US 2373798 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 17, 1945. L. w. WILLIAMS 2,373,798
' FOUNDATION n Filed March 1o, 1943 V 2 sheets-sheet 1 ATTORNEYS L. w. WILLIAMS Api-i117, 1945.
FOUNDATION Filed March 1 0, 1943 2 Sheets-Speet 2 INVENTOR l ,0a/s h4 W/L L /f/Ms www ATTORNEYS Patented Apr. 17, 1945 .f,2.,3737981 i l FoUNDA'rroNf- L t Lbuis w; Williams, rtokiyntin; Y1'. y AspucatimMamh 1o, 1943,` 'sementi-usavo. soiaimslvv' (o1. essaim?? Y This invention relates to improvements in foun-v dations and more particularly to :foundationsl which :inf-use` will be` subjected to' heavy stresses andi strains such as-are encountered, for example,`
inutheiuseof. 'certain types ofv machinery;y build--v ingspetc; The invention is vof yespecial advantage. f
in 'connection' with. drop or power hammers vwhose foundations, commonly v called: anvil blocks; are A usually made in unitary 4caststeel ,piecesof .great l size... v.('Jastzsteeli t is f not-rv entirely f satisfactory for z` -thispurposebecause itis a: relatively l hardxiand; f brittlt-imetaatland consequently often.. cracks .1 breaks down under the heavy blows tozvlwhich it isA subjected inrsuch use.. nurthermore,y the produce. tion-of .suchgav-.blocls which contains an immense :l I in massief metal, .is diillcult and slow due :to the fact.
large sizedf'steam hammer-o1 Iusual type.H Mount'- ed` on the base. wils iasubvhaseII whichrmayrbe.. made-'inlh'accordance withftheteachingsl of thisinventionzor. from 1a *f cast -steel fblock which :may A be off-any suitable thickness, suchias, for example;y about .two and one halfrffeet' :thielt'y and*` which is securedftofthe base Illaini part by a. plurality ofi. vertically."disposed` anchor.boltsJtL` 'Ihesubbase I I 2 formsta` f support for;` theI foundation.. ofthe hammer-:or Kanvilfllclock'fl whichzisz indicatedsgem e'rallyY by the reference .numeral il 3; The( blockor thatzit is necessaryito. allow from-six toieighu* 'weeks for the vblock to coolfafteri'thiefnietallhas` -beemlpoured and during vsuch period ,great care y must=ibe exercisedxto. assure a proper tformation of kthe @ultimate block.; Even so, vthere is fnoaready way' of ascertaining A and controlling what :,talices,1v
place ink the interior of sucha large mass vLafuma-.-
teriai .duringi the ,f cooling-.period Yand it r isgnot uncommon :occurrence-for such blocksfto` fail; because of hidden structuralel weaknesses,which failure isfhastened because .oftheinherent inabilzityioffsthe cast steel to successfullyi,absorbitthei shhcks ;of..the=.` hammerblows., Another disadvamtage of suchfoundations'is that .theirigreat weight renders them ydilcult to. handle and installa;
.Thefprincipal vobject of this invention isszto.
provide a simple and durableffoundation:.construction which willnotpossess the/aforementioned 4 disadvantages, .but which `will successfully withstandaheavy, stresses, ora-strains 4fory long pes riodsV of time .without failure, willy be; relatively easy'to produceand can be'handled and installed withoutany@ great trouble..
