|Publication number||US2373653 A|
|Publication date||Apr 17, 1945|
|Filing date||Mar 1, 1943|
|Priority date||Mar 1, 1943|
|Publication number||US 2373653 A, US 2373653A, US-A-2373653, US2373653 A, US2373653A|
|Inventors||Barber Theodore C|
|Original Assignee||Barber Theodore C|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (3), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 17, 1945. T. c. BARBER TRAINING EQUIPMENT FOR AIRPLANE PILOTS Filed March 1, 1943 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR g g-00025 C Bqleafk FQiMrr- ATTORN E'YS April 17, 1945. T c, BARBER 2,373,653
TRAINING EQUIPMENT FOR AIRPLANE PILOTS Filed March 1, 1943 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 an) w R P wx NL R. E5 We vfi T I mfl m 4 5 w Y M m w W h M N a a 1 mm. mm a nu 3 \n W .R Lm r 5 April 17, 1945. r. c. BARBER TRAINING EQUIPMENT FOR AIRPLANE PILOTS Filed March 1, 1943 :s Sheets-Sheet 3 RNEY INVENTOR 79500025 6 "Ba/255a w x m Patented Apr. 17, 1945 OTS ' f Y TRAINING EQUIPIhLIE-NT For; I
Theodore C. Barber, Seattle,
' Application Matt 194s1,'ser a1"N .477,497
3' Claims. cores-:12)
relates. to. airplane pilot training devices and has reference more particularly to what is known as a rudder control trainer," to he, USGdIfOl, the groundtra-ining of student pilots in the uses. and manipulationof the airplanelfl dder; for controlling the: altitude or een 'nie prineipai object. of this invention. to
provide a pilottraining equipment whereby a student pilot ma betaught and. will .be helped in learninghow to manipulate the rudder of an airplane forthecontrol ofthe-airplane when moving on the ground. v I
.Itis, alsoan :object of the invention to provide training equipment for the purpose above stated that is constructed to simulate the construction ofthe cockpit of the; typical training airplane, and to equip this with parts corresponding to the usual controls including stick, throttle lever moving; on; the ground, as. in landing or in taking off, than ityisuscd when the plane is in normal flighn neuyers, and it is quite significant that while-slight misuse. of the rudder in flight may J result. only in Sloppy flying, the same degree of misuse when .thetplane is moving on the ground, as. in. landing; taking off; or ,taxiing, may result 'inthe airplane. getting completely out of control and being damaged dueto ground looping. Therefore, itmis, quite important that adequate training in-the control-or handling of an airplane on the groundbe had before flying is attempted. I, -It is. further to be explained that, duc te. the characteristic design of'.-the usual typeszof. air- 'planes,.-except those using. a tricyclelanding gear; when; a plane traveling on the ground once starts to .turn'to' right or left, it hasa decided tendency to continue to turn; this being'due to thefact that' the center of weight is rearward of the centerof-pivot. which latter is inthe axial line of the front wheels. An experienced pilot will intuitivelydetect the turning action of the airplane on the groundand will act promptly to correct it before the turn reaches a dangerous degree, but aninexperienced pilot may permit theairplane to turn toosfaribefore he realizes the condition: or moves opposite rudder for norrection. t It .is' to; be remembered, in this connection, that since flying speed: of the airplane is lost immediately upon landing, the effectiveness of the-rudder for direction control decreases materially because of the. decreased air pressure against it. Therefore, the greatest danger of damageifiiomgronndlooping is' during that period when theplane is'moving at a comparatively slow speed and does not haveadequate-rudder comm, but stillismoving fast enough to cause s'erious damage to-the--plane= if it ground loops; lnview'of theioregoingexplanationg it has andrudder pedals in connection with parts that operateto cause turn-ingand whereby a student may practise changing direction or turnin to any designated directionand then holdingthe trainer steady by manipulation of the. rudder control pedals in amanner like that required in actual control of an airplane moving on the groundas in landing or taking ofi.
Still another object of this invention is to provide a. trainer comprising a cab, resembling the airplanecockpit, equipped with seat for the student pi1ot,,with controls as above mentioned and also with means whereby an instructor may turn or influence the turning. of the cab to different directions on asupporting pivot so that the'pilot may practise the rudder action that is necessary to overcome these outside'influences which might be made to resemblecross winds, or other conditionsap't to be encountered.
