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Publication numberUS2373363 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 10, 1945
Filing dateApr 5, 1939
Priority dateApr 5, 1939
Publication numberUS 2373363 A, US 2373363A, US-A-2373363, US2373363 A, US2373363A
InventorsHubert Wellcome
Original AssigneeHubert Wellcome
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Projectile
US 2373363 A
Images(3)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

www www April 1o, 1945.

H. WELLCOM'E PROJEGTILE Filed April 5, 1939 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 I u m l Il I l* I l fili@ April 10, H WELLCQME PROJECTILE v Filed Abril 5, 1939 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Flc. 10 l FIG'. 11

f ////v//////////v/////////1 A/l/f/ ///////////4A INVENTQR." HUBERT WELLcoME Byljf' EXPLOSNE DEViCS Patented Apr. 10, 1945 UNITED STATES PATENT QFFICE Claims.

The present invention relates to ordnance projectiles of the bolas type designed primarily for use against aircraft but adaptable for other uses.

The invention has for an object to provide an improved projectile of the type wherein a bolas is projected in compact condition and spread as it aproaches the target.

Another object is to provide a projectile comprising a bol-as consisting of weights connected by Wires which wires are so coiled that they can readily uncoil in flight.

Another object is to provide a bolas, the wires of which will have a low resistance to flight through the air.

Another object is to make provision whereby rotation of the weights will not unduly twist the wires.

Another object is to make provision for increasing the rotation of the weights of the bolas about the centre of the projectile thereby increasing the energy available for spreading the bolas.

The present invention provides a projectile wherein a bolas is adapted to be released from an enclosing shell and spread with considerable energy. to extend over a wide area. The bolas weights are spread by centrifugal force and under conditions such that they move outward radially with substantially equal angles between their trajectories thereby providing a desirable even spread. Provision is made for increasing the rate of rotation of the group of weights over the rate of rotation of the shell for the purpose of increasing the energy available for spreading the bolas at the moment of release from the shell.

Suitable swivel connections between the wires and l weights permit the rotation of the weights without causing an undesirable twisting of the wires. The connection is designed with due regard to the rotative movement of the weight which is derived from the rotation of the shell in iiight.

In the illustrated embodiment the wires of the bolas are twisted together in the form of a cable which is coiled within the shell. The arrangement of the coil'is such that the cable is drawn from the centre of the coil by the weights as they are projected radially outward by centrifugal force. By this arrangement the rotative inertia of the coil does not act against the pull o-f the weights. The twist of the cable is sodesigned that as the weights pull there will not be too great a diierence between the twisting in one direction due to some factors and the twisting in the other direction due to other factors.

The nature and objects of the invention will be better understood from a description of an illustrative embodiment thereof for the purpose of which description reference should be had to` the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof and in which- Figure 1 is a central longitudinal sectional view of a projectile embodying certain principles of the invention,

Figs. 2A and 2B are horizontal sectional views taken on the line Y-Y of Fig. 1 showing the positions of the clip supporting bracket 8H respectively in position before and after the iirst two layers of the coil of wire have been drawn from within the coil,

Fig. 3 is a horizontal sectional view taken on the line X-X' of Fig. 1,

Figs. 4A and 4B are views showing a modified form of connection between the weight and bolas wire,

Fig. 4C is a bottom view of the weight shown 2o in Fig. 4A,

Fig. 4D is a sectional view taken on the line Z-Z of Fig. 4C,

Fig. 5A is a plan view of the weight supporting segments |2B,

Fig. 5B is a vertical sectional view of the cover plate I2 and supporting segments |2B,

Fig. 6A is a plan view of the clip supporting bracket 8H, 4

Fig. 6B is a central sectional View of the spacing ring I5,

Fig. 6C is a view in elevation of one of the clip suporting brackets 8H, y

Figs. '7A and 7B are respectively a bottom plan and a sectional view of the outer member HA of the wire clip,

Fig. 7C is a. sectional view of the intermediate member I 1C of the clip Il,

Fig. 8A is a vertical sectional view of another form of wire clip shown as applied for securing together round wires,

Fig. 8Bvis a sectional view taken on a line between the members IUA and IDB of the clip shown in Fig. 8A,

Figs. 9A and 9B are sectional Views sho-wing respectively seven and six streamlined Wires twisted together,

Fig. l0 is a view of :a modified form of connection between the weight and wire,

Figs. 11 and l2 are respectively plan and sectional views showing a modified form of weight and connection thereto, and

Fig. 13 is a diagrammatic view of the projectile in iiight after ejection of the bolas from the shell and at a moment when the bolas is partly but not entirely spread.

