US 2377179 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
" May 29, 1945.
- w. PITT LOO-SE LEAF BINDER 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Se t. 29, 1943 May 29, 1945. w. PITT 2,377,179
LOOSE LEAF BINDER Filed Sept. 29, 1943 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 3 nventor I 7 (Ittorneg May 29, 1945. w p 2,377,179
LOOSE LEAF BINDER Fil ed Sept. 29, 1945 3 Sheets-sheaf. s
Z Zhwentor I I 2 attomcg Patented May 29, 1945 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE LOOSE-LEAF BINDER William Pitt, Union, N. J.
Application September 29, 1943, Serial No. 504,240
This application is a continuation in part of my copending application Serial No. 376,403 filed January 29, 1941, and this invention relates to a' loose leaf binder and refers particularly to the type of binder in which a plurality of divided rings retains the sheet contents, although several features of the invention are also applicable to other types of binders.
Loose leaf binders of this general character usually include a so-called ring metal or ring carrier which comprises toggle plates carrying divided ring members and arranged side-by-side in a spring back or a spring cover which exerts spring pressure on the toggle plates for holding the ring members open or closed. This ring metal is secured by screws, clinched lugs or the like in a back member which generally comprises a metal plate'having a decorative covering of leather or fabric, and hinge elements for connection of covers to the back member are attached to or formed integrally with said metal plate. The covers of the binder also have hinge elements to cooperate with the hinge elements on said back'member. Patents No. 1,370,265, No. 1,822,942, No. 1,923,464 and No. 1,711,161 show loose leaf binders of the character above described. It has also been proposed to make the back member of a molded plastic material of decorative color and design to secure the :ring metal thereto by screws and to form hinge elements on the spring cover of the ring metal, as shown by Patent No. 1,761,589.
A prime object of my invention is to provide a novel and improved loose leaf binder which shall include substantially fewer and less complicated parts and which can be manufactured at a substantially lower cost than known loose leaf binders; and more particularly my invention contemplates a novel and improved one-piece back member which shall be inherently decorative so as to require no covering; which shall be inherently resilient so as to perform the functions of the spring back of the ring metal; which shall be so constructed as to cooperate with the ring metal in such amanner that the latter can be attached firmly to the backing member without special fastener elements; and which shall have integral hinge elements or lugs for connection of binder covers to said back member.
Other objects of the invention are to provide a novel and improved method of makingsuch a back member whereby said member can be with a suitable plastic material; and to obtain other results and advantages that will be brought out by the following description in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which Figure 1 is a fragmentary perspective view of one embodiment of a loose leaf binder illustrating the invention.
' Figure 2 is a cross sectional view taken along the line 2-2 of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a detail plan view showing a portion of the spring back before it is formed.
Figure 4 is a cross sectional view taken along the line 4-4 of Figure 3.
Figure 5 is a view similar to Figure 3 showing the spring back after it has been formed.
Figure 6 is a cross sectional view taken along the line 6-6 of Figure 5.
Figure? is a fragmentary plan view of the cover member.
Figure 8 is a fragmentary plan view of the blank from which the hinge strip is formed.
Figure 9 is across sectional view taken along the line 99 of Figure 7.
Figure 10 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line ill-l0 of Figure 8.
Figure 11 is a fragmentary end elevation showing the method of securing the hinge strip to the cover member.
Figure 12 is a fragmentary plan view showing the hinge strip secured to the cover member.
Figure 13 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line I3-l3 of Figure'l2.
Figure 14 is a fragmentary plan view showing an embodiment in which the spring back is provided with retaining ears.
Figure 15 is a cross sectional view taken along the line I5-I5 of Figure 14.
Figure 16 is a cross sectional view taken along the line l6-|6 of Figure 14, and
Figure 17 is a cross sectional view showing the back member of Figure 14 before the ring metal has been assembled therewith.
Specifically describing the embodiment of the invention illustrated in Figures 1 to 13 inclusive, the reference character A designates a back memberwhich serves both as a spring back for the ring metal and as a back forthe binder. This back member is formed wholly from a plastic material which can be bent, shaped or molded under heat and pressure, or from one or more sheets of paper or fabric impregnated with any suitable plastic material of the character described.
The back member has thickened longitudinal edge portions which have inwardly facing shoulders extending longitudinally of the member and forming between them a channel or groove in v which the ring metal B is seated. The thickened edge portions have hinge lugs l formed therein which cooperate with hinge lugs 2 that are attached to cover members C for the binder for hingedly connecting the cover members to the back member.