Still further objects-ofv the invention reside-in the details oiconstruction. of parts, in their assembled relationship, their action and in the mode of use of the device. I r v I In accomplishing theseandother objects of the invention, I have provided the improved details of construction, the preferred forms of which are illustratedv in the accompanying drawings, where- Fig; 1 is a plan view of a rudder control traine embodied by the present invention. I
Fig. 2 is a side view ofthe-same.
Fig. 3 is arr-enlarged sideview of the turning and equipment in a. disassembled relationship.
Briefly described, the present device comprises a cockpit structure or cab mounted for turning about a vertical pivot shaft, or standard,.and
equipped at its rear end with an electrically driven fan carried on a frame that may be rotatably adjusted about a vertical axis or pivot to cause lateral reaction on the cab that will cause it to turn on its supporting pivot in the direction determined by the direction of reacting forces, and which adjustment of the motor is under control of the student pilot by his manipulation of the rudder control pedals. Also, provision is made whereby an instructor, or person outside the trainer, may apply certain turning forces to simulate those of cross winds, or the like, that the student pilot may counteract or correct by rudder action.
Referring more in detail to the drawingsdesignates, inits entirety, what I have referred to for convenience in description, as the cab of the training device. This cab is constructed to resemble and is substantially in accordance with the cockpit of a training airplane, and is equipped with a seat 2 for the student in training and also has parts resembling the usual control devices to which he has access when in the seat. This cab is supported by and is adapted to rotate on a vertical ivot standard 3 fixed in base 4. The upper end of the standard is rotatably contained in a bearing 5 fixed to the bottom or floor 6 of the cab, and preferably the location of the bearing is such thatthere will be an approximatebalance when the student is seated in the cab.
Inside the cab and forwardly of the seat, is the instrument panel 1. Also, at the usual location, is the joy stick 8, and the right and left rudder control pedals l and ID. The rudder control pedals are suspended each by a stirrup from a horizontal cross rod |2 that is fixedly supported in the cab, and extended downwardly from one of these stirrups below the pedal, is a lever arm I3, for a purpose presently explained.
The rudder control pedals are so connected together, that in normal position, they are alined and also provide that when one is moved forwardly from normal position, the opposite one will move rearwardly a corresponding distance. This relative action of the pedals is accomplished by the following means: Extended transversely of the cab, within its forward end portion, is a cross beam l centrally pivoted by a pivot bolt l6, and connected pivotally with opposite ends of this cross beam and with the pedal suspending stirrups, are links H and I8. Thus, when one pedal is pushed forward, the other will .move rearwardly a corresponding distance.
Afiixed rigidly to the rear end wall 24 of the cab frame and centrally thereof, is a vertical bar 25. This bar extends somewhat below the bottom wall of the cab, as noted in Fig. 3, and is formed at its lower end with a forwardly turned foot 28. Also, extending forwardly from the lower end portion of the bar 25, at locations above the foot and spaced somewhat apart are lugs 29 and 30, and extended downwardly through openings in these parts 28, 29 and 30, is a pivot bolt 3| whereby a base frame structure. for the mounting of the electric motor which drives the fan, is pivotally secured.
The base frame structure comprises two spaced, parallel cross bars 32 and 33, that are rigidly joined across their center portions by a forwardly extended bar 35 as seen best in Figs. 5 and 6. On the bar 35 is a vertical post 36 with back turned foot 31 at its topend that closely overlies the lug 29. The pivot bolt 3| extends through the foot 31 and also through the bar 35 thus to mount the motor mounting frame for pivotal movement about the bolt 3| as a pivot axis.
Fixed to the frame structure embodied by the bars 32, 33 and 35, is an electric motor 40. This motor, as is shown in Figs. 3 and 4, is suspended from the frame by bolts 38 through its base, and the axial line of its shaft 4| is in the vertical plane of the bar 35, passing through the pivot bolt 3|.
Mounted on the motor shaft 4| is an air propeller fan 42 which, in operation, will exert a counteracting force against the pivot bolt and incidentally this will be applied'to the rear end of the cab. When the fan is in operation, and positioned so that the axis of the fan is alined with the pivot shaft which supports the cab, there" will be no apparent turning influence on the cab, but when the motor is turned so that its shaft is pointed toward one side or the other of the cab, the reaction forces will exert a certain amount of turning pressure against the cab, depending upon the extent or angle to which the motor is tuned.