In the illustrative embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 1 the shell I with a shell base 2 and a shell head 3 carries a bolas and a charge of explosive 4 positioned, upon explosion, to project the bolas from the shell. The usual nose cap and timing fuse are not shown in the drawings but will be fitted into the shell head 3 as is usual practice. The threaded connection 2A between the base and body of the shell may be welded, if desired, for greater strength. The threads 3A of the head are designed to shear upon explosion of the charge 4. A rotating b-and 6 is provided as usual and it will be assumed that it gives a right handed rotation to the shell. The bolas comprises wires T twisted together and coiled within the casing 8 and weights 9 suitably connected tothe ends of the wires.

It is to be noted that the chamber within the shell is tapered forwardly to receive the casing and the coil of bolas wires and the inner casing preferably is tapered to conform to the shape of the interior of the shell. This taper facilitates the projection of the bolas from the shell upon ignition of the explosive charge.

The weights are centrally bored and the ends of the wires T are rotatably secured therein. As shown, the ends of the wire are formed into loops TB held by ferrules 9N and secured in cast members 9K rotatable in the bolas. Roller bearings 9J provide free rotation of the weights relative to the wires. The wires are protected and reenforced by copper tubes 9F to prevent too sharp bending and fracture of the wires close to the weights.

, The bores in the weights are closed by heavy metal plugs 9S threaded into the bores and provided with turning sockets 9T.

An igniting tube II is held in central position at the head end of the shell by a plate 8D. It is connected to the base of the shell by a coupling IIA having ignition transfer apertures IIB covered by wax paper IIC as is usual practice.

The weights must be supported to withstand the force of the explosion. As shown, a pressure plate I2 closes the explosive chamber and between this and the weights separate segmental plates IZB are provided, as indicated in Figs. l, A and 5B. Each of these plates is formed with a slot to receive the wire and the reenforcing tube 9F looped downwardly therein from the Weight above. 'I'he plate I2 and the segments IZB may be formed with rotating tongues I2A. The weights also are provided with similar rotating tongues 9E, all of which rotating tongues engage corresponding lands on the interior of the shell and serve to give an additional rotation to the weights as a group when they are projected from the shell upon ignition of the explosive charge.

The several wires are connectedv at the centre of the bolas by a suitable wire clip IT, The clip is held in position on the igniting tube I I and is supported on a plurality of Z-shaped brackets 8H (Figs. l, 6A and 6C) each of which is supported on a shoulder 8K in the shell and is held inward by a projection 8I which bears against the coil of wire to prevent radial outward movement until the wire is uncoiled. After the rst two layers of the coil of wire are drawn out the Z-shaped brackets spread by centrifugal force from the position shown in Figs. l and 2A to the position shown in Fig. 2B and release the clip IT.

Between the upper horizontal flanges of the brackets and the coil of bolas wire a copper spacer I5 is provided to securely hold the wire in place. Upstanding lugs ISB inhibit rotation. The Wire may be soldered to the copper.

The clip IT comprises a central member ITB threaded at the top to receive the nut ITF. A sleeve ITC shown in Fig. 7C, provided with grooves in which the ends of the streamlined wires T are received and securely soldered, fits on the tapered portion of the central member ITB and is surrounded by an outer sleeve I TA (Figs. 7A and 7B) which in turn is held in place by the nut ITF. Lugs ITK engageable with the brackets 8H inhibit rotation. The narrow edges of the streamlined wires face inward so that in flight the wide portion will be forward in the best ight position near the clip. The shape of the wire and its stiffness will tend to maintain at least a large portion of the wire in the best position for minimum air resistance. At a point near the clip IT and also at a point near the weights, in other Words at the ends of the coil, the wires l are held together by rings TF of frangible material which will readily break when substantially stressed.

