US 2377170 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 29, 1945. B. D. MORGA'N V 7 2,377,170
FLUID POWER MECHANISM Filed Sept. 11, 1942 2' Sheets-Sheet 1,
- May 29, 1945. B. DJMORGAN I 2,377,170
7 FLUID POWER MECHANISM Filed Sept. 11, 1942 2 Shets-Sheet 2 v L/F/UT? 5. .7757 527 ly coiled UNITED STATES PATENT omen I r'wm rowan MECHANISM Burton D. Morgan, Akron, Ohio, assignor to The B. F, Goodrich Company, Nw'York,.N. Y., a corporation of New York I Application September 11, 1942, Serial No, 457,918
- 3. Claims. (o1. Bil-54.6)
This invention relates to fluid power mechanisms, especially mechanisms utilizing fluid in their capacity for action or to be acted upon in the conversion of mechanical to fluid transmission of force, or,vice versa, and is useful in some of its aspects in its application to a variety of mechanisms, such, for example, as fluid-operated brakes, pumping apparatus, and even springing structures. 7
Objects of my invention are to provide a fluid power mechanism which has simplicity of construction. and to provide at the same time for ease of manufacture, and effectiveness of operation. Further objects are to provide a mechanism which is capable of altering the pressure of the fluid by change of volume in the case of air or other compressible fluid, and to provide for displacing the fluid with or without a change of volume of the fluid by virtue of distortion of flexible and preferably resilient wall portions of thefluid container, which portions are preferably arranged in adjacent relation to cooperate with each other.
Another object of the invention is to provide pressure transmitting mechanism of substantialform having wall portions adapted to be pressed toward one another thereby distorting the portions and effectively altering the pres- 1 structures.
These and other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the followin description.
In the accompanying drawings, which form a part of this specification, and in which like numerals are employed to designate like parts throughout the same,
Fig. '1 is a vertical section through the pilot compartment portion of an aircraft fuselage including a landing wheel having a fluid-operated brake, showing a fluid power mechanism constructed in accordance with and embodying the invention,
Fig. 2 is a perspective view on an enlarged scale of the fluid power mechanism of Fig. 1,
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of a cupped memher for seating the end convolutions of thecoiled tube,
taken along line 6-6 of Fig. '7 is a perspective view, from below, of a I portion of a vehicular suspension including the fluid power mechanism, and
Figs. 8 and 9 are perspective views, respectively, of further modifications of the coiled tube.
An embodiment of the invention as applied to the braking system'for a vehicle, such as an aircraft, is shown in Fig. 1. A pilot compartment portion ll of a, fuselage i2 is enclosed by an outer covering ll including a windshield, and a bulkhead II to which is secured a floor portion l5. An instrument board It having a control structure I1 is supported by an intermediate wall I! attached to the floor l5. As illustrated in Fig. l, the fuselage H is supported by an undercarriage having struts and landingwheels, each one being shown at I 9 and 20 respectively.
There may be two fluid power mechanisms 2| for two landing wheels, each mechanism being manually operable at the discretion of the pilot to transmit fluid pressure to the braking unit of one of the wheels; hence permitting selective control of the braking force applied to the respective wheels 20 whereby the aircraft may be steered on the ground. 7
The fluid power mechanism 2| is held in place, preferably beneath the floor it, by a mounting pedestal 22 secured to the floor by bolt fasteners 23 or other suitable means and by a supporting member 29 secured to the outer cover ii. A foot pedal 24 is mounted pivotally upon a supporting bracket 25 also attached underneath'the floor by bolt fasteners 26. The lowerportion of the foot pedal 24 extending'through an opening in the floor has a slotted aperture 24a in which one end of alink 21 is movably secured by a pin connector 28, the other end of the link 21 being secured'to a hollow tubular rod 30 at its forked end 3|. The
link 21 extends through a guiding aperture in the supporting member 29 and is maintained thereby in alignment with the tubular rod 30. This arrangement provides for changing theoscillatory movement of the foot pedal 24 to reciprocatory movement of the tubular rod 30in the direction generally along the floor l3, and prevents binding of the rod 33 with the bearing surface of an aperture 32 in the downwardly depending portion of the pedestal 22.
