US 2374414 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Patented Apr. 24, 1945 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE POLISHING COMPOSITION No Drawing. Malian June 25, 1942, Serial No. 448,509
This invention relates to dispersions and the method making them. More particularly the invention relates to a dispersion in solidified form of a base for a self-polishing wax composition including an aqueous soap composition dispersed in the wax, the base being adapted when heated with additional water to form such a liquid polish or liquid water-wax composition and undergo such inversion of phase that the wax becomes dispersed in the aqueous soap solution and remains so dispersed indefinitely without separation of the two phases.
There has been need for a long time of a base for a self-polishing wax composition that may be sold in the form of a cake or bar, much as ordinary soap is marketed, and that may be formed quickly and conveniently into the desired self-polishing liquid dispersion or emulsion by the ultimate user of the composition.
The present invention meets this need. It provides such a base that is marketable in the form of a cake or block, without the use of a liquid-tight container, and that is convertible to the finished self-polishing composition by being warmed and stirred with additional water under conditions that need not be carefully controlled.
The invention comprises a solid selbpolishing composition base of pH about 8 to 10.5 containing a wax or wax and resin blend of kind commonly used in self-polishing floor waxes and soap intimately associated with the wax and suitably also with a limited proportion of water, the soap being present in smaller proportion than the wax, water being used in case the soap is a metal soap in amount adequate to dissolve the soap at the boiling point of water but inadequate to liquefy the whole composition at ordinary temperatures, and the soap and water phase being dispersed in the wax which constitutes the continuous phase. In the preferred embodiment, the composition includes also a small proportion of a soluble metal borate such as borax.
When such solid compositions are warmed to a temperature above the melting point of the composition and stirred with water, in amount qual to at least about 3 to 4 times the weight of solids in the composition that are not volatile at the boiling point of water, the composition liquefles, disperses in the water, and undergoes inversion of phase, the wax becoming the dispersed material and assuming the form of such extremely minute particles that it is self-polishing. In other words, the wax is so finely divided that when the dispersion is applied to a surface such as a wooden floorand allowed to dry by spontaneous evaporation of the water, the particles of wax coalesce into 9. him of lustrous surface. SOmewhat less satisfactory results are 0btained by adding the block of wax containing dispersed soap and water phase to the proper amount of hot water and simply dissolving it in much the same way that a bar of soap would be dissolved in hot water. Less satisfactory results are obtained by putting the block of wax com position in the proper amount of cold water and heating them up together to effect solution. In either of these cases the phase inversion occurs and a finished dispersion in water results which, while lower in quality than the dispersion obtained by the preferred method first given, is usein! for producing a lustrous film as described.
In order that the results described may be obtained, the proportions of the selected materials must be carefully controlled will be described later. Also, the pH must be within the range of about 8 to 10.5.
As the polishing material, there is used a wax of the kind that is conventional in sei-polishing compositions. Such a wax one consisting principally of esters of monohydrio alcohols containing more than 18 carbon atoms to the molecule with monocarboxylic fatty acids includme also more than 18 carbon atoms to the molecule. Examples of suitable waxes are carnauba, candelilla and ouricury (uricuri). These waxes may be used alone or mixed with either each other or a limited proportion of another wax. As the other wax usable in limited amount paraflln may serve or esters formed from substituted alcohols or acids of the order of 18 carbon atoms to the molecule.
The selected wax or mixture of waxes may also be used in a, blend with any resin that is commonly used with such wax in self-polishing compositions. The resin must be one that is compatible with the selected wax when the wax is in molten condition and does not separate from such molten wax as a separate phase. Resins that meet the requirements stated and are satisfactory in the present composition are. rosin, Congo copal, dammar, cumar or coumarone, and polymerized terpene resins, one of the latter type that is useful for the present purpose being known by the trade name Piccolyte. When rosin is the resin chosen, it is suitably partly saponifled by the use of alkali in substantial excess of the amount equivalent to the fatty acid in the soap to be described.
Certain other resins, of a class not wholly compatible with the selected wax in the molten state, but which are soluble or dispersible in aqueous alkali solution, may be used in the present composition by dissolving them in aqueous alkali solution and incorporating them into the composition as a portion of the aqueous phase containing the soap, which is dispersed inthe molten wax phase. Resins that may be used in this manner are shellac and Manila copal.
The soap used must be the soap of fatty acids containing mainly 13 to 18 carbon atoms to the molecule with an alkali that is non-aqueous at ordinary temperatures, ammonium hydroxide which is in equilibrium with ammonia, being an example of a gaseous alkali that is unsatisfactory for use as the alkali component of the soap. There may be used the oleic, linoleic, palmitic, or linoleic soaps of sodium, potassium, triethanolamine, diethanolamine, other substituted olamines, amino methyl propanol and its homologs, morphoiine, or like non-gaseous alkali. If the acid of the soap does not consist principally of a fatty acid containing 13 to 18 carbon atoms to the molecule; the dispersion obtained is not satisfactory. If the alkali of the soap is gaseous at the ordinary temperature, then there is decomposition and loss of volatile alkali when the composition is exposed to air over a substantial period of time such as met with in storage or distribution of the product.
