US 2376534 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
I Ma 22, 1945. o. SJ IELD 2,376,534
, LIGHT SIGNAL "FOR RAILROADS Filed Oct. 14, 1940 8 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIGJ.
' ATTORN'EY y 1945. o. s FIELD 2,376,534
I LIGHT SIGNAL 1 6R RAILROADS Filed Oct. 14, 940 8 Sheets-Sheet 2 4 FIG.2. 9c am: a v 5 77A \\'i\" a 1 7' 2 "a i 2A 1| i l 21 a9! WWW I I c E E g g m E fifwlla ww llll/ E 12 E INVENTOR I May 22, 1945. Q 5 HE D I LIGHT SIGNAL FOR RAILROAfiS Fil ed Oct. 14, 1940 8 Sheets-Sheet 3:
May 22, 1945. o. s FIELD LIGHT SIGNAL FOR RAILROADS 7 Filed Oct. 14; 1940 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 FIG. 9.
41 PB $23M '2 MM M vATTORNEY May 22, 1945. 0, s, FIELD 2,376,534
LIGHT SIGNAL FORRAILROADS Filed Oct. 14, 1940 s Sheets-Sheet; 5
Flak 15. FIG-v.15.- u 1 I M i INVENTOR' 16 May 22, 1945. -o. s. FIELD LIGHT SIGNAL FOR RAILROADS a Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed Oct. 14. I940 FIG-.12.
May 22, 1945. o, s, HELD 2,376,534
' LIGHT SIGNALFOR RAILROADS Filed Oct. 14, 1940 8 Sheets-Sheet '7 F4 I r FIG.20.
F-= I v I y o. s. FIELD LIGHT SIGNAL FOR RQILROADS 8 Sheets-Sheet 8 Filed Oct. 14, 1940 lNVENTOR v 'ATTOR-NEY Federated May 22, 1%45 pariah SHGNAL Fill? RAELBfiADS (Oscar S. Field, Rochester, N. 52., assigncr to Gencral Railway Signal (Company, Rochester, N. X.
Fig. 2 is a side sectional View, with parts show in elevation.
Fig. 2A is a fragmentary sectional view on line 2A-2A, viewed in the direction of the arrows.
Fig. 3 is a sectional view on line i-3 of Fig. 4,
' viewed in the direction of the arrows.
In a light signalof the above mentioned type.
a movable spectacle carrying difierent colored.
to thereby avoid an erroneous flash of an undesired indication. This is quite different from the usual light signal of this type as disclosed for example in my above mentioned patents.
One object of the present invention is to provide a light signal of the above generally described type with a movable spectacle which is progressively operated by a mechanism including two separate electromagnets of the tractive type which may be readily adapted for use in various types of signalling systems.
Another object of the present invention is to providev mechanical operatin means for interconnecting the armat'ures. with the movable spectacle in 'such a way as to dampen the tendency of the movable spectacle to oscillate or rebound upon its operation to its different positions.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a mechanical interlock between the two separate tractive type armatures so as to require that a particular armature be operated before the other armature can be operated to thereby provide a. signalorganized to display the proper and desired indication under various conditions oi control.
Another object of this invention is to provide an electro-magnetic operating means for the spectacle which is readily adapted to being changed, so as to permitthe signal being employed in various types of track signalling systems.
Further objects, purposes, and characteristic Fig. 4 is a sectional view on line 21-43 of Fig. viewed in the direction of the arrows.
Fig. 5 is a front elevation of one form of operating mechanism for the spectacle.
Fig. 6 is a side sectional elevation of the optical system, and associated parts.
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary view, on an enlarged scale, of a portion of a first form of spectacle operating means. I
Fig. 8 is a front view of contact operating means.
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary side view of contact operating means.
Fig. 10 is a perspective view of of spectacle operating means.
Fig. 11 is a front elevational view of the second a second form I form of spectacle operating means.
features of this invention will appear as the description progresses, reference being made to the accompanying drawings, showing in a wholly diagrammatic manner, and in no way whatsoever in a limiting sense several forms of the invention.
In the drawings- Fig. lit; a rear elevational View of the signal with the outer casing cover removed.
Fig. 12 is a section,;on line I2--i2 of Fig. 11, viewed in the directionof the arrows.
Fig. 13 is a diagrammatic view of the second form of spectacle operating means, showing different operative positions.
Fig. 14 is a fragmentary sectional view, showing the pivoting means for the movable spectacle.
Fig. 15 is a side sectional elevation, showing the mounting of one of the spectacle operating electromagnetic structures.
Fig. 16 is a fragmentary sectional view, on line 6-1 6 of Fig. 1'7, viewed-in thedirection .01 the arrows.
Fig. 17 is a fragmentary side sectional viewof the pivot mounting means of one 01 the armatures of the spectacle operating mechanism.
Figs. 18A, 18B, 18C and 18D are diagrammatic illustrations of different operative positions of one form of spectacle operating means.
Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 are diagrammatic views of diilerent electro-magnetic spectacle operating means, with their associated circuits.