A flexible-walled tube 33 in helically coiled form having a plurality of convolutions about the tubular rod 36 is disposed such that the rod slides freely within the central space under all operating conditions of the tube. The end convolutions may be positioned within cupped members 34 and 35 having openings 34a and 3511. through which end portions 33 and 31 of the tube 33 project outwardly. The cupped members which have axial apertures 54 to permit extending the rod 30 therethrough, may be identical in structure, as shown in Fig. 3. I
The tube 33 may comprise an inner lining 33a of rubber-like material upon which is disposed a reinforcement 3322 which may comprise fabric or stranded material of cord, wire, or other suitable elements woven, braided or laid in a manner to provide the desired strength and flexibility. Upon this reinforcement may be disposed a protective cover 33c of rubber-like material. With this arrangement'the tube is capable of withstanding internal pressure and flexure of its walls, and is capable inherently of resuming its starting condition or nearly so upon distortion by virtue of the resilience of the walls thereof. The convolutions of the tube 33 may be secured together in I their contacting relation, as by an adhesive rubber cement or by a vulcanized bond, to prevent movement and slipping thereof. According to the nature oi. the reinforcement used, the walls of the tube may be stretchable or substantially oblate shape in section, as shown, for example, in
Because of this pressing action, the resilient walls of the tube 33 are in a stressed condition and tend to assume their original form; hence an axial force is exerted by the tube wall through the member 35 and the rod 33 upon the link 21 and in turn upon the foot pedal 24. In this manner the pedal resumes and maintains its original position upon the release of pressure thereon by the pilot or when the mechanism is inoperative, obviating the need, for example, of auxiliary return springs. the case of residual pressure in thefluid.
Referring especially to Figs. 1, 2, 4 and 6, the
.tube 33 may be made circular in section so as to have maximum internal cross-sectional area and maximum volume displacement per unit of length, when not under compression. However, when the convolutions of the tube are pressed initially together, as described hereinabove, the cross-sectional area and the internal displacement per unit of length are reduced because of the oblate or non-circular form in section. Upon further compressive force being applied axially along the helically coiled tube 33, the oblate form is altered progressively to a shape more remote from the circular, whereby the internal volume is decreased and fluid therein flows under pres- This return action is assisted in to meet the requirements of the particular application as to changes in fluid volume and pressure. Also, for some applications, such as the fluid power mechanism for brakes, the coils of the tube 33 may be pressed together initially to an extent such that they are somewhat non-circular in section and such that each successively additional increment of compression produces substantially an approximately equal decrement in volume displacement.
Other coil forms, as well as the strictly helical,
I may be employed for the tube structure, if desired. For example, the tube may be spirally wound as at it!) in Fig. 8, or substantially square in form as at l0l in Fig. 9.
As shown in Fig. 1, one end 37 of the tube 33 is interconnected with a fluid reservoir 38 by a check valve fitting 39 and a conduit 40, the reservoir functioning to charge thesystem with a suitable fluid, such as brake oil, and to compensate for subsequent fluid losses. The fluid reservoir 33 including an inlet and cap 4| and an outlet connector 42 to which the conduit 40 is connected, is mounted upon a shelf extension 43 of the instrument board l6 and an auxiliary bracket (i l by longitudinal supports 45 and straps-4t with bolt fasteners. The other end 36 of the tube 38 is interconnected with a fluid-operated brake ill by a fitting 48, a flexible conduit 49 and a lead Ell. Suitable bleeding means for venting air may be provided in the system, as desired.
The fluid-operated brake, shown by way of example in Fig. 1, comprises shoes 58 forced against a brake drum' 52 by an inflatable annular ring or tube 53, the fluid under pressure communicating with the ring 53 through the lead 53. It is to be understood that the fluid power mechanism 2! of the invention is useful also with other suitable types of fluid-operated brakes.
