US 2374323 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 24, 1945. A, BIHR 2,374,323
DEcALcoMANIA Filed Aug. 18, 1942 HEATER FUEL llll UP CLOSED-DOWN OPEN WITNESS G l' J j. INVENTOR ATTORNEYS Patented Apr. 24, 1945i DECALCOMANIA Alphonse Bilir, Forest Hills. N. Y., assignorto Palm, Fechteler & Co., New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York application August 1s, 1942, serial No. 455,164
This invention relates to decalcomania and more particularly to decalcomania which shall become luminous when subjected to the action of ultra-violet light.
The principal object of the invention is to provide a. decalcomania which under the action of ultra-violet light, shall be clearly and distinctly visible to the eyes of an observer while at substantial distances from the decalcomania and which will give satisfactory service without substantial deterioration for relatively long periods.
Another object of the invention is to provide a decalcomania which is so constructed that the material thereof adapted to be activated by the ultra-violet light, is utilized with the maximum efficiency.
A further object of the invention is to provide a decalcomania employing a material capable of being activated by ultra-violet light and so constructed that the luminescent qualities of such material will not be caused to deteriorate appreciably for substantially long periods.
Other objects as well as the advantages of the invention will be ascertained from a. perusal of the following description, read in connection with the accompanying drawing, in which Fig. l is a front view of a decalcomania marker made in accordance with the invention; Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section taken along the line 2-2 of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is an elevational view of the object shown in Fig. 4; Fig. 4 is a plan view of the marker in an advanced stage of its manufacture; Fig. 5 is a longitudinal sectional view of a modied form of marker having the design of the marker shown in Fig. 1, the section of such modified marker being taken along a line corresponding to line 2-2 of Fig. l, and Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fig. 5 of another modified form of the invention.
As shown in Figs. l and 2 of the drawing, the decalcomania of this invention comprises a base sheet A of standard decalcomania paper such as is used in the trade generally. This paper base is provided with a water soluble coating B of adhesive or gum. Overlying the adhesive coating B is a layer C of white cellulosic lacquer which serves as a reecting background for the superimposed fluorescent material. Coated on the layer C is a fllm of clear lacquer D which increases the strength of the reiiecting layer C without disturbing its reflecting properties. Above the nlm D is a layer E of a suitable material, such as the material known as clear Acryloid, which is capable of sealing in the lacquer any acid forming ingredients which may be contained therein or on the surface to which the' decalcomania may be applied without obstructing light rays passing to and from the reflecting layer C. Bonded to the layer E are blocks F of fluorescent material having areas greater than the areas of the character or characters to be displayed, and conforming in general outline to the form oi.' such character or groups of characters. Overlying the clear Acryloid layer E and those portions of the blocks F which are to be blotted or blacked out to give form to the characters to be displayed is an outer layer G of a suitable non-reflecting material which is applied in any suitable manner to cover those portions of layer E which do not underlie the blocks F and those portions of the blocks F which are to be obliterated, leaving exposed the remaining portions of the blocks F which give form to the design.
It will be understood from the foregoing, that the decalcomania of this invention is composed of a multiplicity of layers of material C, D, E, F and G which are bonded together to form a unitary multi-ply layer that is removably connected to the paper base A by the water soluble adhesive coating B. .When it is desired to transfer this unitary, multi-ply layer to the article to which it is to be applied, for example, the panels of aircraft-instruments whose operational limits it has been designed to indicate. the decalcomania is dipped in water and soaked for a few moments until such unitary layer can be moved readily from the paper base A. The unitary layer is then slid oil the paper A onto the article to which it is to be applied, the moist adhesive still carried by the unitary layer or lm serving as a means to unite such film with the article to which it has been transferred. When the unitary layer or ilm has been properly applied to the article, itis pressed nat to remove any excess water thereby leaving a marker which, when dry, will become hard and permanent.
It will be understood from the foregoing also, that when the face of the decalcomania of this invention is subjected to radiant energy of the nature of ultra-violet light, the outer layer G which does not reflect light and is of a composition of material not excitable by the ultraviolet rays, does not become visible to the observer in the dark, while the characters outlined by such layer G and composed of the nuorescent material F, is activated or excited by the ultra-violet rays and caused to glow with sufllthe observer.
cient intensity as to become clearly visible to and E to the .white lacquer layer C and are rehected by such layer C back through layers D and E and into the blocks F of fluorescent material. Thus the fluorescent material is caused to be thoroughly permeated -by the activating medium and caused to glow with itsvgreatest efficiency so that the characters formed by such material will be distinctly and clearly visible to and readily identified by the observer without close scrutiny even under conditions not approaching complete darkness.
