 50 on the shaft 42. That is to say, the propeller 58 is free to rotate or move at a different speed than the shaft 42. As will presently be brought out, the propeller 56 is arranged to be rotated at a much higher speed than the speed of rotation of the drum 26.
The driving mechanism for both the drum 28 and the propeller 50 is an electric motor 54 which is mounted on the base H with its drive shaft 55 disposed parallel to the driven shaft 42, which carries the drum 26. A U-shaped bracket 56 is mounted on a sub-base 51 and provides the necessary support and mounting for the motor. A flexible driving connection is provided between the driving member and the driven parts. More 64, and the hub 52 of the propeller 50.
specifically, the driving connection comprises a plurality of sheaves or pulleys and a flexible endless belt connection I The direct drive to the fan or propeller will be described first. The motor drive shaft 55 is provided with a sheave 58. The hub 52 of the propeller 50 is provided with a peripheral V-shaped groove 59. An idler sheave 60 is mounted on the hub 6|, which in turn is rotatably mounted on a stub-shaft 62. A journal bearing is provided by a bearing sleeve 63, which extends through the bore of the hub 6|. The shaft 62 is rigidly carried on a take-up slide 64 which is freely mounted in a take-up slide guide 65. The take-up slide guide provides an enlarged passageway for the take-up slide which enables free movement of the take-up slide in all directions lying in the plane of the slide (that is, in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the shaft 62). A helical spring 66 is secured at one end to the lower stationary frame as at 61 and at the upper end to a finger 68. This in effect tends to pull the upper left corner of the take-up slide (as viewed from the rear) away from the motor 54 and downwardly toward the base I! of thecasing. An endless belt 69, having a generally V-shaped cross section, extends around the sheave 56 on the motor 54, the idler sheave 60, which is freely mounted on the stub-shaft 62 carried by the take-up slide The spring 66 maintains the endless belt 69 taut at all times and thereby enables the motor 54 to directly drive the propeller 50.
A reduced speed drive from the motor 54 to the drum 26 is provided by mounting a large sheave I0 rigidly on shaft 42 and by providing a V-shaped peripheral groove ll in the hub 6| which carries the sheave 60. An endless belt 12 extends around the large sheave l0 and the groove portion H of the hub 6|, as is clearly shown in the drawings. By virtue of the downward pull of the balancing spring 66 on the takeup slide 64 the stub-shaft 62 which carries the hub 6| is urged downwardly to maintain the endless belt l2 taut at all times. Due to the fact that the large sheave Ill is many times the diameter of the grooved hub portion II it will at once be understood that a reduced speed drive is provided for the drum 26.
The take-up slide and the manner in which it tensions two endless belts in different directions is one of the important novel features of the present invention.
Means for heating the drum 26 and for heating the air forced therethrough is provided in the preferred embodiment of the invention by an electric element 13 which is in the form of a band extending around the outer peripheral surface of the metal drum 26. A band of insulating material 14 extends around the drum over the heating element 13. The assembly is completed by a steel clamp band 15 which extends around the insulation 14 and clamps both the insulation and the electric heating element 13 to the drum 25.
Mounted on the rear of the drum frame are a pair of commutator rings 16 and 11. The opposite ends of the heating element I3 are electrically connected to the outer and inner slip rings 16 and 17 by conductors I8 and '19, which extend across the outer surface of the drum 26 to the rear end thereof (not shown) and then down one of the channel shaped arms 39. The slip rings 16 and H are engaged by a pair of contact fingers (only one of which is shown). which are in turn connected to a suitable source of electric power for heating the heating element I3.
In order to prevent heat losses on the exterior side of the drum 28, the outer peripheral surface of the drum is covered with an insulating material 8|, such as shredded asbestos, rock wool, or the like, which is held in place by a pair of steel bands 82.