In Figs. 8A and 8B is shown another form of connection between the Wire T and the weight. As herein shown, the weight comprises a metal shell SP filled with cast metal 9G and including a pin 9M which passes through an eye formed in the wire. A ferrule 9N clamps the end of the Wire to form the eye. The wire has a measure of angular movement in the slot 5R provided for this purpose. As the weight leaves the shell, its rotation may cause the wire to wind to some extent on the weight, but the drag of the wire will ultimately stop such rotation and again unwind the wire. The connection is made at the side of the weight to have this action.

In Figs. 8A and 8B is shown anothei` form of clip comprising a central rivet member IIIC which holds together the upper and lower members IIIA and IIIB complementarily grooved to receive the wires TH. In Fig. 8B the clip is shown as mounted on the igniting tube I I.

When the bolas is projected from the rapidly rotating shell the weights will move radially outwardly thus pulling the wire from within the coil to spread the bolas. The movement of the weights and Wires relative to the coil as all continue their forward movement after discharge from the shell I will be more or less as indicated diagrammatically in Fig. 13. The coiling of the wire and the twist of the cable is so arranged that as the bolas is spread as the result of the centrifugal force, the wires will be drawn from within the coil without tangling and without such excessive twist as might interfere with the spreading of the weights.

When the weights are free from the shell, they would all move in substantially straight lines tangent to the circle in which they move at the moment; of release if there were no resistance due to pull of the wires. On the other hand if the wires entirely resisted movement outwardly the weights would move in a circle of the diameter permitted by the effective length of the wires. Having this in mind, it will be clear that under some conditions of paying out of the wires, the bolas would be a rapidly rotating unit. In some circumstances the wires could pay out relatively slowly while the weights moved in rotation about the centre constantly pulling on the wires. As the wires pay out, furthermore, vthe rate of rotation of the unit as a whole would decrease substantially in proportion to the increase of radius.

It is important that the arrangement should be such that the wires will not twist too much on themselves and thereby prevent the outward movements of the weights.

The several factors contributing to the twist of the cable of wiresl after it uncoils from within the coil can be correlated to produce the necessary conditions.

Three principal factors contribute to the twist of the cable. The first is the rotation of the coil as a unit relative to the group of weights. The

number of twists which will be given to the cable as the result of this relative rotation will depend upon the speed of rotation and the duration of the time of uncoiling of the cable. The second factor is the twist or wrap of the cable due to the uncoiling of the cable merely. This will be one twist for each turn of the coil. The third factor is the twist of the cable as coiled.

Two principal factors will contribute to the pulling of the cable from the coil, the pull of the weights due to centrifugal force and the pull on the wires in a direction opposite to the direction of flight due to the resistance of the air to the movement of the wires. The pull due to resistance of the air will be considerable after a substantial length of the wire is paid out and may tend to provide a substantial length of wire pulled out in twisted condition immediately behind the coil.

The rate of rotation of the coil as a unit during the uncoiling of the cable will not necessarily be the same as the rotation of the weights as a group even at the moment of ejection of the bolas from the shell.

The explosion of the charge 4 will eject the bolas but at the same time it will cause a rotation of the group of weights as the helical rotating projections 9E engage the corresponding lands provided in the shell walls. The coil rests on the weights with a hard solder, copper or equivalent ring 1E forming a connection between the weights and the coiled wire. If the connection between the ring 1E and the weights is a more or less keyed connection, and if the casing 8 is also substantially keyed to the weights, as it may be by its flange 8A, then the coil may be given the same rotation as the group of weights. On the other hand if the connection between the ring 'IE and the weights is a substantially antifrictional connection, the coil may receive relatively little of the additional rotation given to the Weights. Either arrangement is feasible since the relative rotation between the weights and coil during the ejection of the bolas from the shell is not so great but that the relative twist can be provided for.

