|Publication number||US2378877 A|
|Publication date||Jun 19, 1945|
|Filing date||Feb 5, 1944|
|Priority date||Feb 5, 1944|
|Publication number||US 2378877 A, US 2378877A, US-A-2378877, US2378877 A, US2378877A|
|Original Assignee||Kenyon Instr Co Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (18), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June-19, 1945. F WALLER I 2,373,877
ATTEN Filed Feb. 5, 1944 3 Sheets-Sheet l IN1/EN TOR June 19, 1945. RWALLER 2,378,877
. BATTEN i Filed Feb. 5, 1944 3 Sheets--Sheetl 3 IN V EN TOR.
Patented June 1.9, 1945 Fries j BATTEN Fred Waller, Huntington,` NJK.,` assigner to Kenyon Instrument Co., Inc... Longflsland,A N. Y.,` a`
corporation of New York Application February 5, 1944, SerialNo. 521,220
reclaim. e1..11i1o3)` This; invention relates to ilexible sheet materials; including sails,4 airplane wings, Windmill blades; etc., and has for its object to provide a new and improved `means for controlling the stiffness andV curvature of such surfaces and* particularly' the trailingedges of sails or the like. Although" the invention is widely useful in` all of thexabove elds, I shall, for the sakeoi simplicity, illustrate it in its specific application to sail 'battens adapted to be sewed into' the fore-and-aft sails of a boat at approximately right angles to the leech to control the shape and stiffness and thereby increase the efficiency of the sail. v t
Accordingly, a more specific object of the irlvention is to provide a novel and improved sail batten which will afford sufcient stiiness and rigidity to give the sail any desired contour when inuse, but may be rendered flexible topermit the: sail to be lowered and furled quickly and neatly Without removing the battens therefroma Another object is to provide a simple and effi-T cient sail batten with the foregoing advantages, which may be secured or embedded permanently? in` the sail and will limit the sail to a desirable curvature in either a port or starboard `direc` tion.
Still another object is to provide a new and improved batten` or stiifener of the above type which'is readily adjustable as to stiffness and which, in the case of a clothsail, wing or the` like, will not pinch or otherwise. damage the fabric.
Various other objects and advantages willbe apparent as the nature ci the invention is more fully disclosed.
Although the novel featureswhich are charaeteristic of the invention are set forth more in detail in the claims appended hereto, the nature and scope of the invention may be better understood by referring to the following description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings forming a part thereof, in which specic embodiments have been set forth for purposes of illustration.
In the drawings:`
Fig. l` is an elevation of a typicaljib headed sail equipped with leech-stiiening `battens embodying the invention;
Fig. 2 is a similar view showing the same type of `sail equipped with similar but longer battens;
Fig. 3 is an elevation of a typical boom and gai sail equipped with my leech-stiffening batten which is particularly adapted for use inI fore-and'aft sails` of tlieftypeshown in Figs. 1 3;
Fig. 5 is` a longitudinali section taken on the line` 5'- 5 of Fig. 41; Fig. fis'an end `View. showing the take-up'lat'ch employed in Figs. I1"-5;` f
Fig. '7 is a longitudinal sectionalview through a sail equipped with a modified batten whiche gives it an airfoilcurvature;
Fig.` 8 is an enlarged sectional .view of the batteri` employed in Fig. 7?;
Fig; e is a mneituainar sectioned View illus'-` trating another modication of the invention, including a special latch for` varying the adjustment of this hatten;V
1 Fig; 10.. is' a section taken on the line lll-Ill. of
cooperatinglinks or segments of Figs. 9 and 10;
Fig".` 13 `is` a `longitudinal sectional View illus.-` trating`stll`-another embodiment of the inven-f tions Fig. 14,A is a longitudinal f terms,`however, are to be interpreted in accordance withfthe statetof the art.
In Figi, a typical jib headed canvas sail l,l
which is spread on the mast 2 and boom 3,` has its trailing edge or leech `llwcurved convexly,
which extends the sail outwardly beyond the dotted straight line 5 joining the apex with the lower trailing corner.` Sails; of this type frequentlyv have strips of light material, such as` wood, known as battens, inserted in pockets t which are servedA inV the sail at approximately right angles to the leech to stiffen the sail and make itlie at.