In order to prevent the clothes which are placed in the rotating drum 28 from becoming wadded up or bunched, a plurality of ribs 83 are provided on the inner surface of the drum 28. These ribs extend parallel to the axis of rotation of the drum and project radially inwardly from the inner surface of the drum 28. The ribs 83 are preferably formed of sheet metal stock which is folded in the manner as is clearly shown in Figure 4. More particularly, the sheet metal stock is folded in such a manner as to provide spaced side wall portions 84, a rounded inner end 88 and overlapping marginal portions 88. The overlapping marginal portions are riveted to the peripheral wall 21 of the drum 28 as at 81. A clip 88 is provided at each end of each of the ribs 83 which firmly hold the ribs 83 in place. The clip 88 is of U- shape and has a central portion 88 which is riveted to the ends of the drum as at 30. The legs of the U-shaped clip 88 are riveted to the side walls 84 of the rib 83 as at Ill.
The clothes door I in the sloping front wall I2 which affords access to the interior of the rotating drum 26 is hingedly mounted on the shroud or casing H as at 92. Two hinges are preferably provided along one vertical edge of the door II. A pair of rubber bumpers 03 are provided at the opposite side of the door which abut against the sloping front wall I2 of the shroud H. While a lock or fastening means may be provided for the door if desired, preferably no latch or other locking mechanism is employed. It has been found that the door will be maintained closed under all normal operating conditions due to the, fact that the front wall portion on which the door is mounted is sloping, and the door is consequently held in its closed position by gravity. If there is any stoppage or restriction of air flow for any reason whatsoever, or if some unusual condition tries to force the clothes out of the drum they will open the door automatically and thus avoid serious damage to the machine.
The machine performs its drying operation on any laundered clothes or the like in the following manner:
The clothes are placed in the drum 28 after the heating element I3 has been energized for a suflicient length of time to raise the temperature within the drum 28. The motor 54 is then connected which causes the drum 28 to rotate at relatively slow speed while simultaneously it causes the propeller 50 to rotate at high speed. The rotation of the drum 28 causes a gentle tumbling action of the clothes contained therein.
Due to the relativel high velocity air stream passing axially through the drum there is a tendency for the clothes to be fluifed or billowed out as they fall from a point near the top of the drum. The air passing axially through the drum is heated due to the fact that the peripheral surface 21 of the drum 28 has been heated by the electric heating element 13. This warm stream of air dries the clothes within the drum. It has been found that due to the tumbling action of the clothes none of theclothes remain in continuous contact with the inner surface of the drum 28, and for that reason there is no danger of burning or scorching any of the clothes contained therein. After the clothes have been dried, the motor 84 is deenergized and after the door I8 has been opened the clothes are removed.
In Figures 6 and 7 of the drawings, I have illustrated a diflerent embodiment of the present invention. The principal differences between this embodiment of the present invention and that illustrated in Figures 1 to 5, inclusive, are the manner in which the air stream is heated and the manner in which the drum is rotated.
The drying mechanism of the second embodiment of the present invention is contained within a housing or shroud I00 which includes side walls IN, a front wall I02, a top plate I03, and a bottom plate or base I04. The front wall I02 is equipped with a door I05 which is hingedly mounted in any suitable manner (not shown) to the front wall I02. A clothes receiving drum I08 is rotatably mounted within the housing I00 for rotation about a horizontal axis. More specifically, the drum I08 is supported on two pairs of flanged wheels I01 and I08 which are mounted on rotatable shafts I03 and I I0, respectively. The flanged portion of the wheels I01 and I08 constrain the drum I08 and keep it from moving in an axial direction. The location of the wheels I01 and I08 themselves keeps the drum I08 from moving transversely of the axis of rotation of the drum I08. As will be seen from the above explanation, a floating support for the drum I08 is provided.
