US 2376906 A
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y 2 4 L. DAVIDSON ARCH CONSTRUCTION Filed July 13, 1942 IN VEN TOR:
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UNITED 7 PATENT OFFICE V V Anon CONSTRUCTION I .Louis Davidson, Hewlett, -N.' Y. Amman July 13, 1942; .seiiai nafmasvo z'clai m'sf (01.20
i .Thisinvention relates to arch shaped construe-- tions for the'we'll known usual purpose of beingsupported with their planes in vertical po-'- siti'on and carryinga load, and it particularly relates to such load carrying arches of building construction which are made of plate like elements of wood, metal'or other. appropriate material. l
= The main object of my invention is to provide novel methods and means for constructing arch shaped structures, particularly from plates, planks or strips of said materialsefficiently, expeditiously, comparatively inexpensively and without waste of material and labor.
' 'Another object of my invention is trussed structures in a simple and reliable manner embodying my novel arches, as a portion thereof.
Still further objects" of my invention will be" apparent as the specification'of the same proceeds, and, among others, I- may mention: To provide structures, as characterized hereinbefore, whichmay usea great'variety of materials and a great variety of appropriate securing means in an efiicient manner, which will 'be adapted for simple. arch members, and also for building more complicated arch constructions for large 'spans and stresses and which-may be readily adapted and made appropriate for 30 specific cases. I
' In the drawing, forming apart ofthis specification and accompanying the same:
Fig; 1 indicates the method-now used for making' arch shaped load carrying building construction members out of wooden planks, metal plates, andthelike,and
Fig". 1a. indicates the first'step in my novel I H Fig. 2 shows a plate arch' member of the type indicated constructed acbordingto my invention; "Fig. 3 shows a load carrying plate 'archconstru'ction according to my invention in a case where a stronger structure is require'clj Fig: 4 is a front elevational view of a multiple arch construction according to my invention and usedfor wider spans;' l V v Fig. 5' indicates such a longer span arch built into a trussed structure;
Fig. 6 is a sectional elevational view'ofthe construction of Fig. 2; a s
Fig. '7 is a similar section but showing added members;
Fig. 8 is a sectional elevational view, the section being taken on the line 8'8 of Fig. 4, and i Fig; 9 indicates a section'of a two layer-arch to build 23 'and 24." To
const 'uction. built according to my. invention and showing added transverse layers at the top. and bottom, similarly to Fig.7, to make my arch ofanLbeaLm cross section;
; .FigJ-ld is a cross sectional view of a modifica tion of the construction shown inFig. 3;
,Fig.',11 is a sectional view, the section being taken onthe line H--I l of Fig. 5; 1 .Fig. 12 is a, fragmentary detail showing a modified form on the construction in Fig. 5;
Fig. 13 isa sectional elevational view, the sec-. tionbeing taken on the line. 13-43 of Fig; 12. Figs.,,l.4 and 15 show further modifications.
Ashas'been mentioned hereinbefore, Fig. 1 indicates the. method nowused for forming plate like load carrying building arches f planks, metal plates, and the like. formedfrom a rectangular plate like, member, generallyindic ated by the numeral 2i), having a loweredge 2i and upper edge 22, and side edges made upperportion preferably touching the upper edge 22 at'the center 26. This cutwill remove thetwo' upper side portions 21 and" and willr'nake the curved line 25a new upperj edge'fo'r the plank 20 makingthe same of agenerally arch shaped member but having": the straight lower edge 2| If it is desired to; make a true 'arch'sha'ped member of the plate or plank 20, a similar second curved cut is madethrough' its'1ower""portion, as indicated in an'imaginary manner by the dash and. dot line 29, which then i will be'made thelowe'r curved edge or lower cord of the archmember'but a large lower portiorr 30 of the plate or plank 20 will be cut away with an appreciable loss of material and labor.
fI tLwill be seen that,"aside of the diflicult, slow and cumbersomeo'perations, the parts 21 and 28,
:, and in the latter case also the portion 30, will be not be as wasted, andth remaining arch will strong "as the original plank.