`A feature: of my invention resides inthe proaafter more' fully appear: The batten 1, shown in detailV inFigs. 4` andl 5, comprisesl a plurality of rigid mating blocks or segments 8 which,
when nested one upon 'the other somewhat like" a series of articulated vertebrae, may be secured View `showing thev take-up latch employed in Figs. 9 and 10; Fig. 12 is a perspective View illustrating the V section taken on the line:V Ill-Hof Fig. `13; andy Fig. 15 is a transverse section taken on the holes or sockets I aligned with said knobs.l
The knobs 9 of each block are adapted to engage'in the holes I0 of the adjacent block to center the blocks properly one upon the other as shown in Figs. 4 and 5.
The faces of blocks 8 which contain thez holes I0 are each provided with a raised rectangular rim I2 about the edge thereof, and it is this rectangular rim which engages thev flat face of the adjacent block 8 when the blocks are stacked and held together as in Figs. 4 and 5. This concentrates the contact between adjacent surfaces of the blocks about the contiguous edges thereof and makes the batteri stiffer than it would be if the entire face of each block, `which may be somewhat irregular; were to engage the entire face of the adjacent block.
The blocks 8 are held together by a, cord I3, preferably of wire, which is lstrung through parallel vholes I4' extending through the blocks centrally of the aligned knobs 9 and their cooperating'holes I0, as shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The
loop I5 formed `by the cord I3 at one of the end blocks 8, at the left end as viewed in Figs. 4 and 5, may be secured to said end block by suitable means such as plastic cement or the like. The opposite end block is provided with a hollow box-like extension I6 having deep semi-circular notches I'! in opposite edges thereof, forming a bearing for the pivot pin I8 of a tightening handle I9. The ends of the cord I3 are securely fastened to an extension 29 of handle I9. This extension 29 is offset from ythe pivot pin I8 of handle I9, so that, when handle I9 is pivoted to one limiting position against one edge of the box I6 as shown. in full lines in Fig. 4, the cord I3 will be drawn taut and the blocks 8 of the battenrwill be drawn together to form a rigid unit. The extension 2l! may set off-center with respect to pivot I8 so that the handle is held in this position by the pull of the cord |3. However, When handle I9 is swung about its' pivot I8 to the other limiting position against the opposite edge of box I6, the extension 20 of the handle will swing into the hollow of the box, as indicated by the dotted lines in Fig. 4, thus loosening the cord I3 and disengaging the blocks 8 so that the entire batten becomes limp and flexible. Other tightening means, such as wing nuts, maybe used instead of the handle if desired.
The blocks or segments 8 of the battens 'I may be made of wood or of anyr other suitable material such as light molded plastic. The battens may be sewed permanently into the pockets 6 of the sail and may be adjusted instantly to stiien the leech as shown ink Fig. 1, or longer battens may be employed to stiffen the entire sail as illustrated in Fig. 2.
The battens may be employed to'stiffen any kind of sail. For example, Fig. 3 shows a typical boom and gaff sail 2l including the usual gaff rig 22with short battens 'l secured in the pockets B in the manner previously described. When it is desired to furl or reef the sail, in any of these embodiments of the invention, the handles I9 of the battens are flipped to the disengaging position, permitting the battens to be collapsed with the canvas.
Figs. 7 and 8 show a modification of the invention in which a sail 25 is equipped with battens 25 which limit the sail to an airfoil curvature in either a port or starboard direction. The batteri 25 comprises a series of blocks or segments 27 strung like a string of beads upon'a cord 28 which passes lthrough central aligned holes 29 in the blocks. One end of the cord is knotted at 39 and preferably sealed by plastic cement or the llike in a depression 3l in the end block as shown in Fig. 8.
The other end of the cord may be secured to a tightening handle, not shown, which may be the same in structure and function as the handle I9 of Figs; 4 6.
. The end of the batten 29 at the left of Figs. 7 and 8 is at the luff or leading edge of the sail 25, while the opposite or right end of the batten is at the leech or trailing edge. The engaging faces of the two blocks 2l nearest the lui end are bevelled or tapered at 33 to form inclines, permitting said blocks to rock upon their apices and assume either an outwardly or inwardly bowed position. The engaging faces of the next succeeding blocks 2, toward the leech or right in Fig. 8, may also be tapered as shown at 34', butk these inclines 39 become progressively less and less steep as the blocks approach the leech, until the engaging faces finally become ilat toward the leech end as shown in Fig. 8.