Preferably the back member is made by folding the longitudinal edges of a sheet of plastic material of the character described :inwardly under heat and pressure and around a wire or rod which is of a diameter substantially equal to the diameter of the hinge pintle to be used for connecting the covers C to the back member, and thereafter removing the wire and milling the folded and molded portions to provide the hinge lugs l which thus have alined openings therethrough extending longitudinally of the back member to receive the hinge pintles 3.
As shown, the backmember is made by forming longitudinal grooves 4 in spaced relation to the longitudinal edges of -a sheet of plastic material of the character described, said grooves being of a length approximately equal to the diameter of 2 the hinge pintle used and of a depth approximately equal to the radius of the hinge pintle. A wire or rod 5 corresponding in diameter to the hinge pintle is then laid in each groove 4. The longitudinal edges 6 of the sheet then are folded inwardly over the wires under heat and pressure to cause the edge portions 6 to adhere to the main portion of the sheet and at the same time the sheet is molded to the desired shape. If desired a suitable adhesive, for example a thermoplastic,;
adhesive, may be used for more securely attaching the inturned edge-portions 6 to the main portion of the sheet. After the molding operation, the wires 5 are pulled out of the back member, leaving theapertures or holes 7 for the hinge pintles. Then the folded edge portions are milled or cut away at preferably equi-distantly spaced points 8 to form the hinge lugs I.
The inner edges of the inwardly folded portions Sprovide spaced and opposed shoulders ii that converge toward each other upwardly from the main portion of the sheet and provide between them a longitudinal channel in which a conventional ring metal 3 is seated, the back member having inherent resiliency which will permit flexing of the back member along longitudinal lines so that said shoulders may yielding'ly movetoward and from each other. The ring metal comprises. a pair of toggle plates ill each of which carries a plurality of ring sections H which are complemental to corresponding ring sections on the other toggle plate, said toggle plates being arranged in edge to edge relationship in a flexible cover plate l2 which'has its edges embracing the edges of the 'toggleplates as clearly shown in Figure 2. The cover plate is aperturedat l3 to allow the ring sections to project'therethrough. A ring trigger it may be provided at each'end of the ring metal for operatingthe toggle plates.
The spring back member A is so curved that the width of the longitudinal channel, that is the distance between the shoulders it normally is slightly less than the width of 'the cover plate l2 of the ring metal or sheet retaining mechanism B, and the ring metal is snapped into said groove with the longitudinal edges of the cover plate 122 firmly abutting the respective shouldersll so that the back member normally exerts pressure onthe edges of the cover member 1 2 to provide the necessary tension for the togglerplates lll-sothatthe face adjacent its binding edge.
ring sections will be firmly but yieldingly held in open or closed positions respectively. Also, the ring metal will be firmly attached to the back member by engagement of the shoulders 9 with the cover plate l2 so that special fasteners such as clinched lugs, screws and the like are not required to securely connect the ring metal to the back member. However, it may sometimes be desirable to provide additional means to prevent forcible removal of the metal from the spring back member.
In Figures 14 to 17 inclusive I have disclosed a slightly different embodiment of the back member in which a plurality of retaining ears it are :provided on the thickened longitudinal edges of the back member. The retaining ears are originally molded in substantially upright position as indicated in Figure 1'7 'or may be stamped out of the sheet and bent upwardly under heat and pressure. After the ring metal has been positioned in the groove between the shoulders 9, additional heat and pressure may be applied to the retaining ears it so as to force them downwardly over the edges of the cover plate l2. The retaining ears will thus prevent removal of the ring metal without deformation thereof.
It is also desirable that the ends of the spring back member Abe built up as at IT to abut the triggers i i of the ring metal so as to form a support for the triggers and prevent them from rattling. The ends may be built up in any suitable manner but it is preferable to provide a suitable'tab on the sheet which is folded up over the body portion of the sheet or blank from which theback member is formed and is molded in that position.
While I have described the back member A as preferably formed of a blank or sheet of plastic material, it will be understood that the back member may be originally molded directly into the desired form.
Now, referring to the cover members C, each thereof comprises a sheet of leather or other suitable material which is preferably provided with alongitudinally extending groove 18 in each sur- A hinge strip IQ of moldable plastic material of the character described is folded over the edge of the sheet of leather or the like with a wire rod 20 positioned inside the fold adjacent the edges of the sheet.