I Fig. '24 is a diagrammatic view of a wayside signal system employing this signal.
Fig. 25 is a. diagrammatic view of a. second form of wayside signal system employing this signal.
b Fig. 26 is a diagrammatic view of a third formwhich can be securely closed by a hasp. The hasp includes a handle which is movable over a look ing staple 2, and operates when in closed position to move the free end 8 ofa spring dabeyond the handle pivot 5, whereby to hold the cover on the casing by a to gle effect.
The outer casing has an opening at its front upper portion for receiving an outer lens CL of the convex type, and held in place by a ring I, and is adapted to receive a usual sun visor 8. The lower front portion of the outer casing is provided with three symmetrically arranged threaded lugsfl, for receiving studs III to the-inner ends of which is clamped a plug board PB, and comprises the plug member of a quick detachable plug coupler. The position of the inner face of plug board PB can be accurately adjusted, and maintained by adjusting the studs ill in their bosses 9,.and when in proper position the slots in the outer ends of the studs are leaded to prevent tampering.
The lower side of the outer casing is provided with wire inlet openings H, closable if not to be used, by caps [2. In the signal illustrated the various lead-in wires are fastened to a terminal board l3 from which they pass to the outer face of plug board PB to there be fastened to plu members such as H.
The casing can be mounted in an addustable manner by means of the threaded rod l5 and ears l8, so .as to be tilted in a vertical plane in a manner similar to that disclosed in the Field patent, No. 2,103,251, dated December 28, 1937, if it be a high signal, and as in the Field Patent No. 2,239,316, dated April 22, 1941, if it be a low signal.
The outer casing with its wire inlet openings and terminal board, and adjustably positioned plug board, and outer lens 0L, is adapted to receive a mechanism casing MC. With this end in view, two stiff, generally vertical springs II are fastened at It to a support member l8 which in turn is fastened to the plug board PB. These springs I I at their upper ends are bent backwardly in a half-loop form, as shown, in a direction toward the rear of the outer casing.
As seen most clearly in Fig. 2A, the outer casing on each side at the inner side has fastened to it a guide member GM, fastened by a stud 2| at its rear end and supported by a bent leaf spring 22 at its forward end, the spring bearing against in the mechanism casing by means of the detachable plug coupler constituted by this plus board PB, carried by the outer casing, and the socket board SB carried by the mechanism casing. The connecting means in the sockets of the socket board are held in place by a cover plate 35, removably connected to the socket board.
The socket board on its forward end has a beveled outline 36, receivable in a complementary beveled depression 31 in the plug board. It should be noted that the inner faces of the plug board and socket board do not contact, but are spaced slightly apart, due to laterally extending lugs 40, three in number, on the socket board, contacting with three inwardly projecting raised pads or portions 4|, on the plug board, whereby to position the two boards in a vertical plane, regardless of any warping which might occur near the central portions of the boards, all for a purpose to be more fully described below.
The inlet wires that energize the light source employed in this signal are connected through an adjustable resistor 42, and are led past the plug coupler to be connected to the light source as at 43.
' From the above description it follows, that when the mechanism casing is to be inserted into the outer casing and being fastened to the guide means by rivets 23. I
Considering now the mechanism casing MC, it
is seen that this casing has a groove 24 in each side, in a position to be received on guide means GM, and thus be guided into the outer casing.
The mechanism casing also has pivoted to it at 25, a U-shaped handle H having an ear II at each end, carrying a roller 21.
Fastened to the front opening of the mechanism casing is a plate PL, which is fastened to cover the front of the mechanism casing. This plate in its upper portion is furnished with an opening to receive an inner lens IL of the convex type, 'held in place by suitable means, as shown. Extending rearwardly of this inner lens opening and integral with the plate, is an in wardly tapering fluted light conducting means terminating in a, plane inclined to the vertical, at substantially 30, in order to parallel the adjacently located spectacle as'will be described below.
The lower portion SB of plate PL constitutes the-socket board of the plug coupler. This socket board is furnished with a plurality of sockets 32,
receiving spring coupling members I18, for connectlng the plug members, such as N. with socket wire connecting means such as ll, whereby to connect the incoming wires with the mechanism the outer casing, it is necessary merely to hold it by the aid of the handle H, while it is slid into the casing on the guide members GM, and with -the handle H in raised position the rollers 21 pass over the upper ends of the springs l1, and when the plug coupler parts have engaged and the beveled portions on the two boards have interengaged the handle H can be dropped to the position shown in Fig. 2. In this way, the rollers 21 force backwardly against the stiff springs l1, and are received in the upper curved ends of the springs, to thereby force the mechanism casing forward so that the plug coupler boards have their cooperating lugs and raised pads firmly pressed against each other. With the handle H in its lowered position, the rollers 21- pass slightly below a. horizontal line through the handle pivots 25, whereby a toggle holding effect is produced by the spring.