The batten 26 of Fig. 8 may be used, for example, in a fore-and-aftsail of the type shown in Fig. and the engaging faces of the series of blocks 2l' may be tapered to any desired extent to give the sail the desired airfoil curvature. When the sail is initially set the battens 26 are tightened in the manner described. The sail will then bend or bow either to the port or star# board, according to the direction ofthe wind. Then, when the boom 3 lis swung over as in tack-k ing, the wind automatically bows the sailfand rocks the blocks 21 of the battens to the opposite bowed position, the battens at all times limiting the bulge in the sail, as illustrated in Fig. '7. This construction, and modification thereof, may also be used for shaping and stiffening various other types of sails, blades and airfoils, such as windmill arms, airplane surfaces, aquaplanes, wing iloats or the like.
Figs. 9 to 13 show another embodiment of thev invention, comprising a series of mating blocks or segments All having their engaging surfaces formed in a special box-joint type of dovetail: which eiectively prevents the fabric of the sail or other airfoil from getting caught in the joints as they bend from side to side. All of the blocks All except the' two at the extreme ends may be cast in the same mold. Each has on one face a central tapered prong 4I and two shorter at ended prongs 4Z separated by flat lgrooves, 43, and on the opposite face a pair of tapered prongs 44 and central and endY grooves 45, as best shown in Fig. 12. These blocks mesh with the central prongs 4I engaging in the flat central grooves 45, and with the twin prongs 44 engaging in the twin at grooves 43, as shown in'Fig. 9. However, the flat end prongs 92' remain spaced from the bottoms of the end grooves 45 of the matwhich is strung through parallel holes inr the, blocks, as in the construction of Figs. 4-5 the aarden ioepf asf er. the. eerdpreferably being: secures ty an a.1:lhesi\`reor otherwise: to= the blockon oneend previously described: Thertwov ends" ofl the" cord,` which come; together at the oppposite end? ci?A theT batten at the right or Figs. 9v and l0 areY fastened tota pin lill*` adapted to be slipped into one; or another otl a plurality'ofspacedmotches4 49finf the channel-shaped handle 5| of a take-up latch52 ,asbestg shown in Figs. 9 andell. tal 1eup=laftch52cfits` over the` outer rim of the hollowV box-like extension 53 :of `themend block dll-ratthe rightlof Figs. 9 and 10. The handle` the hatten andV also locking the handle `5| "in this` position.` l The bent over edge 55 is olT-centervvith`V` respect to the tulcrum 54 so that the handle is heldinposition by theA pull of the cord 41.9 j When it is desired to `loosen the blocksyll, `for example, for the purpose oriurling a sail eml ployi-ng battens of the type shown inFigsB` to 12,l thehandle 5|` is simply flipped upwardlyfrom its locked position.
In orderto Vary thetension l on' the cord `IW the-pin Silofthe cord is slipped intoanother of the` notches lPin the handle 5l,
thus varying the adjustment of the blocks 4l! as desired. Although, as stated above,` au of the blocks except the end blocks may be cast in a commoni-nold, the angles of the various tapered prongs 43| and 44 may be varied by sandpapering or'by other suitable means so that the pitch will vary from block to block to permit the batteri to assume any perdeterminedcurvature.` It will be evident that the batten or stiiener of Figs. 9 to 12, like the others previously described, may be used' for a Ivvide variety of purposes whereit is desired to control the curvature of a flexible surface. t
Figs.` 113 to 15` illustrate still another modification ofthe invention, wherein each of a pluralityof mating blocks or segments 5l is provided on one face with a pair of spaced tongues 58 and on the opposite face `with aligned grooves 59 adapted to receive the tongues of the adjacent block 51. Within each groove 59 is a centrally disposed cylindrical hole B0 through which passes the looped connecting cord 5l which is similar to obtaindlfby" proper Selectioriof; spei-ng'sf l by suitable a'idllstmctll of-'lthecordfll For" an air'- foil'curvaturef` as shown inllig.V l5` thefspring's are made.` successively weaker from left to right. l
. Inf' this* embodiment the batteri" may be made completely rigid and straight: by' tightening the co'rd 6l sufficiently torcompress all off the springs andlbring.v theblook surfaces in `contact as in `Figs.` tandrf r l V l `The blocks arearrangedfso that the tongues andgrooves` remain dovetailed and do not completely separate when the.r cord' .6l is released. The tonguesand grooves thus serve to'hold the blockslin vertical alignment as Well as toprevent l the covering fabric from being pinched between adjacent blockswhenftheyaretightened or when their corners engage clue` to' ilexing of the b'atte'Il.`
vStop meansxmayf beV provided tolimit the sepA aration of thel blocks or the cord El may' have stop'm'eans to limit its movement'in the blocks.
