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Publication numberUS2373368 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 10, 1945
Filing dateApr 7, 1944
Priority dateApr 7, 1944
Publication numberUS 2373368 A, US 2373368A, US-A-2373368, US2373368 A, US2373368A
InventorsWitchger Eugene S
Original AssigneeEaton Mfg Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Reversible pump
US 2373368 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aprifl w, 1945. E, s. WITCHGER REVERSIBLE PUMP Filed April 7, 1944 ROT/IT/aw INVENTOR. [age 7e 5 1% ZM er: BY A. fivZQ Patented Apr. 10, 1945 REVERSIBLE PUMP Eugene S. Witchger, Grosse Pointe Woods, Mich, assignor to Eaton Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio, acorporation of Ohio Application April 7, 1944, Serial No. 530,014

3 Claims.

This invention relates to pumps and particularly to pumps of the rotary type having cooperating internal and external rotors, the principal object being the provision of a pump of this type that is automatically reversible so that regardless of the direction of rotation it continually pumps in the same direction.

Objects of the invention include the provision of an automatically reversible pump; the provision of a rotary pump which will continuously pump in the same direction regardless of the direction of rotation thereof; the provision of a pump having pumping means comprising a pair of rotors one within and eccentric to the other and havin interengaging teeth forming pumping chambers between them, inlet and outlet ports communicating with such pumping chamber, and the outer of the rotors being so shiftable in the direction of its plane of rotation between two difierent limiting positions that the expanding pumping chambers formed between the teeth of the rotors remain continuously in open communication with the inlet port and the contracting pumping chambers formed between the teeth of the rotors remain continuously in open communication with operation, and economical to manufacture.

The above being among the objects of the present invention the same consists in certain novel details of construction and combinations of parts to be hereinafter described with reference to the accompanying drawing, and then claimed, having the above and other objects in view.

In the accompanying drawing which illustrates a suitable embodiment of the present invention and in which like numerals refer to like parts throughout the several difierent views,

Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view, taken axially through a pump constructed in accordance with the present invention, as on the line l-l of Fig. 2;

Fig. 2 is a transverse sectional view taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1 and showing the rotors in end view, with the rotors in the relative positions which they assume when turningin a clockwise direction of rotation;

Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 2, but with the rotors removed from the housing, showing the inlet and outlet ports; and,

Fig. 4 is a view similar to that in Fig. 2, but showing the rotors in the relative positions which they assume when rotating in a counterclockwise direction of rotation.

The pump of the present invention employs cooperating rotor elements conforming generally to those disclosed in United States Letters Patent Nos. 1,682,564, dated August 28, 1928, and particularly United States Reissue Patent No. 21,316. dated January 9, 1940, both to Myron F. Hill, or to any mechanically equivalent structure. In other words, it has particular relation to that type pump including a pair of toothed rotors, one Within and eccentric to the other and having at least one less tooth division than the other, the teeth having diametrically opposed i'ull mesh and open mesh positions and prererabiy remaining in sub stantially contacting relationship with respect to each other between such positions. One rotor is driven, thus driving the other of the rotors through the inter-engagement of their respective teeth and as the interengaging teeth move away irom the full mesh position in the direction of rotation they open between them pumping chambers winch continue to increase in volume to open mesh position and which chambers decrease in volume from open mesh position to full mesh po-- sition in the direction of rotation. In the drawing, the inner rotor is indicated at Ill and the outer rotor at H, the inner rotor being shown as having four teeth It and the outer rotor as having five teeth 15.

It has been conventional practice to provide such rotors in a pump structure and each for rotation about a fixed axis, the pump housing being provided with an inlet port communicating with those pumping chambers increasing in volume and an outlet port communicating with those pumping chambers decreasing in volume. Because of the fact each such rotors has each been mounted for rotation about a fixed axis, it will be appreciated that if the direction of rotation of the pump is reversed the pumping chambers of increasing volume are shifted from one side of a medial plane including the full mesh and open mesh positions to the opposite side thereof and consequently the direction of flow of fluid through the pump is correspondingly reversed. In accordance with the present invention, instead of mounting the (outer rotor for rotation about a fixed axis as only, while the pumping chambers of decreasing volume remain in open communication-with the other of the ports only. The bodily shiftable position of the outer rotor is automatically controlled by the direction of rotation of the rotors, the pumping force set up between them automatically eifecting the required movement of the outer rotor. Thus, the pump will operate to pump continuously in one direction regardless of its directlon of rotation, this being extremely important in many installations as will be readily appreciated by those skilled in the art.