The rate of rotation of the weights about the axis of flight will determine the centrifugal force with which the weights are projected outwardly when freed from the shell and ordinarily it is desirable to increase the rotation above that of the rotation of the shell, in order to increase the force of projection of the weights which is available to draw out the wires from the coil. The same consideration, however, does not attach to the coil and the most advantageous rate of rotation of the coil is not necessarily the same as the most advantageous rate of rotation of the Weights.

The number of twists given to the cable during the period of uncoiling of the cable from within the coil may be calculated or estimated with sufficient accuracy. We will assume that this will be a right hand twist. The number of twists given to the cable by the uncoiling will Vbe equal to the number of turns of the coil, and in the arrangement shown this will be left handed. If the cable as coiled is given a twist on itself, corresponding to the difference and in the direction to supplement the lesser of the two twists above, then the twist of thev cable will not interfere with the spreading of the weights due to centrifugal force. The twist given to the wires in the coil is well below the elastic limit so that no set is given to the wire. Accordingly, when the wire is entirely uncoiled, if there is any residual twist of the cable due to lack of perfect compensation of the influencing factors, the wires will readily untwist to permit the weights to move outward to the maximum possible distance. If desired, the twist given to the cable during coiling may be different in different parts of the coil the better to meet the conditions of uncoiling and untwisting.

It is to be noted that the untwisting of the cable untwists each wire with obvious advantages- Under usual conditions it is preferable that the coil should be wound in the direction such that the wire will rotate toward the point of pull oi, thus facilitating rather than retarding the pull ofi'. In this arrangement the twist given to the cable by the rotaion of he coil is opposite the twist given by pull oi, so that they tend to counteract each other. As a Variation of the arrangement shown, the coil casing may be so split that it will fall away when ejected from the shell and the wires may be so coiled as to pull from the outside of the coil instead of from the inside. In that case the direction of rotation of the coil should be such as to pay off the cable of coils leading to the weights. This arrangement has some obvious advantages including low resistance to the pull of the weights. The direction and extent of twist of the wires should be designed with due consideration to the rotation oi the coil and manner of uncoiling of the Wires.

In Fig. l0 is shown another form of connection between the weight 9V and the wire 1. A short section of wire 1W is rotatably connected in the lower end of the weight as indicated in Fig. l. The other end of this short section is rotatably connected to a steel strap I8 having its ends bent at right angles. The opposite end of this strap is rotatably connected to the wire 1. By this arrangement Whatever may happen in the tumbling of the weights the possibility of rotation of the wire relative t0 the weight is insured.

In Figs. 11 and 12 is shown a modified construction wherein means is provided for turning the weights upon ejection of the bolas from the shell in a manner to insure the rotation of the weights in a predetermined plane with the point of connection of the wire to the rear of the weights. In this embodiment four weights are shown and these weights are of such shape that they can easily be caused to rotate in a, plane transverse to the direction of night and with the point of connection to the wires rearward of the weight as it moves through the air.

Each weight is provided with a projection i9 to which the bolas wire is connected in a manner to permit relative rotation. Preferably, a flat steel strap 20 is rotatably connected to the projection I9 of each weight. The other end of the strap is bent at a right angle and the wire 1 is rotatably connected thereto. In order to insure rotation of the weights in a desired plane, the tops of the weights are restrained from outward movement momentarily when first ejected from the shell to cause a tipping of the lower ends of the weights outwardly. As a convenient restraining means which will not become entangled in the wires, two flat metal strips 2|, having hooked ends, engage recesses in the upper outer edges of the weights.

as indicated in the drawings. The weights will be rotating at the rate of rotation of the shell or faster when projected from the shell and by slightly turning the same the continued rotation of the weights at this rate will insure rotation of each weight about an axis parallel to the direction of night of the shell with the connecting lug I9 to the rear. This results from the spinning or gyroscopic action.