Other. objects of the invention;l as L well as the advantages :and novel features of constructionthereof, will become -apparent after .aplperusal yof Y the following' description, read in connection-with. theyaccompanying drawings in .which Fig, 1 is an elevational View `of .af portion of a hammer Aprok vided withan anvil block embodying jxthefinveni.`
tion; Fig.- 2nis asectionalplanview takexialong-` detalledzview invveri-.ical .section of ya-f portion of a foundation to illustrate a ymodified form ofvgthev.I invention. andFig. y5 is a detailedy partiallviewl-il@ lustratingfa further embodiment Aof the invention-= Inf Elgs.. .1 to 3 of ,the fdrawingsiy the; reference;
numeral. I II: indicates the concrete ymain basezot; a1
foundation `I Biisprevidedr-at its: upper end with: a doveetailed fseat whicirfextends'centrally between the endszof. the blockfandJintdfWhi'ch isfittedithe devetailed sowtblockIlfbearingzthendie I5.1 The superfstructurexlof thezhammer is, footecl-l on the I* upper i'endiofi ithe .anvilrbloclc I Sionlleither side'y vof f the centrallyupositioned:'sows block Ik The foot ingsotfthe@superestructura are secured to the.. anvil blockflISbyza number of verticallyzdisposed' bolts fI l .whichilextend 'down through: `the .blockrto portion lonly or-.1the.anvil.block I3, asrcan beiseen. morerclearlyin-Fig. l'ofzthe drawings.;
, The anviLblock.. I 3 :isfal laminated structure in that :it isscomposed of L ai-pluralitylcf l horizontally disposed plates laid one upon the .otherandhav-Y ing-.utheasame or different .thicknesses as may :beY (llenerally-y fspeaking.; however TT;
deemed advisable. the plates should 'be,.as..heavy as-it is possible to obtainv for the heavier typesfof machines .but imayi' vary in sizesfandweightsaccordingrto their'appli:
cations.l In the anvil .illustratedsinzthedrawings;. 1 there `is included in the laminated-.structure 'atop platee I 9, groups Lof intermediate ,plates indicated:`
byv the reierencenmnerals-Z andl.2l.,fand a hotv tom .plate 22. The'fopposed surfaces ofthe plates arefcorrugated, the'f elongated 'ridges oizreach of such surfaces ,being seated in the troughs of an.' adiacent surface, .as isshown moreI clearly in;
Eig. 1 roifthedrawings, to :provide an interlocking connection :between thezplates such as :to prevent relative movement betweenfzthe:plates in one di rect-ion.. The vplates constituting.V the :anvih block. I 3 fare fmaintalneduagainst vmovement '.orzslppage.v in; directions longitudinally of.;the1^-,corrugations by;y means of vertical bolts. f of i different. lengths f and positioned: iat different places;..-in .the blocks Thus; annmberfof vertical bolts 23 are provided f topreVent suchslippage as betweenthefisix,;l iw ermost platea@ such 'bolts @23 heink .inverted-J,l and the head thereof seated in recesses 12b provided; innthe -topsurfacefofulthe :bottom: plate 22,1 while the shanks of such bolts extend .upwardly through;`
aligned openings provided in the five plates overlying the bottom plate. The recesses 24 are made sufciently deep so that the entire heads of the bolts are contained in such recesses and are below the top surface of the bottom plate 22. The shanks of the bolts have a length less than the combined thickness of the plates throughwhich they extend so that the upper ends of the shanks terminate short of the bottom surface of the next overlying plate which is not provided with an aperture aligned with the said apertures of the underlying plate. The bolts 23 are also preferably of such outside diameter that while they t relatively snugly in the apertures of the plates, they do not form a tight fit in such apertures. Also the bolts 23 may be bushed and lubricated to slide with relation to the plates. In a similar manner the bolts 25 prevent slippage longitudinally of the corrugations of the top seven plates of the anvil block I3, such bolts 25 having their heads positioned in recesses 26 provided in the upper surface of the second plate from the bottom in the groupdesignated 20 .and sufficiently deep so that such heads are positioned below such surface. The Shanks of bolts 25 are of such length that they terminate just short of the under-surface of the sow block I4. Further, the bolts 25 are so arranged that they lock the upper plates of the anvil block I3 to the lower plates thereof by reason of the fact that the two lowermost plates through which they extend in the upper group are also locked against movement by the bolts 23. All of the plates above the bottom` plate 22 are locked together by a plurality of bolts 21 whose ,heads are seated in relatively deep recesses 28 provided in the lowermost plate 2I and whose Shanks project upwardly into a longitudinal recess 29 provided in the under-side of the sow block I4. The anvil block is secured to the sub base II and to the. main base I by means of anchor bolts 35 whichv extend up. through the'bottom plate 22 and the intermediate plates 2I of the anvil block. All of these bolts and plates will be adjusted to meet the various requirements of the different applications.
The anvil block I3 may be assembled on the sub base I I by rst positioning thebottom plate 22 thereof on such sub base. with the anchor bolts 30 projecting upwardly through the apertures provided therefor in such plate. The bolts I1, 23 and 21 may then, be threaded through the aligned apertures provided therefor in the two plates 2I so that the heads of the bolts l1 are seatedin the recesses 3| provided in the bottom surface of the lowermost plate 2I and the head of the bolt 21. is seated in the aperture 28 of such plate. Preferably a strong, short spring 32 is previously placed on the shank of bolt 21, adjacent to the head thereof, so that it will be positioned intermediate the head of the bolt 21 and the bottom of the recess28, both the head of the y bolt and spring 32 being entirely contained in such recess. The two plates 2I, Atogether with the bolts threaded therethrough may then be positioned on the bottom plate 22 so that the anchoring bolts 30 extend up through the aligned apertures provided in such plates therefor and the heads of the bolts 23 areseated in the recesses 24 of the plate 22. With the three plates 2l and 22 properly assembled, nuts are screwed on the threaded ends of the anchoring bolts 36 to secure such three plates of the anvil block securely to the main base I0 and the sub base II. Two of the intermediate `plates 20 may next be positioned on top of the plates 2| with the bolts .recesses 26.