The actual form of the pump embodyini the present invention may, of course, vary widely, the form shown in the drawing for the P rpose of i1- lustration being of an extremely simple type for ease in description. As shown, it comprises a cast body indicated generally at 28 having a pumping chamber indicated generally at 22 opening onto one end face thereof, which face is normally closed by a cover or cap member 28 secured thereto by means of screws 28. A shaft 28 is rotatably supportedin the housing 28 and projects through the pumping chamber 22, its outer or righthand end, as viewed in Fig. 1, hearing in a suitable bore 38 provided concentrically therewith in the cover or cap member 24. The inner rotor i is received on the shaft 28 within the pumping chamber 22 and is secured thereto for equal rotation as by means of a key 32. The rotor 10 is preferably of substantially the same axial length as the distance between the inner wall of the cap member 24 and the bottom of the pumping chamber 22, only that amount of axial clearance being preferably provided for the rotor which is necessary for a running fit. If desired, relative axial movement between the drive shaft 28 and the inner rotor l0 may be prevented by means of snap rings 34, one snapped into each of co-operating circumferential grooves formed in the shaft, 28 at each end of the rotor Ill.

The rotor l2 surrounds the rotor ID in the chamber 22 in the relation described and cooperates with the inner face of the cap member 24 and the bottom wall of the pumping chamber 22 in the same manner as the rotor l0. Although, in the broader aspects of the invention, the rotor l2 may be provided with a surrounding hearing or other member, in the construction shown and by way of simplicity, the bearing for the rotor i2 is provided by direct contact with periphcral wall portions of the pumping chamber 22, the pumping chamber 22 being of materially larger size than the outer rotor l2 so that the latter may shift bodily therein in the plane of its rotation.

In order tolimit the bodily shiftable movement of the outer rotor I2, the peripheral wall of the pumping chamber 22 is formed to provide'three distinct areas, one extending from a point indicated at A to a point such as indicated at B, another extending from the point A in the opposite direction to a point indicated at C, and the third constituting the remainder of the peripheral walls of the chamber 22 and extending from B to C, the latter being generally disposed at a greater distance from the axis of the shaft 28 than the first two surfaces so as to provide ample clearance in the chamber 22 for the shifting of the outer rotor I 2,

The surfaces A-B and A-C are substantially quarter circular in plan view as shown in Figs. 2, 3, and 4 and each is of a radius equal to the radius of the peripheral surface of the outer rotor I2. The center of curvature for the surface AB is indicated at D, best shown in Fig. 3, and the center of curvature for the surface A-C is indicated at E, these centers D and E being equally disposed on diametrically opposite sides of the center of rotation of the inner rotor l0 which,

as indicated, is the axis F of the shaft 28. The

distance between the center F and each of the centers D and E is equal to the eccentricity of the rotors l8 and I2 so that when the outer rotor 12 is lying in contact with the surface A-C, as viewed in Fig. 2, or in contact with the surface A-B, as shown in Fig, 4, it is rotatably supported in the proper eccentric relation with respect to the inner rotor III in both cases. The surfaces A-B and A0 not only serve as hearing surfaces for the outer rotor l2, but also serve as stop surfaces which limit bodily shiftable movement of the outer rotor l2 in either one direction or the other in the plane of its rotation in the chamber 22 as will be readily appreciated.

It -will be understood that in a pump having pumping elements of the type described the positions of full mesh and open mesh of the teeth of the pumping element will be in a plane including the axis of rotation of the inner rotor and the axis of rotation of the outer rotor. In the construction shown and as viewed in the drawing this plane is a horizontal plane perpendicular to the plane of the paper including the point F on, and the axis of the shaft 28, and including the points D and E. Consequently when the outer rotor 12 is in the position shown in Fig. 2 where its axis of rotation is the point E, the point of full mesh between the teeth of the rotors will be at the lefthand side of the pump in horizontal alignment with the axis of the shaft 28 and the position of open mesh will be at a diametrically opposite point on the righthand side of the shaft 28. Conversely when the rotors are in the position illustrated in Fig. 4 the axis of rotation of the outer rotor I 2 will be the point D under which conditions the above relation of parts will be reversed, that is, the point of full mesh will lie on the righthand side of the shaft 28 in horizontal alignment with the axis of the shaft 28 and the point of open mesh will lie diametrically opposite from the axis of the shaft 28 therefrom.