The intensity of this glow is en- The decalcomania of this invention is made l by taking a sheet of standard decalcomania paper A provided with a water-soluble coating B of adhesive or gum and covering the adhesive coating B with a layer C of white lacquer. .i The layer C is preferably made of cellulosic lacquer because the acid factor of such material is so low as to be practically neutral, a condition which is to be desired in helping to maintain the luminescent qualities of the fluorescent material. As has been mentioned, this lacquer layer C serves as a reflecting background and functions to reflect that portion of the ultra-violet light which escapes through the areas of fluorescent material forming the characters, b'ack through such material so that the latter is thoroughly activated throughout with the ultra-violet light. This action of the layer C is more emcient if the lac quer is applied as a relatively heavy depomt. It has been found that a lacquer layer of approximately .001 inch in thickness will act as a satisfactory reflecting medium for the ultra-violet light. The white lacquer can be applied in any suitable manner, such as by printing, but is preferably applied by the silk screen method as the latter produces in a single application, a layer of the lacquer material of the required denseness for most eiilcient operation of the layer as a reflecting medium and at the same time having sumcient strength for the purposes of the invention. In the same manner, the coating D of clear lacquer may be superimposed upon the reflecting layer C. The layer D like the layer C is preferably made of cellulosic lacquer because of its low acid factor and may have a thickness of approximately .001 inch. As has been pointed out, the layer D makes for a strong product which is desirable for certain purposes. It is within the contemplation of this invention, however. to omit the coating D when the additional strength afforded by this layer is not necessary in the use to which the decalcomania is tobe put.- Where such additional strength is desired, however, it is accomplished through the layer D which may be superimposed on the layer C as has been described or may be interposed between the adhesive coating B and the white lacquer layer C to equal advantage. In either case the layer D will accomplish its function without disturbing the reflecting qualities of the layer C.
Deposited upon layer C or layer D, as the case may be. is a coating E of a neutral material capable of sealing up in the lacquer any possible acid forming ingredients which may be present therein and of preventing any acid forming factors which may be contained in the surface on which the transfer is to be applied, penetrating into the fluorescent layer. 'I'he superimposed fluorescent material is-thus protected from contact with such acid forming ingredients, thereby preventing any deterioration of its fluorescent properties as may be caused by such ingredients. For this purpose it is preferred to use a coating of either ethyl cellulose lacquer or a material known as clear'Acryloid which is composed of polystyrol resin. These materials not only have the advantage of being non-acid forming materials, but also will not impair or obstruct the refleeting functions or laver C. The clear Acrylold is obtained in its commercial form mixed with toluol and as a highly viscous liquid that is too thick for silk screening and is not printable because the solvent therein evaporates too quickly. In accordance with this invention, the commervcial product is thinned with ethyl lactate or other suitable solvent of high boiling point which slows up its drying rate and which is added until the material assumes a creamy consistency. This cream-like material is then applied to the lacquer layer D by the silk screen method so as to deposit on such layer D a coating of the Acryloid having a thickness .of approximately .0006 inch. The
applied Acryloid coating E is then allowed to dry to the point where it will be dry enough to prevent oifset but not too dry to prevent its integration and bonding with the subsequently applied materials. In this condition of the layer E, it will be dust free, that is, it will not collect dust. Up to this point in the construction of the decalcomania, there has been built up a light refiecting medium composed of the layers C, D and E, the layer C being the actual reflecting instrumentality and the layers D and E providing sufflcient depth for most effective results while at the same time strengthening the product and protecting it from possible loss in intensity of light effect through the rear of the decalcomania.
I'he next step is to apply the material which forms the indication or mark to be observed and which is to be activated by the ultra-violet rays. A material suitable for the purposes of the in- -vention is composed of a suitable iluorescent material, a vehicle and a solvent or thinner. 'Ihe fluorescent material or pigment employed should be selected from those known to the art which are best suited foi the purposes for which the decalcomania was designed. For example, if a bright pale lgreen color or glow is desired under the influence of the ultra-violet light, zinc sulphide should be used as the fluorescent pigment. I'he fluorescent pigment should be included in the material in sufficient amount so that the applied mixture dries matt. The vehicle should be selected for the importance of its qualities with respect to the manner of application of the vehicle. For instance some vehicles which are suitable for silk screen printing are cyclohecanone resins, esteried copal and polystyrol. I'he vehicle should be first mixed with a suitable solvent or thinner before the fluorescent material is applied to the mixture. Suitable solvents are carbitol acetate, octyl acetate and ethyl lactate which are added in sufficient quantity to give the mixture a creamy consistency. After the desired consistency is obtained the fluorescent material is thoroughly dispersed throughout the mixture. A suitable mixture for silk screen printing which is the preferred method of applying the material is composed of 15% by volume of Polystyrol, 35% by volume of tuluol and ethyl lactate and 50% by volume of zinc sulphide. As has been previously pointed out,
the material is preferably applied to the layer E in the form" of blocks or layers F conforming in general outline to the form of the characters or indications to be observed, as is more clearly shown in Fig. of the drawing. The material should be deposited on the layer E in sufficient thickness to assure a rich solid color. It has been found that for ordinary purposes a layer .002 inch in thickness will give satisfactory results.