I1, 23 and 21 properly threaded therethrough and the recesses 26 provided in one of such plates for the heads of bolts 25 in uppermost position. The ve upper plates may then be assembled together by threading therethrough the bolts and then positioning such upper plates as a unit upon the stack of plates previously assembled so that the heads of the bolts 25 properly seat in the The top plate I9 is then laid on the uppermost plate 20 after the bolts I8 have been properly inserted therethrough so that the heads thereof seatl in the recesses 33 provided in the undersides of such plate I9. The plates I9, 2D and 2 I. are then locked together by screwing nuts onthe threaded ends of the two central bolts 21. After the footings of the super-structure of the hammer yhave beenvproperly positioned on the projecting ends of the bolts I1 and I8, compression springs 35 are first inserted on the projecting ends of said bolts and then the footings are locked to the plates of the anvil block by screwing Von the'nuts 36.
f It will be understood from the foregoing that the corrugations in the opposed faces of the plates which constitute the anvil block I3 lock such plates against movement relative to each other in one direction while the several bolts eX- tending through such plates prevent movement or slippage of such plates relative to each other in a direction longitudinally of the corrugations. A number, of the bolts also permanently lock and unite the several layers/into a unitary mass and lock such unitary mass't'o thesub base II and main base. IU and to thesuper-structure of the hammer.v It will be noted also that the construction and arrangement of the bolts and plates are such, thatthe parts of the bolts offer little resistance .to .subsequent deformation of such plates While in use and during such deformation are not subjected to forces which would tend to destroy them or render them useless for the purposesfor which they were incorporated in the structure. The facility by which the layers may be assembled may be increased by welding groups ofpthe plates together, for` example, by Welding4 the ends of the plates together so that they are secured by welded seams such as are indicated by the reference numeral 31 in Fig. 3 of the drawings. By so welding the ends of the plates, the whole anvil block may be assembled at its place of manufacture and then shipped as a unit to the place of installation where it can be immediately installed.
The plates 20, 2I and 22 are made from a tough, ductilesteel oralloy, ferrous or non-ferrous, lsuch as rolled, open hearth steel having a carbon content of from 0.10 to 0.90 or any other suitable grade of carbon or alloy steel possessing the necessary hardness and toughness and ductility for the purposes intended.' Thus the plates are enabled to absorb relatively heavy shocks and stresses `without failure and at the sametime, due to therelative softness of the metal, are enabled under such stresses to become more firmly and permanently seated. For example, under the heavyjimpacts of the steam hammer, the metal of the plates will flow to the extent that the interlocking ridges and ltroughs of the plates will become more firmly seated and interlocked so that in time the metal platesunder such impacts will be hammered into a homogeneousm'ass in which there will be no structural weaknesses and relatively little if any air spaces or separations as between the plates. vA foundation of this character is practically indestructible and' wlllhardness and toughness.
the top plate or plates I9 may be provided with tend ftoaincludeall; structuresrcomi'rig:iwi-thinV ,the
last; lfoni'longV periods. The plates :may lbe'icase hardened orl not heat treated dependingzupoxr the; desired` requirementsk and shouldpreferably f bev asheavy and thiclcras is attainable. for fheavyr machines .and may be. varied.. according to vthe requirements of each classofmachines or applis. cations:y.wherefthelbases areto be used.' the plates l may be :of tithe same thickness. vif desired.A ...The :top plate i9 may also-.ber made vof thesame. material as the plates ,20f,.1:2l .and 22. but-itfmay;
be .preferable Vtoeniakefit.of a heat treated alloy f steel having greater hardness and toughness than the aforementioned rolled steel in order to obtain a better distribution over the entire area of the anvil block of the forces which will be exerted thereon through the sow block I4 during the operation of the hammer. lBy this more equal distribution of the load or stresses there is in time obtained also a more homogeneous uniting of the underlying layers of softer metal. Someof the steel alloys suitable for this purpose are chrome*- molybdenum alloys, chrome-nickel' alloys or 1: :Affoundationr-for-fsupportinga machine com;A
prising a concrete basav a unitary: metal. sub-:base resting ori"y saidconcrete ffbasa and being v'secured to A'the flatterr a.'A machiney 'basel mountedl .on Asaid subi-'base .and lsecured :to thei latter fand saidzconc'retef basessaid machine base being: ofh'laminated including a plurality of metal members extendvanadiumv steels as they possess the knecessary The metal material of a hard facing or surfacing to better accomplish the above results.
