US 2375635 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 8, 1945.
J. B. DYER DOMESTIC APPLIANCE 'Filed June 29. 1940 Fig.1.
III\ I wi l 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 Kill I lllr lg -sm May 8, R v 2,375,635
DOMESTIC APPLIANCE Filed June 29, 1940 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 ZQVENT OR. i
May 8, 1945. J. B. DYER DOMESTIC APPLIANCE Filed Jun e 29, 1940 6 Sheets-Sheet 3 81 BY ATTORiFZf y 1945- J. B. DYER DOMESTIC APPLIANCE Filed June 29, 1940 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 R m N E y 1945. J. B. DYER 2,375,635
DOMESTIC APPLIANCE Filed June 29, 1940 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 O O f 0 3 II (i g 3 i a? 1- "N" ho i 4 0' FE II' I 8 1-! m r8 2% a ATTORNEYS- Patented May 8, 1945 DOMESTIC APPLIANCE John B. Dyer, Dayton, Ohio, assignor to General Motors Corporation, Dayton, Ohio, a corpora-' tion of Delaware Application June 29, 1940, Serial No. 343,205
9 Claims. (Cl. 74-573) ing agitator and a centrifugally rotating tub, in 1 such a manner thatthe machine may be used to wash clothes and thereafter to dry them centrifugally.
Another objectof this invention is to provide a transmission for rotating the basket and vertically reciprocating the agitator.
Another object of this invention is to provide an improved trough for receiving the liquid discharged from a centrifugal basket.
Further objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, wherein a preferred form of the present invention is clearly shown.
In the drawings:
Fig. l is a view, partly in section and partly in elevation of a washing machine embodying my invention, the view being partly diagrammatic;
Fig. 2 is a view of a portion of the machine, showing the same in the process of being automatically balanced while being centrifugally rotated;
Fig. 3 is a plan view of my improved trough;
Fig. 4 is a vertical cross-section of the transmission mechanism for imparting rotation to the tubyand reciprocation to the agitator;
Fig. 5 is an exploded view of the counterbalancing device;
Fig. 6 is a horizontal cross-section taken along the lines 6-6 of Fig. 4;
Fig. 7 is a horizontal cross-section taken along the line l--l of Fig. 4;
Fig. 8 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the upper part of the machine; and
Fig. 9 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 9-9 of Fi 8.
A washing machine embodying my invention includes a rotatable tub I0 and an agitator ll therein, preferably vertically reciprocable. An automatic counter-balancing device I2 is attached to the machine below the tub Ill and includes a mass of counter-balancing liquid. such as water, mercury, or heavy oil or its derivatives, which is automatically distributed in the machine during the pick-up of rotation so that the same automatically balances the unbalance created by any unequal distribution of clothes within the tub.
The counter-balancing device l2 includes a receptacle [3 (see Fig. 5) and liquid pocket means l4 located above the receptacle l3. The receptacle l3 and pocket means M are connected by proper liquid passageways H3 in such a manner that the passageways I5 receive liquid from the receptacle [3 and distribute it to the pocket means I4 in such quantities that any unbalance in the machine tends to be correctly counterbalanced by the liquid.
The tub in, and its driving mechanism l6 preferably are mounted on a universal joint H to allow a slight movement about the joint I! as a fulcrum. The mechanism is maintained in a vertical position by the resilient rubber-like supports I8. While the tub l0 is in a stationary condition, the counter-balancing liquid held in the receptacle l3 remains in readiness to be distributed when the tub starts to rotate. When rotation is started, the clothes within the tub 10 may be in an unevenly distributed condition as indicated by the large collection of clothes l9 and the small collection of clothes 20 which are intended to indicate a ring of clothes of uneven thickness. Such an uneven distribution of clothes causes the tub to gyrate away from the normal vertical axis 2| as indicated in Fig. 2. As the speed of rotation increases, the liquid in receptacle l3 rises; but a larger quantity of liquid tends to collect on the same side of the receptacle l3 as the heavier unbalance Ill. The liquid, as it continues to rise, finally overflows into the passageway We, on the same side as the heavier unbalance'lS. This liquid then flows along the spiral passageway [5a into the pocket [4a, substantially away. The liquid in receptacle l3 may not all flow into one passageway l5a; but a large portion of the liquid tends to flow to that passageway or passageways nearest to the heaviest unbalance in the load. For this reason the liquid is automatically distributed to pockets which are displaced substantially 180 away from the heaviest portion of the load; and
this tends to balance the machine automatically. The passageways l5, and l5a. are so related to the receptacle l3, that when the machine stops, the liquid in the pockets I4 and Ma flows by gravity back into the receptacle l3.