In the operation of the mechanism shown in Fig. 1, the braking system being fully chargedwith brake fluid, the foot pedal 24 is moved forwardly of the aircraft which imparts a backward movement through the linkage structure to the tubular rod 30 in the manner previously described. This movement of the rod presses axially together and distorts the convolutions of the helically coiled tube 33 disposed between the cupped members 34 and 35 forcing the fluid therein to now under pressure through the conduit 49 into the inflatable ring 63, the check valve 38 effectively preventing fluid flow to the reservoir 38. A limited axial movement of the rod 30 and cupped member 35 is effective-to cause the transmittal of the required volume of fluid under pressure to the inflatable ring 53 of the brake". The rod 30 assists to stabilize the coils of the tube 33 in the lateral direction. although the coils themselves possess considerable inherent stability. The ring I53 is distended by the fluid and presses the shoes Bl against the brake drum 82, thus securing the desired braking action which is regulated by the extent ofv the pressure exerted upon the foot pedal 24.
For the reverse part ofthe cycle, upon the cessation or reduction in the amount of forward force upon the foot pedal24, the fluid pressure within and the compression or the helically coiled tube 33 are diminished permitting the brake fluid to flow back and refill the space within the tube 33 under a return pressure action of the brake structure 41, hence ending or reducing the braking effect upon the landing wheel 20. In addition to the pressure of the returning fluid acting to 176- store the tube 33 and hence the fluid power mechanism 2i to its starting condition, the helically tive action by virtue of the axiallyfi'orward force due to the stressed condition of the resilient walls,
a as hereinabove described. When the foot pedal coiled tube 33 assists appreciably in such restorav and the cupped member 33 towards the cupped member 34 and the pedestal 22, the rod 30 moving within the coiled tube 33 and through registered apertures in the member 34 and the pedestal .22 and preventing objectionable lateral movement of the coils. At the start of such compression the inlet valve 31 closes and; the outlet valve 68 opens permitting displaced fluid in the tube 33 to new through the outlet conduit 19, the quantity of flow being dependent upon the extent to which the convolutions are pressed together. When the handle 58 is next retracted until stopped by the collar 65 contacting the pedestal 22, the inlet valve 31 opens and the outlet valve 33 closes permitting fluid to reflll the The fluid power mechanism is applicable also estal by spot welding or other suitable fastening means. The pedestal 22 is secured to a base 58, for example a floor structure or table-top, by suitable fasteners, such as wood screws 51; The other end of the tubular rod 30 is supported by an aper-' tured support member 60 and is secured to a link 59 and connected to a handle 58 through the link 59 having a pin connector 6i.
The handle is mounted pivotally upon a shaft 32 and a bearing block 63 secured to the base 58 by wood screws 51, and has an elongated aperture 84 in its lower portion in which the pin 6| ispositioned movably in order to provide for reciprocating motion of the tubular rod 30 notwithstanding the oscillating motion of the handle. The rod 30 slides freely within the apertures in the member 30 and pedestal 22 and cupped member 34.
\ Forward movement of the handle 58 is limited by a collar 85 secured to the rod 30 by a set-screw 33 or other suitable fastening means; while the backward movement is controlled by the amount of compression of the tube 33 between the cupped members 34 and 35 which is caused by the force exerted upon the handle 58.
The cupped member 35 is positioned upon the rod 30 in a manner such that the convolutions of the tube 33 may or may not be under an initial compression suflicient to produce an oblate form in section, and is secured by welding, or setscrews,- or other suitable fastening means. In
the self-retuming action of the handle 58, for
providing maximum fluid displacement with minimum extent of handle movement, it is de sirable that the convolutions be under the initial.
compression, as noted above, in order to produce a restoring force by virtue of the resilience of the walls of the tube 33. However, the tube 33, as shown in Figs. 5 and 6, is not under the initial compression, hence permitting maximum fluid displacement with maximum pivotal movement oi the handle 58.
Suitable checkvalves 61 and '63 are connected to the ends 36 and 31 of the tube 33, which ends project outwardly from the cupped members 34 and 33, these valves being also connected to inlet and outlet conduits 69 and 19, respectively.
. In the operation of the pump the handle 58 is advanced. thereby compressing the helically tube 33 as thelatter regains its original condition by virtue of the resilience of the walls thereof, assisted by any back pressure existing in the fluid, during which action fluid is drawn through the valve 31 thus completing the cycle.
at its upper and lower ends 83 and 34 to later-' ally extending wishbone control arms 85a and 85b' and 86a and 86b respectively. These control arms are pivoted at their inner ends at 31 and 38 inmounting brackets 39 and 99a and 90b attached to a frame structure Ma and 91b as by welding or bolts.
per cupped member 93 and may be disposed within the coiled tube 92 to permit reciprocatory movement of the rod through a suitable aperture I 91 in the lower member 94.