It is thus seen that the mechanism casing is supported by the two stiff springs I1, and the engaging beveled portions of the plug board and socket board. Furthermore, it is accurately positioned in a vertical plane and at a. given distance from the front of the outer casing-by the engaging lugs and pads on the coupler boards to form a three-point vertical plane support.
.The rear side of the mechanism casing MC, at its upper portion, has a socket 44 for receiving a barrel 45, carrying alight source LS and reflector Ref: The barrel," is held in fixed position by means of a support frame 46, adjustably carried on three studs 41, threaded into the mechanism casing. The means for holding the barrel within the socket comprise spring clips 4| on frame it and slidable ears 49 on the barrel, in much the same manner as disclosed in the Field patent, No. 2,097,785, referred to above.
The barrel is has a flange member e0 with an inturned portion 5|, carrying three adjusting screws 82, for adjusting the position of the reflector Ref. The reflector has an opening I! to receive the light source and 'is supported on a felt pad 54 of annular form in turn supported on an annular plate spring 5!,- having' inturned with respect to the reflector, by adjusting means 51, in substantially the same manner as disclosed in the patents above referred to. A cover glass 58 is suitably held in place by a ring 59 for closing this portion of the mechanism casing, even though the reflector barrel be removed.
The lower rear portion of the mechanism casing is open, and can be closed by a transparent cover of glass or the like 60, and held in place by a chin-strap GI, fastened at one end by a stud 62 to the mechanism casing, and removably held in place at its other end by a stud 63, receivable in a slot 64 in the casing, and readily removable upon turning nut 65 back on the stud.
Referring now more particularly to Fig. 6, and considering the adjusting means for the optical system, it is clear that, by means of the studs ID in the outer casing, the position. of the plug board PB with reference to the outer lens, can be accurately adjusted. This also accurately adjusts the distance between the outer lens and the inner lens, when the two plug coupler boards are in contact through their three-point support.
By adjusting the lamp in its barrel by adjusting -means 51, and adjusting the reflector, both by rocking it, and if necessary, by moving it inwardly or outwardly slightly, by means of the three adjusting screws 52, the" light source can be accurately positioned at one of the foci of the eliptical reflector. This brings the reflected light to a, sharp point, and with an optical axis truly perpendicular to the barrel fiange 45a, and by adjusting the position of the reflector without varying itsv relation to the light source, this point where the reflected light meets can be accurately positioned on the optical axis, as at the point 66. 1
Now by means of studs fl, the entire reflector barrel can be moved relatively to the inner lens so that the light spreading out from the point 66 will just fill the entire area of the inner lens and the-virtual image of the reflector assembly accurately positioned at the proper focal point of the lens. Further, by means of the adjustment described above, between the inner lens and the outer lens, the light emanating from the inner lens can be arranged to have angles of-incidence to the outer lens so as-to emerge therefrom in a substantially horizontal beam. These various adjustments result in light travel in general along the dashed lines 61a of Fig.
Refer'now more specifically to Fig. 3,-and consider the spectacle S which carries at its upper end an elongated member carrying differently colored roundels, as R, Y and G, to display red, yellow'and green indications respectively, when the spectacle is properly positioned with respect to the light source. The spectacle is carried on a horizontally rockable axle 61, and is operated in a manner to be described below, by electromagnetic means constituting a part of this in-- vention. The spectacle arm 68 is channel shaped,
or tubular, or other suitable rigid form, and is pivotally connected to the axle at its lower end by bolt means 60, and upwardly of its lower end, is slidably fastened, to an upstanding arm on the axleby bolt means 10, passing through an en-- larged hole H in the web portion of the channel,
and a snug fitting hole in the arm of the axle, and
carrying a spring 12 on the bolt whereby to form a spring pressed slip clutch betweenthe axle and spectacle. This permits a slight amount of over-run on the part of the spectacle with respect to the axle when, the spectacle is moved to either extreme position. This construction cushions jars and shocks, and the movement is so slight in extent as to not interfere with the positioning of the roundels to give the proper light indications.
The axle supporting the spectacle is carried by two legs H extending downwardly from an intermediate shelf portion 15, which is fixed to the mechanism casting and is formed of suitable nonmagnetic material. The axle 61 has a V notch 16 in its 'upper face with slightly downwardly tapering faces 11 at either side thereof to receive a needle bearing 18 which on its upper element bears against an upper flat faced bearing member 19, fastened to the legs 14 by holding means 80.
Other supporting legs 8| extending downwardly from shelf I5 have fastened to them as at 82, support members 83, which extend downwardly through slots 84 in the axle, and have sleeved thereon, springs 85 heldin place by washers 86. These washers, in turn, are held in place by shoulders on a clip 81, which clip extends up wardly inside of the spring to terminate to a very short distance below the underface of the slot in the axle. so as to form a stop 88 to prebearings and support means for the armatures of the two electro-magnetic operating members are constructed substantially the same as those for the spectacle bearing, and since these are illustrated to an enlarged scale in Figs. 15-17, the disclosure of the spectacle axle bearing and support will be supplemented by the following de scriptlon-of the support and bearings for the armatures of the electro-magnetic means here involved.