In addition to the above mentioned ingredients in the material of layer F, it may sometimes be necessary to include a plasticizer in order to make the material more flexible. In such case it is preferred to use dibutyl phthalate, dibutyl sebacetate, tricresyl phosphate.
The layer G of the decalcomania is composed of any suitable paint of a color which does not reflect light when dry, such as black paint. While it is not essential, the paint should preferably be of a type which dries matt or dull. A paint suitable for the purposes of the invention is lacquer having a cellulosic or synthetic medium combined with pigment in sufficient quantity so that it dries matt. As is illustrated in Fig. 1 of the drawing the layer G is applied so that it gives form to the characters, designations or designs which are to be caused to glow by the ultra-violet light, the portions of the layers F which are to be blacked out being covered by the material of layer G.
It is believed that a clear idea of the functioning of the decalcomania will have been obtained from the foregoing description so as to make any further explanation unnecessary. Furthermore while I have described a preferred embodiment of the invention, it will be evident that modications may be made Without departing from the spirit of the invention, as will be well understood by those familiar with the art. For example, I may form a thin mixture of the fluorescent material and apply it to the sealing layer E in the exact form of the character or design desired by a Wet printing operation. In this case it ymay be necessary to dust additional uorescent material on the printed matter While it is still wet to get the required thickness of fluorescent material which would be necessary to obtain the results desired. Instead of incorporating inorganic fluorescent pigments in the material of layer F, uorescent dyes may be used for certain purposes to equal advantage. Also before applying the ilnal coating G, I may apply to the layer F of fluorescent material, a. thin protective coating of material which is of a non-acid forming character and which is transparent to ultra-violet rays, for those cases where it is desired to provide protection against high temperature and humidity or when it is likely that the uorescent material of the decalcomania may become spattered with a substance detrimental to the fluorescent material. Such a coating may be of suitable lacquer and is indicated by the reference numeral H in Fig. 2 of the drawing.
A decalcomania in which the fluorescent material is applied in the exact form of the character or design desired is illustrated in Fig. 5 of the drawing. In this modied form of the invention. instead of applying the reflecting material as a layer to the coating of adhesive material as has been previously described, the white lacquer C' is applied to the transparent adhesive coating B' on the base A' so that it is conned to the characters or design to be displayed by the marker. superimposed on the characters or design of white lacquer and the portions of coating B' not covered by the white lacquer is the supporting film D' of clear lacquer and the sealing layer E' of neutral material. Upon-the sealing layer E' is deposited the fluorescent material, F' in the exact form of the characters or design, such material immediately overlying the characters or design of white lacquer C. While a covering coating G may be applied to the layer E' to serve as a background for the characters or design F', as has been described, it may be omitted as in the modification illustrated in Fig. 5, so that the design or letters made of the fluorescent material will appear against a clear lacquer background. Thus when the decalcomania is applied to an object, the covered surface of the object will be visible through the adhesive material B' and layers D and E' and will be interrupted or not visible only in the portions thereof covered by the white lacquer C' and fluorescent material F'. There will thus be produced a novel and pleasing effect in addition to the advantages previously mentioned. A final coating H of a clear nonacid forming material may be applied also to the modified form of marker for the purposes previously described.
While the invention has been described in detail with reference to a decalcomania which is transferred to an object by sliding it oil its paper base onto such object, it will be understood that the invention can be practiced to equal advantage with those decalcomanias which are first pasted to ,the object before removing their associated paper bases. A decalcomania of this type, embodying the features of the invention, is illustrated in Fig. 6 of the drawing in which A" is the paper base sheet and B" is the coating of water-soluble adhesive or gum. As the layer adjacent to the coating B" will be the outer layer of the decalcomania when the decalcomania is applied to the object, the layers are built up in reverse order to that described with respect to the previously described decalcomanias. Thus in this construction, the backing layer G" of nonreecting material is first applied to the coating B", after which are superimposed the blocks or design F" of fluorescent material, the sealing layer E", the supporting or strengthening film D" and the white lacquer reflecting layer C. Preferably in addition there is provided intermediate the layer G" and the fluorescent material F" a sealing layer J, similar to layer E and protecting the fluorescent material against acid-forming ingredients which might otherwise come into contact with the adjacent surface of such material. Thus the fluorescent material in this embodiment of the invention is entirely enclosed and sealed from deterioration by the material of layers E and J. The final or outer layer K of this decalcomania is composed of a water-soluble adhesive or gum.