The plastic strip I9 is also preferably adhered to the cover withany suitable adhesive. The strip I 9 is molded under heat and pressure and the material on the strip flows into the grooves l8 so as to form a secure bond between the sheet of leather and the hinge strip 19. The wire 20 is then withdrawn and the folded edge of the'hinge strip is milled to provide the hinge lugs 2 complementary to the hinge lugs I of the back member A.
With this construction, it will be observed that the wires 20 form apertures 25 which extend through the hinge lugs 2 longitudinally of the edge of the cover to receive the hinge pintles 3.
Although the cover C has been described as being made of leather or similar material, the
advantages of molded hinge strips are not limited to flexible cover construction and it is to be understoodthat these hinge strips may also be applied to loose leaf binders having rigid covers closed, so as to protect the cover against wear which would be incidental to contact with the ring members.
If desired, the hinge strip [9 initially may be cut away as at 122 and 23 to provide longitudinal ribs 24 to seat in the grooves l8 of the cover sheet and firmly interlock the hinge strip with the cover sheet when said strip is folded around the edge of the cover sheet.
The covers 0 are hinged to the spring back by threading the pintles 3 through the apertures of the lugs l and 2. Preferably each pintle terminates a short distance inside each end lug of the back member, and additional heat and pressure are applied to the outer surfaces of these end lugs to seal the hinge pintles against removal as indicated at 26.
It, will be observed that the opposite surfaces of the thickened edge portion of the back member are approximately parallel to each other and are connected by a semi-circular curve; and similarly the opposed surfaces of the hinge strip of each cover are also approximately parallel to each other and connected by approximately a, semi circular curve of the same diameter as the curve which connects the opposed surfaces of the edge portions of the back member, Accordingly the juxtaposed surfaces of the hinge lugs l and 2 are approximately flush with each other and the usual approximately cylindrical rib that is incidental to such hinges is eliminated.
The plastic back member A being inherently decorative, serving as both a spring back for the ring metal and as a back for the binder, and also havin the hinge lugs integral therewith, eliminates the necessity for many parts heretofore required in loose leaf binders, and makes possible a simple and inexpensive construction which is also attractive in appearance.
Although I have described the preferred embodiments of my invention in detail, it will be understood that the description thereof is primarily for illustrating the principles of the invention and that the details of construction of the invention may be modified or changed Within the spirit and scope of the invention.
What I claim is:
1. In a loose-leaf binder, the combination of a sheet retaining mechanism including a plate, and a back member comprising a sheet of material having its longitudinal edge portions folded inwardly upon itself to form two superposed thicknesses and two opposed inwardly facing shoulders one at and overlying eachlongitudinal edge of said plate to hold said sheet retaining mechanism on said back member, said sheet having a, plurality of integral hinge lugs in alinement with each other along each said edge portion outwardly of the corresponding said shoulder to cooperate with hinge lugs on a cover for said looseleaf binder.
2. In a loose-leaf binder, the combination of a sheet retaining mechanism including a plate, and a back member comprising a sheet of material having its longitudinal edge portions folded inwardly upon itself to form two superposed thicknesses and two opposed inwardly facing shoulders one at and overlying each longitudinal edge of said plate to hold said sheet retaining mechanism on said back member, there being a longitudinal opening in each said fold between said two thicknesses to receive a hinge pintle, and each folded longitudinal edge portion having notches spaced lengthwise thereof and forming a plurality of hinge lugs between them to cooperate with hinge lugs on a cover for said loose leaf binder.
3. In a loose leaf binder, a plastic spring back having a longitudinally extending groove for the reception of a ring metal and longitudinal edge portions of increased thickness, and a plurality of retaining ears integral with said longitudinal edge portions adapted to retainsaid ring metal against removal without deformation.
4. A loose leaf binder including a back member curved along longitudinal lines and having relatively thick longitudinal edge portions on its concave side each of which has a longitudinal shoulder facing inwardly and opposed to the shoulder of the other edge portion, saidshoulders converging toward each other away from said concave side of said member, and a sheet retaining mechanism including a cover plate disposed between said shoulders with its edge portions abutting and overlaid by the respective shoulders, said back member being inherently resilient and normally exerting pressure on'said edges of said cover plate.
5. In a loose-leaf binder, the combination of a ring metal including toggle plates with ring sections thereon and a flexible cover plate therefor, and a, back member comprising a sheet of plastic material having two opposed shoulders each abutting one longitudinal edge of said cover plate, said sheet of plastic material having inherent resiliency and normally exerting pressure on said edges of said cover plate to hold said toggle plates in ring-open and ring-closed positions.