As can be most clearly seen in Fig. 4', the shelf portion 15 carries two electro-magnets, having coils 90 and SI, placed side by side and extending from rear to front of the mechanism casing. Since these two devices in the simplest form of the signal are identical so far as their coil, core, and armature structure is concerned, but one of them will be described in any detail.
Referring now to Figs. 15-17, it can be seen that a core 92 carries a winding BI, and is posi tioned above the shelf I5, and is connected in a magnetic circuit including downwardly extending. legs 93 and 94, carrying pole shoes 95 and 96, with an air gap 91 between their inner ends. Thus, upon energizing a winding, flux tends to pick up the pivoted armature 98 away from its back stop 99in order to reduce the reluctance of the magnetic path, in the usual way for tractive type relays.
I The armature 98 is pivoted at its rear end in much the same manner as described above in connection with the pivot for the spectacle axle.
A stud IIlll passes through a hole in a holding plate IIII andthrougha slot I02 in a U-shaped fiat member I 03. This U-shaped member I03 has two depending legs,'one only,- I04, of which is shown in detail. In assembly, an upper bear- -ing plate I05, having slotted end I06, is first passed between the two legs, and against the cross portion of the U, and then the two legs are inserted through two spaced slots Ill near the end against a stop I I I, held in place by shoulders H2, on a U-shaped slip, fastened at its lower end by bolt I I3 to the leg and extending upwardly as at H4, to terminate just short of the inner face of the socket in the armature. I I4 thus prevent the armature from being pulled downwardly against the spring tension, a sufficient distance to lift the needle bearing out of its v-shaped notch.
Each armature, at its forward end. operates a plurality of contacts as well as operating the spectacle. The armature, as shown in Fig. 8, has fastened to it, depending lugs H6 through which passes a pin I I1 anchored against endwise movement by a spring latch H8 carried at one end by the lugs and at its other end springing into a notch H9 in pin H1. On the pin II1 are carried contact pushers I20 which are slidable, for example, through front and back-contact fingers I2I and I22, and on movement, moves a movable contact I23 to break back contact and make front contact in the usual manner. With this arrangement, a large number of contacts can be operated by each armature without altering the design and proportions of the light signal as a whole.
Coming now to the mechanism whereby the armatures operate the spectacle to its various positions, the two armatures, as seen in Fig. 5, can be considered as the yellow armature Y, and the green armature G, inasmuch as they operate to produce the yellow, and the green indications respectively, under proper energization conditions. Each armature, when the device is deenergized, rests upon an adjustable back stop 99, and in general, upon the yellow armature These portions occur, when the roundels are at rightangles to the optical axis of the signal, whether or not the light source be energized at the time.
Referring now more particularly to Figs. 5, 7
and. 18A-18D, the mechanism whereby the yellow and green armatures move the spectacle to its various positions, will be discussed.
The Y, or yellow armature, has connected to it an operating arm I25, carrying anadjustable front stop I26 intermediate its ends, and a pin I21 at its end, which passes freely through an opening I28 in the crank arm OR. of the spectacle axle, which, as explained above rocks on a pivot. Sleeved on the pin I21 is a rigid tubular sleeve I29, bearing at its upper end against the crank arm CR, and at its lower end against adjusting nuts I30. Surrounding the sleeve I29 is an operating spring I3I, trapped between the crank arm and adjusting nuts I32, whereby, with the yellow armature held by its own weight against its back stop, and with the operating arm I25 substantially horizontaL'the spring I3I urges the crank arm against the stop I26.
0n the G, or green armature, is an operating arm I33 positioned somewhat above the free end of the crank arm when the green armature is resting against its back stop.
The horizontal distance from the crank pivot to the front stop I25 and designated by a, is substantially equal to the horizontal distance b, between stop I26 and the pin I21. Thus, upon the crank arm CR swinging upwardly in a clockwise direction the portion below the stop pin I26 will travel substantially one-half the distance that the outer end of the crank arm travels. The stop arms are backed up with positioning springs I34 and I35. v
This arranging of parts is shown diagrammatically in Figs, ISA-18D in order to facilitate explanation of the operation.
v Fig. 18A represents the parts in the positions assumed when the spectacle is positioned to display the red indication.
Picking 1 the spectacle is moved from itsbiased red position to its yellow position, and then, while maintaining the yellow armature up, if the green relay be energized, thegreen armature picks up and moves the spectacle to its green position. It is arranged, however, that with the yellow relay deenergized, energization of the green relay will not move the spectacle from its red position. The spectacle is biased, by its own weight, and by armature weight, to normally assume its red position so as to display the red indication,
as shown in Fig. 4.