Borax may be omitted from the composition, although its use is desirable. the viscosity of the composition when in molten condition, before the time of the phase inversion, and promotes thedispersion and phase inversion when the composition is warmed with the quantity of water finally added. Borax may be substituted by the chemical equivalent of sodium metaborate, a borate containing more or less excess or deficiency of alkali, or like watersoluble metal borate, provided the result of addition of such alkaline borate is to maintain the pH of the finished product within the stated proper range.
Although a certain latitude of proportions is permissible the proportions must fall within certain ranges if satisfactory solid polish bases are to be obtained,
The proportion of soap must be substantial but not greatly in excess of 33 parts for 100 parts of the wax which constitutes the self-polishing material, which term wax'includes a single wax, a mixture of waxes, or a mixture of one or more waxes with resin. For best results the proportion of soa should be between and parts for 100 parts of the wax as defined above, all proportions being expressed here and elsewhere herein by weight and on the dry basis unless otherwise specifically stated.
In the solid composition suitable for marketing, the proportion of water in the dispersed soap phase should meet the general requirements stated above, when the soap is an alkali metal soap, and should. be between about 10 to 50 parts and suitably 20 to 40 parts for 100 parts of the whole composition. With the proportions of alkali metal soaps described in the preceding paragraph and particularly the soda soaps used to illustrate the invention, the soap dissolved in the 10 to parts of hot water is far in excess of the amount required to cause setting up (freezing) of the soap solution on cooling, to make both wax and th solution solid. When, however, the soap used is any amine soap that If used, it lowers is dispersible without water in the molten wax, the water may be omitted entirely.
The portion of borax or other boron salt if used at all must be not more than 15 parts for parts of the wax as defined above and may vary from this figure down to about 1%. More borax causes thickening of the final dispersion in water and less borax than that stated gives no appreciable advantage over the composition using no borax.
The proportion of water in which the solid material is finally dispersed is such that the total water of the composition, including that present in the solid base initially, is about 30 to 90 parts for 10 parts of the solids present, If less water than this is used, the product may be overly thick and not satisfactorily stable. With greater proportions of water used, then the effectiveness of the polish is reduced. If. there is no objection to these disadvantages, proportions of water outside the range stated may be used. Ordinarily I use about 40 to 70 parts of water to 10 parts of solids.
The solid base for the self-polishing composition is prepared as follows:
The soap that is selected for useand water in the proportions stated are warmed and stirred until the soap dissolves, the term dissolving or solution being used in this connection to include both true solution and colloidal dispersion. Temperatures 'of about to 210 and preferably to 205 F. are used for effecting solution of the soap, the exact temperature selected depending in part upon the proportion of water to the soap and upon the particular soap used. Thus, the potassium soaps may be dissolved in water in somewhat lower proportion or in water at a lower temperature than is required for the sodium soaps.
The wax or the wax and'resin composition is melted and agitated'with the soap solution, the result being a dispersion of the soap composition in the wax composition, the latter constituting the continuous phase.
The resulting dispersion is then cooled, say to room temperatures, the dispersion solidifying during this cooling. The cooling may be effected .in molds to establish the desired shape of the solidified product or the dispersion may be cooled in large masses which are then cut to desired size and shape for distribution.
When the base so made is to be used as in the polishing of a fioor, the base is melted as, for example, by heating in the upper part of the common kitchen utensil known as a doubleboiler and water is added in amount given above. When the solid base has melted, it is stirred with the contacting warm water, whereupon the de- Example 1 Six parts of carnauba wax and 3 parts of Congo copal resin are warmed until a liquid mixture of the wax and the resin in solution in each other is obtained. To this mixture, 9 parts of melted waxandresimareaddedas arts oiahotaqueous solution composed of 6.3 parts or water, 1.2 partsotboranand parts otsodasoap. This soap is made by reaction of 2 parts of oleic acid with 0.3 part oi sodium hydroxide according to methods well known in the art.
The mixture or the wax and resin composition with the soap and borax solution is made at an elevated temperature so that both phases remain liquid during the mixing, a temperature of mixing of about 180 to 210 F. being suitable. The whole is stirred vigorously and then allowed to cool. The result is a seli-polising composition base in solid form having the soap-borax-water phase dispersed in the wax-resin phase and suitable !or further dispersion in water as described above, to make a sell-polishing liquid composition Example 2 Nine parts of carnauba wax are melted. Two parts of castile or other commercial soap is dissolved in 7.5 parts of hot water containing 0.84 part of dissolved borax. The castile soap used may be the sodium salt of the fatty acids oi olive oil or may contain more or less of the soaps 7' ol other fa s or oils, A suitable commercial soap is one whose -volatiiev portion is composed of approximatel -30 per cent of sodium salts of coconut oil fatty acids with. 70-80 per cent of sodium stearate, sodium palmitate, sodium oleate, etc. Such a commercial soap as the brand sold as Ivory is suitable.