As shown in Fig. 5, the receptacle |3 preferably is made of one piece with a large flange 36. The pocket means I4 and Ma preferably is in the form of a dome 3| which may be bolted to the flange 36 through the bolt holes 32 and 33. Radial baflles 34 are placed in the receptacle |3 to insure rotation of the liquid. The passageways l5, |a are formed in the dome 3| by vertical webs 35, in cooperation with a horizontal plate 36. The pockets are divided by the radial portions 31 of the vertical webs into a, plurality of pockets (4 being shown in Fig. 5). The pockets are sub-divided by baflles 38, provided with notches 39 at their lower portions, to stabilize erably is stopped, and the tub is rotated (along is such that air relief is afforded the pocket means l4; but liquid does not flow upwardly through them, because the terminal I3!) is so located that such flow is prevented.
A trough 46 is placed around the centrifugal basket l0 and is adapted to receive liquid discharged over the flange 4| of the basket. The trough 40 preferably has a tangential discharge 42, and the trough is shaped with increasing cross-section as it approaches the trough 42, as shown in Fig. 3. charged into the trough to flow rotationally through'the trough as it'is discharged by the tub, and is more readily discharged through the tan- This allows the liquid dis gential opening 42 Without danger of overfiowouter cylindrical imperforate portion 45 within which is nested an annular shell 46. The annular shell 46 is provided with a lower flange 41 provided with openings 48 and is also provided with openings 49 approximately along the middle. The total discharge capacity of the openings 48 preferably is more than that of the openings 49. The object of this construction is to remove the scum from the washing liquid before the same has been deposited on the clothes [9, 20 during the centrifugal action. The scum is removed automatically because, as the tub begins to rotate, the liquid takes theform of a vortex, with a large amount of liquid being discharged through the openings 48 and flowing up through the passage 56 over the rim 4|. The scum tends to flow along the surface of thisvor; tex down near the openings 48 where the scum is removed along with the liquid flowing through the openings 48. I
The agitator ll preferably is of the vertically reciprocated type, and includes the metal coneshaped portion II a and the resilient, rubber-like flange II b along the lower periphery. This agitator is reciprocated with short strokes of about one and'one-half inches in length at about 450 R. P. M. to produce a toroidal action in the clothes and washing liquid while the tub I0 is stationary. This tends to distribute the clothes within the tub l0 somewhat evenly in a ring about the agitator ll. However, this distribution obviously is not always exactly even, and larger masses of clothes may be gathered along one side of the machine, as indicated at l9. After Such rotation causes the clutch plate 10 to rise with the agitator II), to discharge the liquid and scum through the openings 48 and 49. During the pick-up of this rotation, the liquid in receptacle I3 is automatically distributed to the pockets l4, Ila as previously described, in a manner to effect a substantial counter-balance of the unequally distributed clothes I9, 26.
Any suitable mechanism for actuating the agitator and rotating the tub may be used, but I prefer to use the mechanism disclosed in Figs.
4, 6, 7, 8 and 9, which is constructed as follows:
A transmission casing 56, 5| is provided and is bolted together as shown. This casing contains a motor having rotor 52 and a stator 53. This motor is reversible. When rotated in one direction, it causes the agitator shaft 54 to reciprocate' vertically. When the motor rotates in the other direction, it rotates the tub "I, along with the agitator ll.
The agitator shaft 54 is vertically reciprocated by causing the motor to rotate the cage 55. This cage carries pulleys 56 which straddle a nonrotatable undulating track 51, which is fixed to.
the shaft 54. As the pulleys 56 rotate, they cause the track 51 to reciprocate vertically, and impart a reciprocating motion to the shaft 54 to which it is attached by means of the bolt 51a, passing through the bearing 51b.
The cage 55 is rotated by means of planetary gears. The motor shaft 58 is fixed to "the sun gear 59. The sun gear 59 drives a ring 50 carrying planetary gears 6|, which are meshed to the outer gear ring 62 carried by the cage 55. The planet ring 66 extends vertically inside a set of unidirectional clutches 63, such that,- when the planet ring is urged in one direction, its rotation is stopped by the clutches 63; but is allowed to rotate when it is urged in the other direction. As a result, when the motor shaft 58 rotates in one direction, the planet ring 60 is held stationary with the result that the gear 59 drives the gear 62 through the planet gears 6|, thus rotating the cage 55 and causing vertical reciprocation of the agitator II.
For the purpose of facilitating construction, the planet ring 68 rides about a bearing ring 64. The sun gear 59. is pressed on the shaft 58 and is secured thereto by the nut 65. The shaft58 rides in bearing 66 carried by the casing 50. The unidirectional clutches 63 are carried by a stationary ring 61 secured to the casing 50.