The pumping action in a pump of the type described is obtained through pumping chambers which are opened up, or increase in volume, as

the teeth move from full mesh position in the direction of rotation of the pumping element to open mesh position, and through, contraction or closing of such pumping chambers as the teeth of the two rotors move from open mesh position in the dlrectionof rotation of the rotors to full mesh position. Thus in the construction shown in the drawing where the outer rotor I2 is in the position indicated in Fig. 2 and the rotors are turning in the direction of the arrow identifying such direction in that figure, the fuli mesh position is at the left-hand side of the center F of the shaft 28 and in horizontal alignment therewith and the pumping chambers formed between the teeth II and I 6 of the rotors l8 and i2 and increasing in volume lie above the axis of the the outer rotor I2 is in the position indicated in Fig. 4 the point of full mesh is in horizontal ali n ment with the axis F of the shaft 28 but to the right of the axis F of the shaft 28 while the open mesh position is on the diametrically opposite side of the shaft 28. However,'it will'be appreciated that in this last case and when the rotors l and 12 are turning in the direction of the arrow shown in Fig. 4 identifying the direction of rotation and which is opposite to that shown in Fig. 2, the expanding chambers formed between the teeth of the rotor still lie above the axis at the shaft 28 while the contracting chambers formed between the teeth still lie below the axis F of the shaft 28. In other words, regardless of whether the relative positions of the rotors l0 and i2 are that illustrated in Fig. 2 or that illustrated in Fig. 4, when the rotors are turning in the respective directions illustrated in these views, the expanding pumping chambers formed between the teeth of the rotors always lie above the axis of the shaft 28 and the contracting pumping chambers formed between ing chambers formed between the teeth of the rotor, and the similarly formed outlet port 42 formed in the inner face of the chamber 22 is always in open communication with the contracting pumping chambers, regardless of whether the rotors are in the position illustrated in Fig. 2 or in the position illustrated in Fig. 4.

The outer rotor I2 is automatically shifted to the position illustrated in Fig. 2 when the pump is rotating in the direction illustrated in Fig. 2 by the pressure built up between the teeth of the rotors cooperating to form contracting pumping chambers, and likewise is automatically shifted to the position illustrated in Fig. 4 for the same reason whenever the direction of rotation of the pump is reversed from that indicated in Fig. 2. Thus, the outer rotor I2 is shifted between its limits of shiftable position indicated in Figs. 2 and 4 automatically whenever the direction of rotation of the pump is reversed and in accordance with the direction of rotation of the pump. It will be appreciated that the outer rotor i2 in shifting in the manner described from aposition of the rotary type is provided in which the direcin which its axis of rotation is on one side of the 1 axis of the shaft 28 to a position in which'its axis is on the diametrically opposite side. in eflect isv bodily shifted, or rotated, about the axis of the shaft 28 through an angle of 180, The extent a of such angularity is not critical as it will be appreciated that any angularity suflicient to reverse the effective relation of the ports with respect to the points of full mesh and open mesh of the rotors will ordinarily suflice.

The expanding chambers formed between the cooperating teeth of the pumping elements form,

of course, chambers in which the fluid being an outlet port opening thereinto, and said surfaces tion of flow of fluid through the pump remains constant regardless of the direction of rotation of the pump and that this important feature is obtained in a simple and effective manner and with:

out requiring the addition of any parts whatsoever as compared to similar types of pumps in which the direction of flow of fluid is reversed upon reversal of the-direction of rotationof the pump.

claim by Letters Patent is:

What I claim is:

1. In a pump structure, in combination, a housing having a pumping chamber therein, a pair of rotors in said housing one within and eccentric to the other, said rotors having interengaging teeth having diametrically opposite full mesh and open mesh positions, means for mounting and driving the inner of said rotors about an axis fixed with respect to said housing, the outer of said rotors being bodily shiftable in said chamber in the plane of its rotation under the infiuence of the pumping force built up by said rotors between two difierent positions corresponding with the direction of rotation of said inner rotor, said chamber being of materiallygreater area viewed axially of said rotors than said outer rotor and being formed to provide stop surfaces for engagement with said outer rotor to limit said shiftable movement thereof to said two positions and to provide direct bearing surfaces therefor, said housing having an inlet and an outlet port opening into said chamber so constructed and arranged in relation to said shiftable positions of said outer rotor that the pumping chambers formed between said teeth lea -ling said full mesh position in the direction of rotation of said rotors and approaching said open mesh position are in communication with said inlet port, and the pumping chambers formed between said teeth leaving said open mesh position and approaching said full mesh position in the direction of rotation .of said rotors are in communication with said outlet port, regardless of the direction of rotation of said rotors.

2. In a pump structure, in combination, a housing having a pumping chamber therein,

pumping means in said chamber comprising a pair of rotors one within and eccentric to the other, said rotors have interengaging teeth thereon cooperating to form pumping chambers and said teeth having diametrically opposite full mesh and open mesh positions, the inner of said rotors being rotatable about an axis fixed with respect to said housing, said chamber being of materially greater area viewed axially of said rotors than said outer rotor and said outer rotor being bodily shiftable in said chamber in the plane of its rotation, said chamber providing a pairj of stop surfaces each independently cooperable with said outer rotor to limit such shiftable movement thereof and said outer rotor being unrestricted in its shiftable movement in said chamber exceptfllor its engagement with said inner rotor and said stop surfaces, said housing having an inlet port and being so constructed and arranged as to maintain the pumping chambers opening up between said teeth moving away from said full mesh position and approaching said open mesh position in com-,- munication with said inlet port, and the pumping chambers formed between said teeth moving away from said open mesh position and ap- Having thus described my invention, what I proaching said tull mesh position in open coinmunioation with said outlet port, regardless of the direction of rotation of said rotors and the consequent corresponding shiitable position or said outer rotor.