As indic'ated'in Fig. 1a, I take the samefplank or plate 20 and cut a curved section line. 3|-
upper edge 22'and lower'ed ge 2|, thereby separating the sameinto two elongated pieces or sec-- tions 20a and 20b," having the curved meeting or common edges 31a. and 3111. I now take the 'upper piece Mia, move it downwardly and place its upperedge 22 to abutthe lower edge 2| of the lower piece 20b, as indicated in Fig. 2. The two pieces 20w and 2012' now will be secured together along theircommonedge 2|, 22, by any apm'opriate means,*like gluing, welding, soldering, or;
rom wom n- The arch] is form an arch shaped member tromth e, plate orplank 20, the curved cut 25 is apart from both its been mentioned hereinbefore. I
to the curve of the arch at those points, as has 1 Next'to, and, to the right of,,the member 35 is placed a similar member 36, in the front layer of plank, plate, or the like, with one easy operationf and without any waste. Fig. 2 shows this simple basic structure of my novel arches, generally inj dicated byfthe numeral 32, its upper chord being at 3Ib and lower chord-31a, and 'it1being obvious that in use asaload carrying building-element, the arch member is set up edgewise in the way of 1 Fig; 2 with its plane in a. vertical position, and it will be supported in such a position;
In Fig. 3 Iindicate a form of my arch member adapted for cases where greater strengthpand ii' therefore greater depth is desired.v In thiscase,
I insert between the upperand lower sectionsilld and b of an original plank or plate, :a plank, .1
plate or strip 33, the upper edge 22 of the section 20:; abutting the lower edge 33aof the intermedialsobeingsecured thereto.
greater depth than the sim ple plate arch 3'2 depth obviously depends on the width ofthe intwo orfmore such-' intermediate members may be used,-, each.'edgewise abutting the'one below it, to buildup anynecessary-width or. depth in my arch essary-transverseor sideways reinforcements, or such reinforcements may beadded to my members such cases. I
In Fig-i- 4 I-show anarch structure built 'up-ofa a large span. I
3 The building simpl 'iseXecutedinsucha man-'- ner'that the-adjacent end edge zof each two mempluralityof'my basic individual'arch member for,
ate'pie'cefl33fand being/secured'thereto' byany appropriate means, as has been indicated herein; before, and the lower edge 2l"o f the piece 20b abutting theupper edge. 33b .of saidipiece 33 and.
"Ihe'resulting'plate archof'Figtt,generallyindicated by the numeral 34,,is composed of the three pieces 2011, 201) an'd,3,3,' and a'much 1 formedpftheoriginal pieces 20a and, 20b. This Y tennediate' member as; andit also is obvious that binations, as will he explained .presently, was; 1 parts of-trusses, and they so. ll'receive-the necby any of themethods usual and. well known in. .i
bers 'willgbe' made to follow the-radialsofthe arch: 3
curve to be: built; at thepoint'in question, and they, willrbe placed 'to: abut andwill be secured to one another, as will be more'fullyexplained pres 'ently when describing the structureshown by Fig. 4. 'Sincei'n snch cases more; strength-is required in the body of, the arch,-'and also to better secure the individual members edgewise to one" another, several layers are used, and theFarchmembers in the, adjacent layers are staggeredPin'an overlapping manner;
1 --Referfing now to Fig. 4; v the same-shows a central fragmentary portion of -a built up arch struc-v turezv constructed according to myinvention and made of 'aplurality of individual basic arch mem bers'in thiscase arranged'in three layers. 1
The left hand-fullxfrontmember is-indicated 7 generally by the numeral-35fhaving been built up of thezu'pper section 35a-and lower 35b secured together on the straight 'line35'cand having'the curved "upper'edge 35d and lower edge 35a and the: twosideedges 35 and 35g,
the arch structure of Fig. '4, having the similar elements thereof marked by the numerals 36a, 36b, v 36c, 36d, 36e, 36 its right hand end being broken away, as indicated'at 3651:. To the left of the members is arranged back of the first front layer, and closely adhering thereto, in Fig. 4 one full member .38 and-broken all right hand and left hand members 39 and. 40 of it being indicated, their parts being :appro'priately numbered to aid in recogniz ingthemp v i "Similarly athird on: and backof. the isecond, or. middle layer, Fig. 4 showingone fullmemberfl Iv and parts of a right handmember dzand left. member 43 thereofl: It ,will beunderstood that the abutting edges of the two pieces in each member, and" of the ad-= jac'ent members 'willibe secured to one another, as has been explainedhereinbefore, by anyapproprh ate means. i i It is also obvious that the adjacent member'sin otheryas by gluing, riveting, bolting, .etc.
It will beseen that in this mannerl may build an .archstructureof individual plate OIIStI'iP'likG members expeditiouslyfland r to answerv a great range of requirements as t h p span; and strength'.-: r i
:Mydndividual arch members, as well up arch structures, may use any desired and-suitable; materials; like wood; metals, even. plastic; etc.
In: Fig; 7 ,I 'illustratefan individual arch member 44;having 'therweb'orarchq proper 45, .built be understood.