It will be understood that in applying the decalcomania of Fig. 6, the decalcomania is secured to the object by the layer of glue K. The paper base A is then removed, after which any glue remaining on the surface of the covering coating G" is washed off. When the decalcomania described is in place on the object, it will be substantially similar to and function the same as the construction illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawing. It will be understood also that the coating G" may be omitted if it is desired to produce a transparent decalcomania of the type illustrated in Fig. 5 of the drawing.
1. A decalcomania comprising a layer of paper,
a layer of adhesive substance on said paper, material overlying said. adhesive layer capable o! forming a reflecting background for ultra-violet light, a design or lettering of iluorescent material overlying said reflecting background and a layer of material transparent to ultra-violet rays in--f` nausea transparent to ultra-violet 'light rays overlying said design or lettering and the portion oi' said adhesive substance not covered by said design or lettering, and a design or lettering oi fluorescent material overlying said sealing material and conforming in form to and concealing the design or lettering of reilecting'material.
8.' A decalcomania comprising `a design or lettering of iiuorescent material, -an intermediate layerfof sealing material transparent to ultravioletv light rays and material capable of. form- .ing alreiiecting background for ultra-violet light passing through said fluorescent nutterialv andr t intermediate layer oi sealing material.
3. -A decalcomania comprising alayer oi' paper,
a layer of adhesive substance on said paper, a layer of material capable of forming 'a reilecting background for ultra-violet light overlying said adhesive layer, a layer of sealing material overlying said reilecting background, blocks of iluorescent material overlying portions of said sealing material and a covering layer concealing said sealing layer and the portions of said blocks o f iiuorescent material not to be included in the letter or design.
4. A decalcomania comprising a layer of paper, a layer of adhesive substance on said papel",l a layer of white cellulosic lacquer on said adhesive layer, a layer of sealing material transparent to ultra-violet light overlying said lacquer layer, a design or lettering of fluorescent material upon said sealing material and an outer layer covering the portions of said sealing layer not covered by the fluorescent material and the portions of said fluorescent material not to be included in the design or lettering to be observed.
5. A decalcomania such as deilned in claim 4 in which a layer of clear lacquer is positioned intermediate said white lacquer layer and said layer of sealing material.
6. A decalcomania comprising a layer of paper, a layer of adhesive substance on said paper, a layer of white cellulosic lacquer on said adhesive layer, a layer of clear cellulosic lacquer on said white lacquer layer, a layer of substantially neutral material transparent to ultra-violetV light on said clear lacquer layer, a design or lettering of iluorescent material bonded to said sealing layer and an outer layer of material which does not reflect ultra-violet light, said last mentioned layer being interrupted to expose to the view of an observer the design or lettering of iluorescent material.
'1. A decalcomania comprising a. layer of paper, a layer of adhesive substan-ce on said paper, a design or lettering of material capable of reilecting ultra-violet light rays provided on said adhesive substance, a layer of sealing material 9. A decalcomania comprising a layer of paper. a layer oi adhesive substance on said pap'er, a
Vdesign of pigmented materialoverlying said ad.
hesive layer, a layer ofsealing material coating .one side of said design of pigmented material and protecting the latter against deterioration from such side, said sealing material being transparent to ultra-violet light, and a layer of clear I ",10. A decalcomania comprising a layer of sealing material transparent to ultra-violetlight rays,
a design of fluorescent material positioned on one side of saidtransparent material, material on the other side of said transparent material and capable of forming a reilecting background for ultra-violet light passing through said nuorescent material and said layer of transparent material and a layer of material forming a covering background visible tothe view of an observer when the decalcomania is mounted on an object, said covering layer being positioned so that the iluorescent material is arranged intermediate the same and said transparent material and being constructed to expose to the observers view the design Voi? the uorescent material.
. 11. A decalcomania comprising a design of iluorescent material, a layer of background material on one side of said nuorescent material and interrupted to expose the design of iluorescent material to the view of an observer when the decalcomania is mounted on an object, a. layer of sealing material positioned intermediate said fluorescent material and said background materi-al, a second layer of sealing material transparent to ultra-violet light rays on the other side of said fluorescent material, and material on said other side of said iiuorescent material and positioning said second layer ofy sealing material therebetween, said last mentioned material being capable of forming a reflecting background for ultra-violet iight passing through said iiuorescent material and said second layer of sealing material.