The wax in molten condition and the hot solution of soap and borax are agitated until the said solution is dispersed in the wax, after which the whole is cooled to form a solidified base suitable for further dispersion and inversion of phase on being heated with additional water as described above.
Example 3 The procedure of Example 2 is followed except that the amount water used in dissolving the soap and borax is 5.25 parts and the proportion of borax is 1 part.
Example 4 A self-polishing composition ready for use is made by warming any one of the bases made as described in Examples 1, 2, or 3 with additional Example 5 Procedure of any one of the Examples 1 to 4 is followed except that the borax is omitted from the composition or is replaced by an approximately equal-weight o! a higher borate such as sodium metaborate. V
In making the solid base for the self-polishing composition by the general method'described or as given in the specific examples, the pH of the base product is established within the range or approximately 8 to 10.5. Depending upon the proportion of fatty acids to alkali or other teatures of the compoimding, it may be necessary to add acid, alkali, or a buflering agent, any one 01 these materials that is usual for establishin: the pH under the prevailing conditions being satisfactory and being added it necessary \mtil test shows the pH to be established at the desired figure. When the pH is below 8, satisfactory dispersions are not obtained. When the pH is above 10.5, the resulting dispersion is also unsatisfactory and particularly so in its injurious effect upon wood, linoleum or cork-composition flooring.
Although not compatible by melting with wax, shellac may be included as an additional ingredien't, the shellac being added in the form 01' a dispersion in an aqueous alkali solution in the same way that borax and soap are added. Copal resins that are dispersible in aqueous alkali solution, examples of which are Pontianak and Manila copal. may he included as additional ingredients in a similar manner. While they do not alter the amount of wax in proportion to soap as previously defined they do in the total solids and therefore eilect an economy by cutting down the absolute percentage of wax in the product.
Example 5 An example of the practice of the invention in which an amine soap is used as follows:
Fifteen parts of carnauba wax and 3 parts of oleic acid are warmed toge "r until a homo geneous liquid is obtained. his shere is then added a solution ci? 2 parts trieiahanolamine in 5 parts of water, this solution being heated to a temperature of about 180 to 210 F. before adding it to the mixture of carnauba wax and oleic acid, which is heated to about the same temperature, The entire mixture is then agitated until a uniform dispersion or the aqueous triethanolamine soap solution in the molten wax is obtained, after which the whole is cooled to form a solidified base suitable for further disper the composition rather than to use a previously prepared soap. I may also use this procedure in providing any soap for use in my composition.
In this case, the wax or wax and resin composil tion is melted, and the fatty acid, in the proportion of between 10 and 3t parts for parts of wax (or wax and resin composition), is added thereto. The amino, or other alkali to be used, in substantially the proportion required to react with all or the fatty acid, is dissolved in the water to be used in the composition. If borax is to be used, it is added to this solution. This solution is warmed to between approximately to 210 F., and added to the molten wax and fatty acid mixture. The entire mixture is then stirred until the aqueous alkali reacts with the fatty acid to form an aqueous soap solution which is dispersed in the molten wax composition, and the product is then cooled to approximately room temperature whereupon it solidifies.
It will be understood also that it is intended to cover all changes and modifications of the examples of the invention herein chosen for the purpose of illustration which do not constitute departures from the spirit and scope of the invention.
What I claim is:
1. A self-polishing composition base in solid condition, for the production of a wax-in-water emulsion on mixing with hot water, comprising a dispersion of an aqueous soap phase in a wax composition, the water in the soap phase being in the pro-proportion of 10 to 50 parts by weight for 100 parts of the said base, so that the water present is adequate to dissolve the soap at the boiling point of water but insufilcient to make the whole base liquid at ordinary temperatures, the soap consisting principally of the soaps of fatty acids containing 13 to 18 carbon atoms to the molecule with an alkali that is non-gaseous at ordinary temperatures, the proportion of the soap being 10 to 30 parts for 100 parts of the wax composition, the pH of the said base being about 8 tov 10.5, both the wax and the dispersed soap phase being in solid condition, and the composition being marketable without the use of a liquid-tight container and; when melted and stirred with warmed additional water, undergoing inversion of phase, to form a free-flowing dispersion constituting a self-polishing composition.
2. A polish base as described in claim 1, the wax composition including a wax and a resin, both being of kind conventionally used inselfpolishing wax compositions and the resin being compatible with the wax when the wax is in molten condition.
3. A polish base as described in claim 1, the wax composition including carnauba wax and the proportion of water being 20 to 40 parts by weight for 100 parts of the said base.
4. A composition as described in claim 1, the alkali 01' the soap being an amine.
LEONARD C. CARTWRIGHT.