Rotation of the tub I0 is accomplished by rotationof the motor in the opposite direction.
into engagement with the clutch face 1| and causes the combined clutch and brake plate 12 to be lifted. This disengages the brake band 13 from the stationary brake plate 14 and allows the plate 12 to rotate along with the rotating clutch plate 10. The plate 12 is keyed to the shaft 15, which in turn is keyed at 15a to the tub carrying shaft 16. The shaft 16 has a tub carrying plate 16a to which the tub is bolted by bolts lllb along with the plate 36 and spacer ring 36a. The shaft 16 is carried by thrust ball bearings 16b.
The rotating plate 10 is lifted into engagement with the clutch band 1| by means ofthe spiral drive 11. The motor shaft 58 is provided with spiral slots 11 in which screws 18 extend. The
screws 18 are carried by the vertical sleeve 19 direction, the plate is lifted by the well-known spiral action into engagement with the clutch 54 and to the cone washer Illa which is held by the bolts lob.
Proper lubrication is provided. To this end the casing 5| is provided with a lubricant cup 85, and
lubricant is poured to the proper level. It flows through passages 86 into the space 81, from whence it is pumped through the valve 88 into the interior of the shaft 54 by the reciprocating action of shaft 54. This oil is pumped up to the oil hole 89 to provide proper lubrication between the shaft 54 and the shaft 15. The oil flows down between these two shafts and may pass out through the oil hole 90 for further lubrication of the parts and may be discharged through the opening 92, Other portions of the oil stream may flow down to the opening 93 and lubricate the parts at this portion of the mechanism.
The shaft 54, and track 51, are held non-rotationally, when the tub is stationary, by the brake I3, since brake plate 12 is keyed to shaft 15, which in turn is keyed to bearing 51b which is bolted to shaft 54. Thus when the brake is applied to the tub, the shaft 54 and track 51 are held non-rotationally, to enable them to be vertically reciprocated by the wheels 56 when agitation is required.
There are several characteristics of this type of machine which tend to cooperate beneficially to produce proper balance. One such characteristic is the behavior of a centrifugal machine below critical speed. Another such characteristic is the fact that when the tub first starts to rotate, it must pump the washing liquid in the tub upwardly to the flange 4|; and as this requires some power, it insures a relatively long period of slow rotation below the critical speed. Another such characteristic is that the driving clutch 10, H can slip during the start of rotation, and this prevents an overload of the motor and further increases the length of rotation at slow speed.
A centrifugal machine of the character shown, without applicants liquid counter-balancing means, ordinarily would have a critical speed of approximately the same number of revolutions per minute as the number of vibrations per minute, while not rotating, about the fulcrum l1. When such a tub rotates below the critical speed, the tub swings outwardly in the same direction as the unbalanced load. When critical speed is reached and is passed, the tub starts to swing in the opposite direction from the unbalanced load. That is, if applicants tub were not counter-balanced by the liquid, the tub would swing outwardly in the direction of the large collection of clothes I9 up to critical speed, and from that point on would gradually tend to swing outwardly in the direction of the small collection of clothes 20. It is during the rotation below the "critical speed, that applicant's counter-balanc-' ing liquid is distributed 'to the proper pocket means 14, and this distribution tends to prevent any great outward swinging of the basket at any speed of the basket. When the tub starts to rotate, the washing liquid gradually rises along the outer side of the tub until it reaches the flange 4|. At this time there is a pumping action from the liquid inside of tub 48 to the flange 4|. This pumping action has an increasing head to combat as the level of the washing liquid falls inside the tub 46. This pumping action also requires a substantial amount of power and this prevents the motor from accelerating the rotation of the tub for a considerable-length of time. During this'time, the counter-balancing liquid is properly distributed from the receptacle l3 to the pocket means The extra load imposed on the motor to accelerate the tub and also to pump the liquid out i of the tub, is compensated by the construction of the clutch l0 and 'H which allows it to slip during this starting period and thus relieves the motor from too heavy a burden and at the same time further extends the period of rotation below the critical speed. This further insures proper distribution of the balancing liquid from receptacle l3 to pocket means l4.
From the foregoing it is evident that the ordinary characteristic of a centrifugal basket to sway with the unbalanced load below critical speed cooperates with the delaying washing liquid pumping action and with the delaying slipping action of the clutch 10, H to insure proper distribution of the balancing liquid.
The amount of counter-balancing liquid provided in the machine should be approximately sufficient to counter-balance any expected maximum unbalanced load in the basket 46. That is, the centrifugal pull of the properly distributed counter-balancing liquid in pocket means I4 should be substantially 'equal to the maximum expected unbalanced load produced by unequal distribution at I9. In a machine capable of washing approximately 8 lbs. dry clothes, such maximum unbalanced load may be expected to be about 3 lbs. Thereforethe radius of the pocket means [4 and the amount of liquid distributed therein should be sufiicient to counter-balance this. It is to be noted that if the clothes should be distributed more evenly than that illustrated in Fig, 1, then the counter-balancing liquid also would tend to become more evenly distributed in the pocket means l4, so that the counter-balancing liquid distributes itself automatically to compensate for any distribution of clothes in the tub 46.