while I have illustrated in Figs. 1 to 3 of the drawings and above described a preferred embodiment of the invention, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that changes and modifi-` cations may be made therein without departing.
from the spirit of the invention. Thus any num-,- yber of plates 20 and 2| may be used and any suitable arrangement of the boltsmay be made as is 2 found to be desirable. In this latter connection the positions and arrangements of thebolts may be reversed or otherwise varied to suit the conditions of the particular application of the invention. `The cushioning effect of the .anvil block accomplished by the use of plates of a soft, ductile steel can also be enhanced by placing between the several layers of such block, thin sheets of material softer than that of which the plates are constituted, as for example, lead, bronze orwood. Shock absorbing sheets of this nature areindicated by the reference numeral 40 in Fig. l of the drawings. These sheets also have the added advantage that the material of which they are constituted will rlll in anyv irregularities in the surfaces o f the plate which may not be erased in the use of the block thereby obtaining a .better seating of the plates relative to each other. .By the use of welds 31 such as has been above. described, such materials will be sealed in place for long periods or until they have been properlyand permanently distributed between the steel plates. It will also be evident that instead of the corsurfaces of the plates may be otherwise formed or roughened in a predetermined manner so as to prevent slippage of the plates. `For example, as is illustrated in Fig. 5 of the drawings, the plates may be formed so as to provide projecting members 4| which are constructed and arranged to interlock with correspondingly shaped depressions 42 provided in the opposed surfaces of the adjacent plates as is illustrated in Fig'.`5 of the drawings. In such a construction the use of bolts or at least a large number of the bolts may be rendered unnecessary and` discarded. Other changes may readilyvoccur to those skilled in the art, hence. I do not wish to limit myself '.to the preferred structure above described but ining verticallythrough at least a plurality of said plates.
2. A foundation for a machine comprising a concrete base, a unitary metal sub-base resting on said concrete base and secured thereto, a unitary machine base mounted on said sub-base and secured to the latter and said concrete base, said machinebase being of laminated construction and including a plurality of superimposed plates of substantially the same surface area and composed yof tough, ductile metal capable of absorbing heavy stresses without failure and under such stresses of enabling such plates to become more firmly united to one another, the opposing surfaces of said plates being rough and the projec-y tions and depressions of such opposing surfaces lfor anchoring the machine upon the uppermost plate of said machine base, said lastmentioned being interengaged'to secure said plates in superimposed relation and kagainst 'slippage relative to each other in at least one direction, and means means including a plurality of.` metal members extending vertically through atleast a plurality of said plates.
3. A foundation for supporting a machine comprising a concrete base, a unitary metal sub-base resting on said concrete base and being secured to the latter, a machine base mounted on said sub-base and secured to the latter and said concrete base, said machine base being of laminated construction and including a plurality of superimposed plates of tough, ductile metal capable of vabsorbing heavy stresses without failure and unf der such stresses of becoming more firmly united to one another, the interior. plates of said lami.- nated machinebase having a corrugated crosssectional form so as to provide a plurality of alternately .spaced ridges' and troughs on the surfaces 'of such plates-the ridges and troughs on the surfaces of each plate being interengaged with the troughs and ridges, respectively, on the surfaces of adjacent plates, and means securing said plates against movement relative to each other in directions extending longitudinally of the troughs and ridges and anchoring the machine upon the uppermost plate of such machine base.
4. A foundation for supporting a machine comprising a concrete base, a unitary metal sub-base resting on said concrete base and being secured to the latter, a machine base mounted on said sub-base and secured tothe latter and said concrete base, said kmachine base including a pluthe strain on such member due to such heavy stresses.
5. A foundation such as dened in claim 4, in which each of said vertical members is secured at one end against substantial movement relative to one of said plates and is movable relative to the other plates through which it extends under the said stresses, and in which said cushioning means is in engagement with and coacts with 10 the other end of said member.
LOUIS W. WILLIAMS.