3. In a pump structure, in combination, a housing having a pumping chamber therein, pumping means in said chamber comprising a pair of rotors one within and eccentric to the other, said rotors have interengaging teeth thereon cooper-- ating to form pumping chambers and said teeth having diametrically opposite full mesh and open mesh positions, the inner of said rotors being rotatable about an axis fixed with respect to said housing, said outer rotor being bodily shii'tabie to' limit such shiitable movement thereof. said step surfaces being directly engageable with said outer rotor and each serving as a bearing therefor when in engagement therewith, said housing having an inlet port and an outlet port opening thereinto, and said surfaces being so constructed and arranged as to maintain the pumping chambers opening up between said teeth moving awav I from said full mesh position and approaching aid open mesh position in communication with said inlet port, and the pumping chambers formed between said teeth moving away from said open mesh position and approaching said full mesh position in open communication-with said outlet port, regardless of the direction of rotation of said rotors and the consequent corresponding shiitabie position of said outer rotor.

EUGENE S. WITCHGER.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2458678 *Jun 2, 1945Jan 11, 1949Eaton Mfg CoUnidirectional flow gear pump
US2498848 *May 14, 1947Feb 28, 1950Chrysler CorpGear unit
US2694367 *Nov 1, 1950Nov 16, 1954Paragon Gear Works IncRotary pump
US2701532 *May 8, 1952Feb 8, 1955Bakewell William EMeans for minimizing wear of internal external gear pumps
US2829602 *May 31, 1955Apr 8, 1958Eaton Mfg CoReversible pump
US3091185 *Feb 6, 1961May 28, 1963Eaton Mfg CoReversible pump
US3165066 *Jul 11, 1962Jan 12, 1965Copeland Refrigeration CorpUnidirectional flow rotary pump
US3995978 *Apr 4, 1975Dec 7, 1976Eaton CorporationHydraulic fluid pressure device and porting arrangement therefor
US4222719 *Jan 2, 1979Sep 16, 1980Thermo King CorporationReversible unidirectional fluid flow pump
US4420292 *Mar 9, 1981Dec 13, 1983Borg-Warner CorporationBi-directional internal/external gear pump with advanced porting
US4588362 *Sep 3, 1984May 13, 1986Concentric Pumps LimitedReversible unidirectional flow rotary pump
US4944662 *Feb 16, 1989Jul 31, 1990Concentric Pumps LimitedReversible geroter pump with pivoting carrier unidirectional flow
US6336317Jul 30, 1999Jan 8, 2002The Texas A&M University SystemQuasi-isothermal Brayton cycle engine
US6530211Aug 16, 2001Mar 11, 2003Mark T. HoltzappleQuasi-isothermal Brayton Cycle engine
US6886326Jan 17, 2003May 3, 2005The Texas A & M University SystemQuasi-isothermal brayton cycle engine
US7093455Feb 2, 2004Aug 22, 2006The Texas A&M University SystemVapor-compression evaporative air conditioning systems and components
US7663283Apr 18, 2006Feb 16, 2010The Texas A & M University SystemElectric machine having a high-torque switched reluctance motor
US7695260Oct 21, 2005Apr 13, 2010The Texas A&M University SystemGerotor apparatus for a quasi-isothermal Brayton cycle engine
US7726959Mar 5, 2007Jun 1, 2010The Texas A&M UniversityGerotor apparatus for a quasi-isothermal Brayton cycle engine
DE1077064B *Jan 4, 1956Mar 3, 1960Hobourn Eaton Mfg Co LtdUmkehrbare, nur in einer Richtung foerdernde Zahnradpumpe
EP0141503A1 *Sep 3, 1984May 15, 1985Concentric Pumps LimitedReversible unidirectional flow rotary pump
EP0330315A2 *Jan 31, 1989Aug 30, 1989Concentric Pumps LimitedGerotor pumps
WO1985001086A1 *Sep 3, 1984Mar 14, 1985Concentric Pumps LtdReversible unidirectional flow rotary pump
Classifications
U.S. Classification418/32, 418/166
International ClassificationF04C14/00, F04C14/04
Cooperative ClassificationF04C14/04
European ClassificationF04C14/04