The shafts I08 and H0 are rotatably carried in bearings III and II2 which are carried on suitable pedestals H3 and H4. It will, of course, be understood that a set of bearings III and II2 and associated pedestals H3 and Ill are provided for each of the shafts. The wheels I01 and I08 are rigidly mounted on their respective shafts I08 and II 0 and are accordingly arranged to be driven thereby. Each shaft I08 and H0 overhangs and extends beyond its rear bearing II2 and has mounted thereon a sheave H5 and I I8, respectively,
A stationary spider frame In is mounted to the rear of the drum I08. The spider II! includes a circular band H8 and a plurality of radially extending arms II9 which are connected at their inner ends to a second circular band I20. The outer circular band I I8 is welded or otherwise suitably secured to a structural frame member I2I which in turn is mounted on a pair of channel members I22. As an inspection of Figure 6 will clearly show, the outer ring II 8 is of much greater width than the width of the arms II! or the width of the inner circular band I 20.
An electric motor I23 is mounted within the inner circular band I 20 of the spider II! and is fully and completely supported thereby. The drive shaft I24 of the motor I23 is provided with a sheave I25 of relatively small diameter as compared with the diameters of the sheaves H5 and H8. An endless belt I28 extends around the motor sheave I 25 and the large sheaves IIS and H8. Rotation of the motor drive shaft I24 thereby causes rotation of the drum supporting shafts I09 and H0 which in turn through the wheels I01 and I 08 cause rotation of the drum I08. The belt I28 is tensioned by an idling sheave I21 which is carried on a pivotally mounted arm I28. The weight of the arm I28 and the sheave I21 cause the endless belt I28 to be tensioned in a manner well known to those skilled in the art. The gravity action of the arm I28 and the sheave I21 may, if desired, be supplemented by spring biasing means.
Means for circulating air through the drum I06 is provided for by a propeller I29 which is tightly secured to the motor drive shaft I24 which also extends out the front end of the motor. It will -thus be understood that the propeller I29 rotates at the same speed as the motor.
Means for heating the air stream is provided for by a heating spider I30 which is secured by angle brackets I3I to the inner circular band I20 of the stationary spider frame In. The spider I30 is heated by an electric heating element I32 which extends around the outer peripheral surface of the spider I30. The electrical heating element I32 is clamped in place by a steel band I33 the ends of which are held together by a bolt I34. The spider or grid I30 is formed of iron or other suitable heat conducting metal, such that air passing therethrough and thereover will be heated thereby. The grid or spider I30 is, of course, directly heated by the electric heating element I32. While no electrical connections are shown for the electric heating element I32, it will, of course, be understood that this heating element is arranged to be connected to a suitable source of electrical energy.
The rotatable drum I06, as in the preferred embodiment of the invention, is provided with a plurality of ribs I 35. In this particular embodiment of the invention four ribs are intended to be employed within the rotating drum I06, but it is of course to be understood that any number may be employed without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. These ribs I35 may be secured to the end plates or rings I36 and I31 of the drum I06 in the same manner as that described in connection with the preferred embodiment of the present invention. An annular ring I38 is provided on the drum I06 at the front end. The annular region between the ring I30 and the annular wall portion I36 is covered by a screen I39 a circular angle iron I40 being provided to clamp the screen I39 to the annular wall portion I36.
In order to dry clothes shown in the unit in Figures 6 and '7, the door I is opened and the clothes inserted in the rotatable drum I06. The heating element I32 is energized which causes the spider or grid I30 to become hot. Since the propeller I29 and the grid I30 are both within the interior of the outer annular ring or cylindrical shell II 8, it will be observed that air is sucked over the heating element and then impelled axially through the rotatable drum I06. Energization of the motor I23 rotates the propeller I29 at high speed and rotates the drum I06 at relatively slow speed. It will be understood that the air is then exhausted through suitable openings I43 in the front of the housing in a manner similar to that described above in reference to Figure 2. Rotation of the drum I06 causes a tumbling action of the clothes contained therein. Due to the blast of warm air passing axially through the drum, the clothes are billowed and flufied as they fall from the side of the drum to the bottom during rotation.