The various springs' may besecured` in the holes 60 as `by cement or plasticltoprevent them from falling out whenl the blocks become separated.` It isI to bexunderstood that the above exam"- plesare only illustrative andlthat` various changesV and modificationsmay be made therein andthat the invention-incapable of various uses vwhich will be readily understood by a person skilled intheart. l l .l l
What is claimed is: l l
l 11. Af sail hatten comprising an elongatedseries of blocks arranged end toy end with abutting end .surfaces5 a` cor'dstrung throughA said blocks-northe cords previously described. Within each hole `(it), surrounding the cord 6l, is a coil spring E2 separation of the blocks because each `pair of blocksfmay deflect until thecorners engage as shown in Fig. 14.
` The shape of the curve may be controlled by varying the relative strength of the springs 62 in thedifferent blocks. When thecord SI is tightened the various springs` .will be compressed by an amount inversely proportional to their respective moduli. Hence the blocks containing the `stronger spring will be held apart a greater distance than the blocks containing the weaker springs and, will take a correspondingly greater curvature before their corners engage and limit their movement. Any desired curvature may be mally holding said batten in non-rigid condition, meansto tighten said cord' to secure said blocks together' ina stiffened unit; at least someof said blocks `having tapered engaging'` surfaces permit-` ting limitedexing of said unit, and means adjusting the tension' of said cord to vary the flexw `ing ofsaidunit. l
2. AA sail batteri comprising an elongated series of blocks' arranged eh'd td endl with abutting end surfaces, a cord strung through said blocks and adapted when loose to permit said batteri to Hex at will, and means for tightening said cord to secure said blocks together in a stilened unit.
3. A sail batten comprising an elongated series of blocks arranged end to end with abutting end surfaces, a cord strung through said blocks and `adapted when loose to permit said batten to flex at Will, and means including an adjustable han die at one end of said batteri for tightening said cord to secure said segments together in a stiffened unit.
4. A sail hatten comprising an elongated series of blocks arranged end to end with abutting end surfaces, a cord strung through said blocks and adapted when loose to permit said batten to flex at will, means for tightening said cord to secure said segments together in a stilened unit, and cooperating prongs and recesses on the respective engaging ends of said segments for aligning the same. l
5. A sail batten comprising an elongated series of blocks arranged end to end with abutting end surfaces, said blocks having ontheir respective engaging ends a pair of spaced `sockets and a pair of spaced prongs mating therewith for aligning said blocks, a cord strung through said blocks and adapted when loose to permit said batteri to flex at will, and means including an adjustable member atone end of said `batteri for tightening said cord to secure said blocks together in a stiffened unit.
6. A sail batten comprising an elongated series of blocks of generally rectangular cross section arranged end to end, said blocks having ontheir respective engaging ends a plurality of spaced transverse grooves and a plurality of spaced transverse prongs mating therewith for aligning said segments, a cord strung loosely through said blocks and adapted when looseto permit said batten to ffex at will, and means engaging the cord at one end of said batten for tightening said cord to secure said segments together in a stiffened unit, the inner prongs of said segments having tapered engaging end surfaces to rock in their mating grooves and thereby limit the ourvature of said hatten. i
7. A sail hatten comprising an elongated series of blocks of generally rectangular cross section arranged end to end, said blocks having on their respective engaging ends a plurality of spaced transverse grooves and a plurality of spaced transverse prongs mating therewith for aligning said segments, a cord strung loosely through said blocks and adapted when loose to permit said batteri to flex at will, and means engaging the cord at one end of said batten for tighitening said cord to secure said segments together in a stiffened unit, the inner prongs of said segments having tapered engaging end surfaces to rock in their mating grooves and thereby limit the curvature of said batten, and the outer prongs of said blocks being suiiici'ently short to provide clearance at their ends to avoid pinching the sail in their mating grooves.