The spectacle, as can be noted in Fig. 3, has its roundel carrying portion inclined so as to be substantially parallel with the inner opening of the conical fluted light transmitting portion, at an angle of substantially 30 to the vertical. This is an important feature for insuring accurate signal indications. .With the spectacle at right angles to the light beam, that is, in a vertical plane, direct sun light entering the signal, and striking the colored roundels, produces a considerable amount oi surface reflection; which emerges from the signal as white light and thus washes out the colored light produced, for ex- In Fig. 183 is shown the positions of the parts when the yellow armature hasbeen attracted and has moved toward its pole shoes substantially one-half of its total travel, which total travel can be represented by a. By considering Fig. 18B, it can be seen that, as the stop I26 moves vertically upwardly a distance of the crank arm is urged by the spring Hi to follow it, and remain in contact with the stop I225. The pin I21, however, has moved twice the vertical distance 2 whereby to strike against the green operating arm. i313, which acts as a stop arm. In this silo above the. crank arm, while the spring has estates been re-tensioned and the collar 9253 has been moved up to beer at its two endsegainst its adjustable stop and the crank arm. Thus, in yellow position, the spectacle is rigidly coned to the yellow armature, and the spring is re tensioned preparatory to its further moving of the crank.
in Fig. 181) the condition is shown where the 328811 armature has moved against its pole shoe, which is a distance c, whereby the spring has expanded, andmoved the outer end of the crank arm a distance of c, to retain it against the The crank arm, at the point verco. below the stop lid, being closer to the pivot, has moved a distance approximately to thereby bring it against the stop 5%.
in deenereizing the operating magnets, the res release and move the spectacle back red position v means of this intermediate tensioning of the ag spring, the spectacle, in moving from i stop, does not need to build up a spring of any considerable value, and hence the ire/i is more dependable than those hitherto d, in returning to the stop position upon tion. e noted that energization of the green "not merely moves the stop arm iii? upwardly, unless the yellow magnet has first been encl, and has remained energized, the crank lot move because of the stop are. Thus, energization of the yellow magnet moves the spec tacle to the yellow position, and with this yellow magnet energized the green magnet when energized can cause the spectacle to move to the green position, but the energization of the green magnet alone cannot cause the spectacle to move from its red position.
Refer now more particularly to Figs. l0, l1 and 13 for disclosure of the second form of spectacle operating means. In this second form, the Y and the G magnets, with their armatures, are the same as before. The spectacle axle is substantially the same although is varied somewhat. The axle has a double crank comprised by an arm ltd, operated on 'by the Y magnet, and an arm m, operated on by the G magnet, the first arm being substantially horizontal, and the second arm somewhat downwardly inclined when the spectacle is in its red position.
The Y armature has a vertically bifurcated operating arm, comprised by an upper short, leg I38 having at its end an adjustable stop I39 bearing on the upper face of crank arm I36, and a. lower long leg 0 having an adjustable stop I at its end bearing against the lower face of the crank arm I36. In a similar manner the G armature has a. vertically bifurcated operating member, comprised by an upper short leg I42, carrying at its end an adjustable stop I43 which is'flxed above the upper face of the crank arm I31, and a lower long log I having at its end an adjustable stop I45 bearing against the lower face of the crank arm I31.
As shown in Fig. 13, in a. diagrammatic manner, the stop I39 0; the yellow'armature ispositioned at a distance e from the axis of rotation of the spectacle axis while stop HI of the same armature is positioned at a distance I, from the axis of rotation, with distance 1 substantially twice as great as distance e. With regard to the G gr. from the of rotation, while the stop M3 is pos tioned at a distance it irom the aids of rota= tion, wherein distance it is substantially twice as great as distance g. 'ine distance 9 is sliehty greater than the distance c in order to compensate for the difierence in vertical travel or? the armature operating arms. it can be seen. in i that the G armature operating arm is spaced slightly further from the armature axis is the other arm, and, hence will move a slightly greater distance when the armature picks. up, al== though the spacing in Fig. ii is exaggerated for clarifying the showing.
Upon the Y armature being picked up, followiug enereization of its coil, the armature moves the arms i323 and t lt in a vertical direction, a distance substantially equal to d, to thereby rock the spectacle crank clocirwise, to bring it to the Z position, where the cranls arm, it'll bears against the crank stop M3. The spectacle in this position is arran ed to display the yellow indication.
Upon energizing the magnet, the G errna ture piclts up to move the stop against the crank arm it? during the first half or its total movement and then to move the crank clockwise to position the spectacle for displaying the green indication. The G armature drives the spectacle only during the last half of its travel, and the stop Mt has been away irom the crank arm the full distance of its travel, but since it is substantially twice as far from the axis of rotation as is the driving pin, when the spectacle is posi= tioned for the green indication the two crank arms are in the position indicated by G, and are against the Y stop member list, and against the G stop member Mil. I
The spectacle also is provided with a stop idli, iixed to the mechanical casing, and cooperating with the spectacle carrying channel, and ordinar- 40 ily this stop will become effective at the same time as do the armature stops, or slightly before, if there be any time diiiference.