The lower end of the tube 92 is sealed by aclosure element 95 and the upper end is sealed by a closure and check valve structure 96 which provides for fllling the tube with a suitable fluid, such as oil or water, under pressure for maintaining the vehicle at the desired elevation and for preventing undesirable collapsing of the tube 92 under-loaded conditions. As discussed more fully hereinafter, a damping device or shock absorber 96a, including a reservoir, may be included at the end of the tube 32.
It is to be understood that each road wheel of the vehicle may be resiliently supported from the vehicle frame in the manner'shown in Fig. 7.
With such an arrangement, when the wheel 82 is deflected, the pivoted control arms 35a. and 35b and "wand 96!) are deflected in a generally upward and downward direction. The helically coiled tube 92 operates resiliently to restrain upward swinging movement of the control arm 36a and 89b relatively to the frame Bid and 9lb, by virtue of the rapid rise in pressure of fluid therein andthe resistance to distention of the resilient walls thereof. The magnitude of the pressure rise and the extent of the distention of the walls varies with the amount. of wheel deflection in a manner providing a springingaction, a suitable valved reservoir 93a being preferably pro- 4 1- coiled tube- 33 due to the movement-of the rod vided inthe case where a non-compressible liquid medium is used so that expansion of the tube wall need not be relied upon for springing deflection and a substantially non-stretchable tube re- I inforcement may be used.
Alternatively, for pneumatically springing the vehicle the tube 92 is filled with a gas, such as air, under pressure. With such an arrangement a variable springing rate is obtained by virtue of the compression of the gas when the tube 92 is reduced along its axial length under loaded conditions. The resistance to distention of the resilient walls of the tube 92. permits confining the gas within a substantially inexpan'sible container; hence the extent of the compression of the gas varies with the extent of the deflection of the tube, and the resistance to collapsing of the tube 92 increases with each increment in compression of the gas due to road wheel deflection. In thismanner a desirable springing action is secured which action is "soft for low pressures and hard for high pressures of the gas.
If desired, the pressure fluid of the spring, whether gas or liquid, may be utilized in a damp ingdevice 96a ofthe restricted orifice and reservoir or other suitable type, which conveniently may be connected as for example as shown in Fig.
l at the end of he tube 92 before the closure and ing a plurality of abutting convolutions, a fluid.
reservoir, means for regulating the flow of fluid from said reservoir to said coiled tube, means in communication with said coiled tube for conducting fluid to and from the brake, means for maintaining said convolutions normally pressed toward one another a determinate extent, and means for check valve 98, so that use of the same fluid for pressing the said convolutions toward one another to reduce the axial length of the helix thereby distorting the wall of the tube along the helix.
2. A fluid brake power mechanism comprising a guide rod, a helically coiled tube of resilientwalled material including circumferentially disposed fabric reinforcement for resisting expansion of the tube and having convolutions disposed helically about said rod, spaced-apart cupped members having apertures for receiving said rod and disposed adjacent the respective end convolutions of said tube, one of said members being attached to the guide rod and the other member being in sliding engagement therewith, means attached to said rod adjacent the latter said member for positioning said cupped members a determinate distance apart whereby said convolutions are maintained normally pressed toward one another to hold them in non-circular form in section, and means for moving said guide rod axially of said tube for pressing said convolutions toward one another to reduce the axial length of the helix thereby distorting the wall of the tube.
3. A fluid-brake power mechanism adapted to transmit power to a brake, said mechanism comprising a guide rod, a tube of resilient material including reinforcement disposed in the wall of the tube circumferentially of the tube in crosssection, said tube being disposed in convolutions helically about said rod, spaced-apart end members mounted on said rod and disposed adjacent the respective end convolutions of said tube, one of said members being attached to said rod and the other member being in sliding engagement therewith, means on said rod adjacent the latter said member for limiting said members to a determinateseparating distance in which said convolutions are maintained normally in partially flattened form in section, and means for moving the-guide rod and the attached member in the axial direction of said tube for pressing said convolutions further toward one another to reduce the axial length of the helix thereby BURTON D. MORGAN.