The clamping of the coil between the copper ring l5 at the top of the coil and the base member 1E at the bottom of the coil can be made such as to hold the coil against rotation relative to the shell during gun discharge and the initiation of the shell rotation. If desired, the coil may be more or less secured to the casing by solder or the like to prevent rotation or slip-back and the casing may be rigidly secured in position in the shell. If desired also the shell may be made slightly elliptical in cross-section to inhibit relative rotation of the coil and shell during gun discharge.

The foregoing particular description is illustrative merely and is not intended as deiining the limits of the invention.

I claim:

1. A projectile of the character described comprising, in combination, a shell, a bolas comprising a plurality of weights and wires each connected to one of said weights and all twisted together, said wires as so twisted being arranged in a coil within said shell.

2. A projectile of the character described coinprising, in combination, a shell, an inner casing in said shell, a bolas within said shell comprising a plurality of weights and wires connecting the weights and an explosive charge positioned to expel the inner casing and bolas from the shell upon explosion, the wires being twisted together in a cable and coiled within the inner casing, the direction of coiling relative to the direction of riiling of the gun with which the projectile is to be used being such that upon projection the coil will rotate toward the point of pull-off and the direction of twist being complementary to the direction of coiling so that the wires will be substantially untwisted during the uncoiling after explosion of the charge.

3. A projectile, as defined in claim 2, wherein the wires are flattened to provide streamlined cross-section.

'-4. A projectile comprising a bolas consisting of a plurality of weights a wire connected to each weight, the wires being twisted together to form a cable and said cable being formed into a coil. the wires leading from within the coil to the point of connection with the weights whereby the wires are drawn from within the coil when the weights pull them.

5. A projectile comprising a bolas consisting of a plurality of Weights and an individual wire connected to each of said weights and the wires being twisted together to form a cable and said cable being formed into a coil, the wires leading from the interior of the coil to the weights and means to rotate the coil in the direction to uncoil the wires toward the weights.

6. A projectile of the character described cornprising, in combination, a shell, a bolas comprising a plurality of weights and an individual wire connected to each oi said weights, said wires being of streamline cross-section having reduced edges and twisted together with their reduced edges directed inward and as so twisted together being coiled within the shell, the individual wires extending from the coil inwardly and thence to I6 adjacent one si atrasos the weights whereby when the weights separate they draw the wires from the inside of the coil and means to project the bolas from the shell.

7. A projectile of the character described comprising, in combination, a shell, a bolas consisting of several weights and an individual wire connected to each of said weights, the wires being twisted together to form a cable and said cable being formed into a coil, a separable casing within the shell and encircling said coil, the wires leading from within the coil to the point of connection with the weights outside of the casing whereby the wires are drawn from within the coil when the weights Dull them.

8. A bolas of the character described, comprising, in combination, a plurality of weights, ilattened streamlined wires connecting the weights and a central connector to which the wires are connected between the weights and which hold the wires in streamline flight position with one edge forward at said connectors.

9. A bolas of the character described, comprising, in combination, a plurality of weights, streamlined wires having a forward rounded edge and a rear relatively sharp edge connecting the weights, a central connector to which the Wires are connected between the weights and which hold the wires in streamline night position with the rounded edge leading at said connectors, and swivel connections between the Weights and wires to permit rotation of the weights relative to the wires.

10. A projectile of the character described comprising, in combination, a shell, a bolas comprising a plurality of weights and an individual wire connected to each of said weights and twisted together, said wires as so twisted being arranged in a coil within said shell, and means to hold the coil against rotation relative to the shell.

l1. A Iprojectile of the character described com.. prising, in combination, a shell, a bolas comprising a plurality of weights and an individual wire connected to each of said weights, means to eject said bolas from said shell and straps engaging the weights at one end to tilt said weights in a predetermined direction from their shell as ejected.

12. A projectile of the character describe-d comprising, in combination, a shell, a bolas comprising a plurality of weights and an individual wire rotatably connected to each of said weights at one side, means to eject said weights from said shell and straps engaging the weights at one end to tilt said weights as ejected in a predetermined direction from their position in the shell.