In the case as with the operating mechanism of the first form, described above, if the G mad net is energized when the Y magnet is cleanergilzed, the spectacle will not move from its red no sition since to do otherwise it would be necessary for the G armature to pick up not only itself and the spectacle, but also the Y armature, and such a load is excessive. Thus, as before, energization of the yellow magnet gives the yellow indication, and energization of both the yellow and green magnets, gives the green indication.
As thus far described, the yellow and green magnets are separate devices, both physically and with regard to their energizing circuits, and this arrangement is shown disagrammatically in Fig. 19, where the yellow magnet Y has a winding energized through a. circuit controlled by the switch Ml, of any desired character: In like manner, the G magnet is energized through a circuit controlled by a switch I48 of any desired cha.racter. Thus in this form', two neutral relays armature, the stop I45 is positioned at a distance relays are connected directly to the usual tuned its armature biased by a spring, or counterweight,
or the like, I50, to retracted position. A full-waverectifier II is inserted in series with the windin of the yellow magnet, whereby to cause current to flow in the yellow magnet always in the same direction, regardless of the applied polarity, so that a change of polarity on the energizing circuit for the two magnets will not cause the yellow armature to release. The winding of the G magnet is split so as to place its two parts on opposite sides of the rectifier, whereby to provide a choke on each sideof the rectifier to protect against lightning, and the like. The energizing circuit is obvious from the drawings and is controlled by a switch I52 of anyjdesired character. When the switch is closed, the ellow magnet will always pick up to give a yellow indication, and if the applied polarity be of the character to make the left pole shoe a north pole, the south polarized armature will be attracted and the green armature will pick up and give the green indication. However, if the polarity be the reverse of that considered just above, the polarized armature will be repelled, and so will remain in its biased retracted position. The direction of flux which picks up the green armature is shown by a full arrow, and that which urges it to its retracted position is shown by a dotted arrow.
In Fig. 21 is shown another form of magnetic structure and circuit connection, wherein the yellow magnet, as before, is a neutral magnet, and
picks up when the switch IN is closed, regardless of the applied polarity, and'does not release upon the polarity being reversed; due to the rectifler I54. This rectifier is connected, as described above, for protection against lightning. In this form, the green armature is not polarized as before, but a permanent magnet III! is magnetically connected in multiple with the electromagnetic core so as to substantially saturate the core. Thus, when the electro-magnetism is in the direction of the full arrow, the core shunt on the permanent magnet is choked out, and the armature picks up, but when the electro-magnetism is in the reverse direction it has no effect to speak of, since the permanent magnet has saturated the core and the armature remains retracted.
In Fig. 22 is shown a slightly modified form wherein the circuit for energizing the magnets is controlled by a switch I". This form differs from the form of Fig. 21 only in that the permanent magnet is replaced by an electro-magnet III, which acts as shown and is connected to the rectifier I58, so as to be energized always in the same direction, regardless of the applied polarity. The operation is the same as described above in connection with Fi 21.
Another form of magnetic structure, and associated circuits, is shown in Fig. 23', wherein the yellow magnet is non-polarized, as before, and is prevented from releasing upon a change in the polarity of the applied energy by means of its connection to the output side of the fullwave rectifier I61 In this form, the core of the green magnet has a bucking winding comprised of two portions I58 so connected on opposite sides of the rectifier (forlightning. protection as before) as to always be energized in the same' direction regardless of the polarity of applied energy. There is also the operating winding I59, on this same core, which likewise is in two parts, for lightning protection of the rectifier, and which is energized in different directions, with different applied polarities. When the two sets of windings are energized so as to aid each other, the armature picksup, and when energized to oppose each other, the armature remains retracted. I
Referring now to Fig. 24, there is here shown a trackway signalling system for railways, employing the light signal of this invention. A
stretch of track I6I is shown, divided into usual simplest form, above described, wherein the yellow and green magnets are neutral and are controlled by separate circuits. The winding of the yellow magnet is connected across the entrance end of its track section, and thus serves as a track relay, while the winding of the green magnet is energized through a circuit including front points of its yellow magnet, and front points of the yellow magnet of the signal next in advance. For example, considering the signal SD, its yellow winding is connected, by wires I62, across the track rails, while the corresponding green winding is energized through a circuit including contact finger I63 and front point, and contact finger I 64 and front point. These contacts I" and I64 are contacts built into the light signal, and accordingly, for this three-position signalling system, no traek relays, or line relays, are needed, since contacts are available in the signals themselves, and the signals are of the progressive type, moving in the same direction from most restrictive to least restrictive indication, so as to permit of their use in this system.
With a car I65 occupying the block D, the yellow winding of signal SD is shunted out, and its contact I63 in retraced position, deenergizes the green winding, whereby the signal at the entrance to the occupied block displays a red indication.
At the entrance to block C, the first block to the rearof the occupied block, the yellow winding is energized, but the green winding is deenergized due to contact finger I66 being in retracted position so that the signal displays a yellow indication.
The signal immediately to the rear and all signals further to the rear have both windings energized, and hence display green indications.