InrFig. i992. similar archam'ember is shown; but built oftwostaggeredlayers 48 and 49 fora web and two bent strips 50 and 5| atthei-topand twov strips" 52 and 53" at: the bottom; for added strength. 1"
It also will be understood: that in the structure shown inwFig. 4,011 in any other of my archfstruce tures several j sections :for anindividual member,
or several individual members maybe set abutting each other with their longitudinal edg,es,-to build up a greater width and greater strength in theiarchg in 'th'e; manner of'FigKB; and that obviously if; the arch structure is built-of several-layers as in 'Fig. f4,--then' not only the side edges may"be staggeredin-the individual layers but saidlongitudinal edges too, soas. to "provide an overlapping-' i of: the elements in the individual layers, in, the
direction of 'thea depth or width of the arch also.
In Figs. 5 and 11 I ShOW'BrDOltiOll of a-truss into which isbuiltone "of hiya-arches; The truss. generally is indicated by-the; character. it and my arch-by the numeral:55', andzmy archin this 1 combination becomes a cord offthe truss.
web members: 56 of the-truss arese'curedbetween 1 two layers 55a and 55b of the arch byrany ap-- f propriate' means; like bolts,- rivets; welding, gluing, etc.,and preferably at the meeting; of the in-' w'hicn re radial wd vidual members-in-the-layers; as at Hand 58:"
layer of such members is built The Appropriate devices well known in the art (not shown) may be placed between the spaced apart truss in which two members 6| and 62 of my arch are set edgewise and the web members63 are secured to the outside of the arch as indicated in the section of Fig. 13.
With reference to the modifications of my invention shown in Figs. 7 and 9, I want to remark, that it is very hard to make an arch shaped structure of an I cross section with the methods and means heretofore available for such purpose. A steel I beam is hard to bend and after such bending one section of it will be stressed-over the normal while the opposite region will be compressed. made by bending at all, as will be obvious. My invention makes it possible to construct arch structures of any metal, wood or other material and give it the I shape cross section with simv ple and easy means.
The strength of such a, cross section also can be easily adjusted to the requirements of the case, if necessary several web layersmay be provided, as indicated in the section of Fig. 8, and similarly the top and bottom transverse strips 50 to 53 in Fig. 9 may be increased.
I also want to remark that the curved section line 3m, 3: in Fig. 1a obviously may be placed anywhere between the two outer longitudinal edges 2| and 22, so that it may start from the corner or intersection of the left hand side edge 23, with the lower longitudinal edge 2| and end at the opposite corner formed by the right hand side edge 24 with the edge 2 l In Fig. 14 I indicate one other method of forming the basic individual or single arch member of Fig. 2. In the modification of Fig. 14:
Edges 2| and 22 are placed into overlapping Wood in such structures cannot be- Fig. 15 indicates a similar constructiton to that of Fig. 14, but applied to the combination arches of the type of Figs. 4 and 5. In the fragmentary showing of Fig. 15 two basic or single arch members of my invention are shown, designated; by the characters 10 and II, respectively, the side or transverse edges 10g and-Hf of which are placed into overlapping relation, the two members having a portion, indicated by 10b, overlapping, whereupon the same may be secured in such a position by any of the means mentioned hereinbefore, or by any other manner, as parts of a construction.
In general, I want to remark that my arch constructions are intended as parts of larger structures, particularly roofs and concrete form work, and the various overlappingly, abuttingly, or otherwise set portions thereof may be secured in such a position also by the balance of said outside structures, and not only by direct connections and the spaces possibly left between not co-planar sections thereof may either be left vacant, or filled out, as necessary or convenient.
In the foregoing, I have illustrated and described preferred and satisfactory embodiments and applications of my invention, but it is ob- .vious that changes may be made therein within the spirit-and scope thereof as defined in the appended claims.
What I claim as new is:
1. An arch construction for buildings, comprising several vertical layers, each layer consisting of several elongated wooden boards, each piece composed of two sections of the same thick ness, each section having One straight and one curved longitudinal edge and each two sections being placed with their straight edges abutting, said pieces being placed in an end to end relation in a chain, andso forming a single layer first,
arch, additional similar layers placed flat against said. first arch, secured to one another, with the ends of the pieces in the several layers in staggered relation to form an arch of several layers with the transverse and the abutting straight relation, as will be obvious, leaving a portion 200 r in each of the sections 20a 'and 20b overlapping each other, whereupon the two sections may be secured in such position.
In this case, of course, the sections 20a and 201) will not be in the same plane, however, in many cases of such constructions this is acceptable depending on thickness and kind of materials to be used, and the method of Fig. 14 may be rri iore2 easy to apply than the one indicated in edges being staggered with reference to the individual layers. I
2. In an arch construction of claim 1, a flat member of the thickness of the respective layer interposed between the straight edges of each pair of sections, the straight edges of each pair of sections abutting the respective straight edges in the flat member therebetween.