While I have shown and described certain particular embodiments of my invention, it will, of course, be understood that I do not wish to be limited thereto, since many modifications may be made, and I, therefore, contemplate by the appended claims to cover all such modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of my invention.
I claim as my invention:
1. A clothes drier comprising a supporting frame, a clothes receiving drum having a completely imperforate generally cylindrical wall. and having openings at both ends, said drum being rotatably mounted on said frame, power means carried by said frame for rotating said drum, heating means extending peripherally around and extending axially of at least a portion of said generally cylindrical wall, means supplying energy to the heating means, a propelling means in proximity to one end of said drum for circulating air axially therethrough, and means for driving said propelling means from said power means.
2. A clothes drier comprising a supporting frame, a shaft mounted for rotation on said frame, a clothes receiving drum fixedly mounted on said shaft in a cantilever fashion, said drum having a substantially imperforate peripheral surface and axially aligned openings at both ends, the axis of rotation of said drum being disposed at an oblique angle to the horizontal, a casing surrounding said drum and having a door therein opposite an end of said drum for depositing and removing clothes from said drum, said casing having openings therein opposite said openings in said drum, including openings in said door, so as to provide a substantially unobstructed passage for air through said casing and drum, means including a rotatable propeller mounted on said shaft for moving air axially through said drum to the atmosphere, means to heat said air prior to its discharge from said drum, and power means carried by said frame for rotating said shaft and said propeller.
3. A clothes drier comprising a supporting frame, a clothes receiving drum having openings at both ends, a driven shaft rotatably mounted on said frame and secured to and carrying said drum, means for rotating said shaft, air heating means for heating the interior of said drum, and a propeller rotatably mounted on said driven shaft and arranged to cause air to pass axially through the openings in the drum while it is rotated, and means for rotating said drum and said propeller.
4. A clothes drier comprising a supporting frame, a clothes receiving drum having openings at both ends, a driven shaft rotatably mounted on said frame and secured to and carrying said drum, means for rotating said shaft, air heating means for heating the interior of said drum, and a propeller rotatably mounted on said driven shaft and arranged to cause air to pass axially through the openings in the drum while it is rotated, rotating driving means, and power transmission means hetween said driving means and said drum and between said driving means and said propeller for rotating said drum at relatively slow speed and for rotating said propeller at relatively high speed.
5. A clothes drier comprising a supporting frame, a clothes receiving drum having a completely imperforate heat conducting generally cylindrical body portion and having openings only at the ends thereof, said drum being rotatably mounted on said frame, power means carried by said frame for rotating said drum, a heating element mounted on the exterior surface of said cylindrical body portion of said drum, means supplying energy to said heating element, an insulating covering extending over said heating element and the peripheral surface of said drum for reducing heat radiation losses exteriorly of the drum, a propelling means in proximity to one end of said drum for circulating air axially therethrough, and means for driving said propelling means from said power means.
6. A clothes drier comprising a supporting frame, a clothes receiving drum having substantially axially aligned openings at the ends thereof, said drum being rotatably mounted on. said frame about an axis inclined to the horizontal, means including a rotatable shaft for rotating said drum, a shroud covering said drum and said rotating means, said shroud having a sloping front wall portion lying in a plane substantially perpendicular to the axis of rotation of said drum, said front wall portion having a clothes door therein for depositing and removing clothes from said drum, said shroud having openings 4 therein opposite those in the ends of said drum,
said drum and through said shroud openings to the atmosphere, means to heat said air prior to its discharge from said drum, and power means carried on said-frame for rotating said shaft and said propeller.
'7. A clothes drier comprising a supporting frame, a clothes receiving drum having axially aligned openings at the'ends thereof, said drum' being rotatably mounted on said frame about an axis inclined to the horizontal, means for rotating said drum, a shroud covering said drum and said rotating means, saidshroud having a sloping front wall portion lying in a plane substantially perpendicular to the axis of rotation of said CHARLES E. mononns'rnan. I