, Referring to Fig. 25, there is here shown a signalling system similar to that described just above except that the yellow winding of the signal, which may in some cases not be suitable to function as a track relay, is connected to repeat a usual track relay I81. With the track relay I61 deenergized, the yellow winding of the light signal is deenergized, due to. the retracted position of contact finger I68 of the track relay.
In Fig. 26 is shown a system wherein the yellowwinding of the light signal functions as the secondary relay of a usual primary-secondary? track relay, such, for example, as shown in the Field patent, No. 1,942,141, granted January 2, 1934.
In this system, the track section F is occupied by a car I89 and the primaryrelay PF is deenergized to position its contact finger I" in retracted position, whereby to deenersize the yeltermediate position upon the energization of one of said relays and to move said drive axle and both 01 said relays, whereby the limit or movement oi the spectacle to the intermediate position is determined by the released position of said armature of said other relay, and whereby energy stored in said spectacle during its movement is dissipated by said frictional clutch means without causing movement of the relay armature of said other relay from its released position.
5. In a multiple aspect color light signal of the searchlight type for railway signalling systems, a vertically movable spectacle having colcred roundels for giving the diiiferent color aspects of the signal, electr c-responsive mechanism including two tractive type electro-magnets for moving said spectacle from one extreme biased position in the same direction to other indicating positions progressively, each i of said. electromagnets having .a pivotally mounted armature moving in a vertical plane to its attracted position, means operatively connected with the free ends of said armatures for moving said spectacle to diil'erent indicating positions in response to the energization of one or both of said electro-ma nets, and a permanent magnet disposed in shunt relationship to the armature of one of said electro-magnets to render that armature responsive only to the energization of that electro-magnet by current of a particular polarity.
6. In a multiple aspect color light signal of the character described, a spectacle having colored roundels for the diflerent aspects of the signal and tilted in a vertical plane to its different indieatin positions, means including two tractive type electro-magnets for operating said spectacle from a biased position in the same direction progressively to different indicating positions, sa'id electro-magnets having armatures in parallel relationship pivotally mounted on horizontal axes, a permanent magnet associated with one'of said electro-magnets to render its armature respon-' sive 'only to the energization of that electromagnet by current of one polarity, and means associated with the other electro-magnet for delayingthe response of its armature to its enersization.
7. In a multiple aspect color light signal of the character described, a spectacle having diflerent colored roundels and supported to tilt in a vertical plane to diflerent indicating positions, operating mechanism including two tractive type electro-magnets for positioning said spectacle in an extreme biased position when both of said electro-magnets are deenergized, said mechanism operating said spectacle from its biased position in the same direction to different indicating positions when one and then both of said electromagnets are energized, a plurality of movable contact fingers operatively connected to each of said armatures, and means for rendering the operation or one of said armatures to its attracted position dependent upon movement of the other armature to its attracted position.
' 8. In a multiple aspect color light signal of the character-described, a spectacle having colored roundels for giving the different aspects oi the signal, an axle mounted to turn on a horizontal axis for supporting and tilting said spectacle in a vertical plane to its different indicating positions, operating mechanism including two tractive type electro-magnets for moving said axle and spectacle from a biased position in the same direction progressively to other diflerent indicating positions, said electro-magnets having armatures in parallel relationship pivctally supported at one end for vertical movement on a horizontal axis, a plurality of movable contact fingers horizontally disposed under each of said armatures, stationary contacts cooperating with said contact fingers in both the attracted and retracted positions of the associated armature, means conmeeting the free ends of said armatures with each of the associated contact fingers, and means for rendering the movement of one armature to its attracted position dependent upon the movement of the-other armature to its attracted position. a
9. In a spectacle operating mechanism for a searchlight multiple aspect type signal, a spectacle movable in a vertical plane about a pivot point, two tractive type relays associated with said spectacle and each having an armature pivoted at one end, operating means jointly connecting said armatures to said spectacle for progressively moving it to its difierent positions from one extreme biased position, said operating means moving said spectacle to an intermediate position when one or said armatures is in an attracted position by reason of energization of its relay, and to the other extreme position when the other of said armatures is also attracted due to the energization of its relay, and means preventing the attraction of said other armature by the energization of. its relay unless said one armature is in an attracted position by reason of the energization of its relay,
10. In a spectacle operating mechanism for a searchlight signal of the multiple indication type, a spectacle movable in a vertical plane about a pivot point, two tractive type relays associated 4 with said spectacle and each having an armature pivoted at one end, front and back contacts associated with each armature and operatively connected to its other end, operating means jointly connecting said armatures for progressively actuating said spectacle to its different positions from one extreme biased position, said operating means actuating said spectacle to an intermediate position when one of said relays is energized and to the other extreme position when the other of said relays is also energized, and means preventing the response of the armature of said other relay to energization of that relay except when said one relay is energized and its armature is in an attracted position, whereby the actuation of said spectacle and said contacts associated with said other relay is prevented by energization of that relay unless said one relay is energized first.