While I have referred to a critical speed in centrifugal machines not provided with my counter-balancing means, it is to be noted that my counter-balancing means, tends to eliminate critical speed in my machine. The reason for this is that, as the tub starts to rotate, the clothes start to be distributed along the wall of the tub 46. As the speed increases, any unevenness in this clothes distribution tends to cause the tub to sway in the direction of the heaviest load. This causes a greater centrifugal force along the outer wall of the receptacle l3 nearest this unbalanced load, and the counter-balancing liquid tends to rise higher at this side. The amount of sway, however, need not be very great in order to accomplish this. As the speed increases, the counter-balancing liquid rises and overflows at I5a, as indicated in the exaggerated showing of Fig, 2. As this distribution of the counter-balancing liquid begins, further outward sway (which would be present in an unbalanced machine) is prevented by the distribution of liquid which continues until all of the liquid has been distributed.
While I have shown the outer wall of receptacle II as vertical, it is to be understood that this wall may have the shape of a truncated cone as indicated by the dotted line I30, the purpose of this being to insure complete distribution of the liquid in the early stages of rotation.
While the form of embodiment of the invention as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred form, it is to be understood that other forms might be adopted, all coming within the scope of the claims which follow.
What is claimed is as follows:
1. A centrifugal machine comprising a rotatable device to be counter-balanced, storage means for counter-balancing liquid connected to rotate with said device, liquid pocket means distributed about the axis of rotation of said device in a position to receive liquid centrifugally from said storage means, and liquid passageway means connected to said storage means and pocket means, said passageway means extending from one side of said axis to the opposite side.
2. A centrifugal machine comprising a rotatable device to be counter-balanced, storage means for counter-balancing liquid connected to rotate with said device, liquid pocket means distributed about the axis of rotation of said device above and at a greater radial distance from the axis of rotation than said storage means, said storage means having overflow means, liquid passageway means connected to said overflow means and pocket means and extending from one side said axis to the opposite side said axis to receive liquid from said overflow means during rotation and to convey said liquid to said pocket means on the opposite side said axis and to return said liquid from said pocket means to said storage means by gravity when said machine stops.
3. A centrifugal machine comprising a rotatable device to be counterbalanced, a storage receptacle for counterbalancing liquid secured to said device, liquid receiving means above said storage receptacle and having a receiving portion at a greater radial distance from the axis of rotation than said storage receptacle, overflow means on said storage receptacle, a liquid con- ,veying conduit extending from said overflow means on one side the axis of rotation of said device to said liquid receiving means on the opposite side said axis.
4. A centrifugal machine comprising a rotatable device to be counterbalanced, a storage receptacle for counterbalancing liquid secured to said device, liquid receiving means secured to said device at a greater radial distance from the axis of rotation than said storage receptacle and connected in liquid flow relationship with said storage receptacle by means for directing the 5. A centrifugal machine comprising a rotatable device to be counterbalanced, a storage re ceptacle for counterbalancing liquid secured to said device, liquid receiving means secured to said device at a greater radial distance from the axis of rotation than said storage receptacle and connected in liquid flow relationship with said storage receptacle by means for directing the counterbalancing liquid from one side of the axis of rotation to the other, and a pivotal support for said machine below said storage receptacle.
6. A centrifugal machine comprising a rotatable device to be counterbalanced, a cylindrical storage receptacle for counterbalancing liquid secured to said device, circumferentially disposed liquid receiving pockets secured to said device above said storage receptacle at a greater radial distance from the axis of rotation than said storage receptacle, and conduits extending from said storage receptacle to said pockets, the inlet and outlet of each of said conduits being on opposite sides of the axis of rotation of said device.
7. A centrifugal machine comprising a rotatable device to be counterbalanced, a cylindrical storage receptacle for counterbalancing liquid secured to said device, circumferentially disposed liquid receiving pockets secured to said device above said storage receptacle at a greater radial distance from the axis of rotation than said storage receptacle, and conduits extending from said storage receptacle to said pockets, said conduits extending 90 or more around the axis of rotation.
8. A centrifugal machine comprising a rotatable device to be counterbalanced, a cylindrical storage receptacle for counterbalancing liquid secured to said device, circumferentially disposed liquid receiving pockets secured to said device above said storage receptacle, and conduits extending from said storage receptacle to said Dockets, said conduits extending 90 or more around theaxis of rotation and increasing in distance from said axis from the inlet to the outlet. 1
9. A centrifugal machine comprising a rotatable device to be counterbalanced, a storage receptacle secured to said device for counterbalancing liquid, said receptacle having an overflow rim, means to convey liquid centrifugally overflowing a portion of said rim to a place on the opposite side of the axis of rotation of said device and means for centrifugally retainin said liquid at said place during rotation of said device.
JOHN B. DYER.