13. A projectile comprising a holas consisting of a plurality of `weights and wires connected one to each of said weights, the wires being twisted together to form a cable and said cable being formed into a coil, the wires leading from within the coil to the lpoint of connection with the weights whereby the wires are drawn from within the coil when the Weights pull them, together with rotatable connections between said wires and weights including roller bearings whereby rotation of the weights will not twist the wires.

14. A projectile comprising a bolas consisting of a plurality of Weights and wires connecting said weights, the wires being twisted together to form a cable and said cable being formed into a coil, the wires leading from within the coil to the point of connection with the Weights whereby the wires are drawn from within the coil when the weights pull them, the wires being connected to the weights de thereof and extending from the position in the *Ie-n lulwllvlulun l lyn- EXPLGSWE DEl'iCES point of connection in a direction opposite the direction of rotation given to the weights by the rotation of the shell whereby the pull of the wires on the Weights will check the rotation thereof.

15. A projectile of the character described comprising a bolas consisting of a plurality of Weights each eccentric to the axis of the shell and `wires connected to the weight and to each other, said wires being twisted together in a cable, said cable being formed into a coil, the direction of ceiling relative to the direction of riiling of the gun, with which the projectile is to be used, being such that upon projection the coil will rotate toward the point of pull-oir, and the direction of twist being complementary to the direction of coiling so that the wires will be substantially untwisted during the uncoiling.

16. A projectile of the character described comprising, in combination, a shell, a bolas within said shell comprising a plurality of weights each eccentric to the axis of the shell and wires connecting the weights to each other, and means to expel the bolas from the shell, the wires being twisted together in a cable and coiled within the shell, the direction of ceiling relative to the direction of riiiing of the gun, with which the projectile is to be used, being such that upon projection the coil will rotate toward the point of pulloff and the direction of twist being complementary to the direction of coiling so that the wires will be substantially untwisted during the uncoiling after expulsion of the bolas from the shell.

17. A projectile comprising a bolas consisting of a plurality of weights and wires connected one to each of said weights, the wires being twisted together to form a cable and said cable being formed int-o a coil, the wires leading from within the coil to the point of connection with the weights whereby the wires are drawn from within the coil when the weights pull them, together with rotatable connections between-said wires and weights whereby rotation of the Weights will not twist the wires.

18. A projectile comprising a bolas including a plurality of weights and Wires connected to the weights and to each other, the wires being twisted together to form a cable and said cable being formed into a coil.

19. A projectile adapted to rotate when shot from a rifled gun comprising a bolas consisting of a plurality of weights, each eccentric to the axis of the projectile and individual wires connected to said weights and to each other, the wires being twisted together to form a cable and said cable being formed into a coil wound in a direction such that the rotation imparted by the riiling of the gun tends to unwind the coil toward the weights.

20. A projectile of the character described, comprising, in combination, a shell, a casing of light Weight within said shell, a bolas comprising a plurality of wires twisted together and coiled within said casing, weights, one connected to each wire, and an explosive charge positioned to project said bolas and said casing from said shell upon explosion.

HUBERT WELLCOME.

Referenced by
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US5279482 *Jun 5, 1992Jan 18, 1994The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space AdministrationSelf-rescue for astronaut working in reduced gravity outside space vehicle
US5750918 *Oct 17, 1995May 12, 1998Foster-Miller, Inc.Ballistically deployed restraining net
US5898125 *May 30, 1997Apr 27, 1999Foster-Miller, Inc.Ballistically deployed restraining net
US7278357 *Apr 8, 2004Oct 9, 2007Keith Michael AAccuracy less lethal projectile
US8024889 *Jun 25, 2008Sep 27, 2011Brett BunkerPest control method and apparatus
US8234811Sep 13, 2011Aug 7, 2012Brett BunkerPest control method and apparatus
US8561343Aug 6, 2012Oct 22, 2013Brett Bunker BunkerPest control method and apparatus
WO1998054538A1 *May 14, 1998Dec 3, 1998Foster Miller IncBallistically deployed restraining net system
Classifications
U.S. Classification102/504
International ClassificationF42B12/66, F41H13/00, F42B12/02
Cooperative ClassificationF42B12/66, F41H13/0006
European ClassificationF41H13/00B, F42B12/66