11. In a ultiple aspect color light signal of the charac r described, a spectacle having colored roun ls for giving the diflerent aspects of the signal, an axle mounted to turn on a horizontal axis for supporting and tilting said spectacle in avertical plane to its difierent positions,
, when that armature is released but moving out of engagement when that armature is in an attracted position, another operating arm extending inwardly from the armature or the other of said relays to a position beneath and engaleable with said first operating arm when that armature is attracted and such another operating arm having a stop positively engaging said crank arm on its upper surface when that armature is released and said crank arm is in an intermediate position but moving out of such engaging position when that armature is in an attracted position, whereby said crank arm is normally biased to an extreme position by the armature of said one relay, and whereby the attraction of the armature of said other relay is prevented unless the armature of said one relay is also attracted, and operative connections between said operating arms and the crank for moving it to an intermediate position when the armature of said one relay is attracted and for moving it to another extreme position beyond the intermediate position when the armature of both said relays are attracted.
12. In a multiple aspect color light signal of the character described, a' spectacle having colored roundels for giving the different aspects of the signal, an axle mounted to turn on a horizontal axis for supporting and tilting said spectacle in a vertical plane to its different indicating positions, a tractive type relay on each side of the axle and each provided with a pivoted armature, a substantially horizontal crank on the axle extending to one side thereof, a first bifurcated operating arm on one armature straddling,
the crank and contacting the crank on its upper surface relatively near the axle pivot point when that armature is retracted and also contacting the crank on the under surface and relatively far from the axle pivot point, and another bifuriated operating arm on the other armature straddling the crank and contacting the crank relatively near the axle pivot on its under surface and spaced from but contactable with the upper surface of the crank relatively far from the axle pivot, said space between such bifurcated operating arm and the upper surface of the crank being substantially equal to the movement of the crank when said one armature is moved from its released to its attracted position, whereby said one armature can move to its attracted position without moving the other armature from its released position but said other armature can move to its attracted position only if said one armature is also moved to its attracted position, said bifurcated operating arms being oi. such lengths that the distance between the points where such bifurcated arms'contact the crank relatively near the axle pivot with respect to the distance between the points where such bifurcated arms contact the crank relatively far from the axle pivot is of a ratio of approximately one to two, whereby the spectacle is operated from one extreme position progressively to an intermediate position and another extreme position in accordance with whether said one armature is attracted or both said armatures are attracted and said another bifurcated operating arm furnishes a stop for preventing over-run of the spectacle when it is operated to its intermediate position by the attraction of said one armature.
13.'1n a multiple aspect color light signal of the searchlight type of the characted described,
a spectacle having aplurality of colored roundels and movable to bring each of said roundels to a predetermined point for the different indicating positions of said spectacle, two tractive type relays associated with said spectacle and each including a core, an energizing winding, and a pivoted armature, operating means operative-1y con-" necting said armatures with said spectacle for moving it to one extreme biased position when both of said armatures are in their retracted positions, to an intermediate indicating position when said armature of one of said relays is in its attracted position, and to another extreme position when both of saidarmatures are in their attracted positions, means associated with the core of the other of said relays to render its armature attracted only in response to the energization of the associated winding by energy of one particular polarity, rectifier means associated with, said relays, and circuit means connecting sad other relay winding through said rectifier means in series with said one relay winding, whereby energy of one polarity causes both said relays to attract their armatures while'the application of the opposite polarity causes only said one relay to attract its armatur and whereby the quick reversal of polarity does not result in the dropping of the armature of said one relay and an'unnecessary operation of said spectacle.
14. In a light signal of the multiple aspect Searchlight type, a movable spectacle having a plurality of colored roundels and movable to bring each of said roundels individually to an active indicating position, two electro-magnets associated with said spectacle and each including an energizing winding and a pivoted armature biased to a released position, operating means operatively connecting said armatures to bias said spectacle to One extreme indicating positiorrwhen both of said armatures are in their released positions, said operating means acting to move said spectacle to an intermediate indicating position when one of said armatures is attracted and to move said spectacle to an opposite extreme indicating position when both of said armatures are attracted, means polarizing one of said electromagnets for causing it to attract its armature only in response to the energization of its associated winding with current of one polarity, rectifler means, and circuit means for connecting the windings of said electro-magnets in series and so including said rectifier means as to cause the non-polarized electro-magnet to be energized with the same polarity of current when either polarity of current is applied to said circuit means. I
15. In a light signal of the multiple aspect v searchlight type, a movable spectacle having col.-
cred roundels for giving the different color indications of the signal, electro-responsive mechanism including two tractive type relays for moving said spectacle from one extreme biased position in the same direction to'other indicating po sitions progressively, each of said relays having a core, an energizing winding and a pivotally mounted armature biased to a retracted position,
means operatively connecting said armatures for render the armature of that relay responsive duly to the energization of its energizing winding by current of a particular polarity, a full-wave rectifier, and circuit means including said full-wave rectifier for connecting said energizing windings in series in a manner to supply the relay not hav; ing an associated permanent magnet with unidirectional current regardless of the polarity of current supplied to said circuit means.
16. In a light signal of the multiple aspect