The means here provided whereby the student pilotmay move the motor supporting frame to so direct the fan that the counteracting forces of the fan will operate to turn the cab toward one side or the other, or whereby he may overcome turning influences as applied by an instructor, comprises a cross lever 50 that is pivotally mounted on the bolt 3| just above the bar 35 and intermediate the bars 32 and 33. This lever 50 has a fixed vertical leg 5| with rearwardly turned foot 52 at its upper end. The bolt 3| passes through this foot 52 and also through the lever. Also, as seen best in Figs. 5 and '7, two links, 54 and 54 overlie the bars 32 and 33 at opposite sides of and in the direction of the bar 35. Intermediate its ends, each link 54 and 54 is formed with a forwardly directed hook 56 forming a hook seat 51. These hook seats, respectively, receive thereagainst studs 58 and 58' which are fixed in and extend downwardly from the lever 50 at, opposite sides of the pivot bolt 3|. Coiled springs 59 and 59 are attached under tension to the forward ends of the links 54 and 54 and to the forward end of the lever arm 35. Retainer plates 66 are fixed =by rivets 61 to the rearward ends of the links and these are bent downwardly then forwardly to underlie the bar 33 thus to retain the links against accidental displacement therefrom while permitting the bar 33 to move slidably relative to links 54 and 54' and the plates 66.
The lever 50 extends laterally from the frame as shown in Fig. 5 and at its end, is pivotally attached, as at 60, to a, bracket 6| on the rear end of a forwardly extended rod or link 62 which, at its forward end has pivotal connection with the downwardly directed lever arm l3 of a foot pedal In so that pressure on the right pedal whereby to produce right rudder will pivotally actuate the lever 50 and this, through its connection by the links 5454' with the motor suspending frame, will turn the latter and the motor accordingly. Thus, with the fan in operation, it is apparent that by the foot pedal action, the student pilot may s0 direct the counter-pressure of the fan that the cab willbe caused to turn on its pivot standard 3 toward one side or the other and at a rate determined by the angle of the adjustment made.
Now, in order that the instructor, without being observed by the student, may cause a turning influence to be applied to the cab, I attach cables 15-15 to the opposite ends of the cross bar 32 and extend them forwardly and there pass them over guide rollers or wheels 16 on the pivot standard 3 and then extend them to the side of the cab or to any location where they are accessible to the instructor.
By pulling one or the other of these cables, the motor mounting frame may be caused to turn on its pivot bolt 3| to one side or the other; it being understood that this is possible regardless of the foot pedal setting as held by the student because of the yielding connection provided by the springs 59 and 59 with the lever 35. The student may then overcome these artificially applied turning influences by a counter-turning rudder pressure.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new therein and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A training device of the character described comprising a cockpit frame, a seat and rudder control pedals simulating an airplane, a support for the cockpit frame about which it may turn 'on a vertical axis, a base mounted on the cockpit I from a neutral position to determined the direction of application of the reaction forces of the support, and another means connected with the base for turning adjustment thereof against the holding tendency of the pedal connection as permitted by the said yieldable element.
2. A training device of the character described comprising a cockpit frame, a seat and rudder control pedals simulating an airplane, a support for the cockpit frame intermediate its ends and I air propulsion means for turning the frame on its about which it can turn on a vertical axis, a base frame supported from one end of the cockpit frame to turn on a vertical pivot axis, a motor driven air propulsion device mounted on said base, a lever arm pivoted on said pivot axis and extending to one side of the base, yieldable means connecting the lever at opposite sides of the pivot axis with the said base, means connecting the said rudder control pedals with the lever arm for turning the base as provided through the yieldable connections to determine the direction of application of reaction forces of'the air propulsion means for turning the frame on its support, and another connection with the base whereby it may be turned on its pivot to the extentpermitted by said yielding means.
3. A training device of the character described comprising a cockpit frame, a seat and rudder control pedals simulating an airplane, a support for the cockpit frame intermediate its ends and about which it can turn on a vertical axis, a base 'frame supported from one end of the cockpit able connections to determine the direction of application of reaction forces of the air propulsion mean for turning the frame on its support, a pair of cables attached to the base at opposite sides of the pivot axis and extended along the frame and about its supporting axis, and to one side of the frame for the manual turning of the base as permitted through the yielding connccting means.
THEODORE C. BARBER.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2916832 *||Nov 5, 1956||Dec 15, 1959||Bolkow Entwicklungen Kg||Helicopter trainer mounted on float|
|US3479750 *||Feb 6, 1964||Nov 25, 1969||Aetna Casualty & Surety Co||Automotive vehicle simulator for demonstrating automatic self-centering of steerable automobile wheels|
|US4461470 *||Jun 20, 1983||Jul 24, 1984||Mark E. Astroth||System for adding realism to video display|
|International Classification||G09B9/28, G09B9/02|