8. A sail batten comprising an elongated series of blocks arranged end to end, compression springs disposed between adjacent blocks to control their separation, a cord strung through said blocks and adapted when loose to permit said hatten to ex at will, and means for tightening said cord to compress said springs and limit the spacing of said blocks so as to correspondingly limit the extent of the flexibility of said batten.
9. A sail hatten comprising an elongated series of blocks arranged end to end, compression springs disposed between adjacent blocks to Ycontrol their separation, a cord strung through said blocks and adapted when loose to permit said batteri to flex at will, and means for tightening said cord to compress said springs and limit the spacing of said blocks so as to correspondingly limit the extent of the flexibility of said batten, the springs being of decreasing sti'ness along said batteri to produce an airfoil curvature.
10. A sail batten comprising an elongated series of blocks arranged end to end, said blocks having on their respective engaging ends a plurality of spaced transverse grooves an'd tongues mating for aligning said blocks and preventing pinching of said sail between adjacent blocks, compression springs between adjacent blocks to control their separation, a cord strung through said blocks and adapted when loose to permit said batteri to flex at will, means for tightening said cord to compress said springs and limit the spacing of said blocks sol as to correspondinglyA cord strung through said blocks to secure the same in non-rigid condition and means to tighten said cord to secure said blocksin a stiff' ened unit so as to limit the exibility of the sheetl material.
12. In a sail, a stiffening batten comprising an elongated series of blocks arranged end to end with abutting end surfaces, and a cord strung through said blocks to secure the same in nonrigid condition and means to tighten said cord to draw said blocks together in a stiiened unit, at least some of said blockshaving tapered engaging surfaces to permit limited iiexing of said batteri and the covering surface.
FRED WALLER. y
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2569318 *||Jun 13, 1949||Sep 25, 1951||Kersten Herbert H||Sail for sailing craft|
|US2620760 *||Dec 20, 1948||Dec 9, 1952||Harry Melges||Sail control device|
|US2984199 *||Jan 22, 1958||May 16, 1961||Giewald Walter E||Multi-sail structure|
|US4463699 *||Jun 28, 1981||Aug 7, 1984||Linecat Industries, Inc.||Sailing craft|
|US4593639 *||Dec 14, 1984||Jun 10, 1986||Sobstad Sailmakers, Inc.||Method of stress distribution in a sail and sail construction|
|US4624205 *||Apr 11, 1985||Nov 25, 1986||Sobstad Sailmakers, Inc.||Method of stress distribution in a sail, a sail embodying the same and sail construction|
|US4702190 *||Dec 14, 1985||Oct 27, 1987||Sobstad Sailmakers, Inc.||Structural sail with grid members|
|US4751890 *||Feb 19, 1987||Jun 21, 1988||Bernard Rene G||Boat sails mounted on winding booms|
|US4864953 *||Mar 9, 1988||Sep 12, 1989||North Sails, Inc.||Batten for sail|
|US6425337||May 5, 1997||Jul 30, 2002||Rudiger Knaak||Sail battens|
|US20110168072 *||Jul 14, 2011||Flap Technology, Llc||Sail shape control device|
|US20150182029 *||Dec 30, 2013||Jul 2, 2015||W. Neil Owens||Uni-Directional Rigidifier and Method|
|DE3414923C1 *||Apr 19, 1984||Jan 3, 1985||Egon Wach||Sail batten|
|DE3422662C1 *||Jun 19, 1984||Jan 2, 1986||Christian Twisselmann||Clamping device for sail battens|
|DE19618339A1 *||May 8, 1996||Nov 13, 1997||Ruediger Dr Knaak||Segellatte|
|WO1992018382A1 *||Apr 14, 1992||Oct 29, 1992||Venturi Designs Ltd||Variable length batten|
|WO1994019235A1 *||Feb 16, 1994||Sep 1, 1994||Ruediger Knaak||Profiled sail|
|WO1997042076A1||May 5, 1997||Nov 13, 1997||Knaak Ruediger||Sail battens|
|International Classification||B63H9/00, F03D1/00, F03D1/06, B63H9/06|
|Cooperative Classification||Y02E10/721, B63H9/0642, F03D1/065, F05B2240/30|
|European Classification||B63H9/06C, F03D1/06C|