US 2380024 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 1o, 1945.
E. F. CHANDLER 2,380,024
ROCKET GUN Filed Aug. l5. 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 July 10 1945- E. F. CHANDLER 2,380,024
ROCKET GUN Filed Aug. 15, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 BY Z mvrolz.
July 10, 1945- E. F. CHANDLER 2,380,024
ROCKET GUN Filed Aug. 15, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 IN VEN TOR.
BYM/za Qm July 10, 1945. E; F. CHANDLER 2,380,024
ROCKET GUN Filed'Aug. l5. 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Patented July 10, 1945 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE l ROCKET GUN Edward F. Chandler, Brooklyn, N. Y. Application August 15, 1941, Serial No. 406,944
1 Claim. (Cl. 89-13) This invention relates to lnew and useful improvements in ordnance, and shells therefor, and relates as well to an improved method of shell propulsion, the invention relatingmore particularly to an improved type of quick-firing gun for dispatching reaction-type shells having a selfcontained propulsion charge.
One of the principal objects of the present invention is the provision of a novel gun which may be employed in eld action, trench warfare, or wherever it is tactically important to throw projectiles, shrapnel, high explosive shells, fragmentation shells, pyrotechnic shells, shells carrying a photogenic charge, or in fact any type of shell ranging in weight from two to twenty pounds, or thereabouts, and having a iiring range of from one to five miles, the gun of the present invention` having means for throwing shells of f this character accurately, effectively and in relatively rapidY succession;
Another object of the present invention is to provide an ordnance piece which, though capable of handling shells of fair caliber and great destructive power, is relatively light in weight, easily dismantled and carried, and furthermore is relatively noiseless in operation.
A further object of the invention is to provide a novel piece of light-weight, readily-portable field artillery designed primarily for a new type of tactical operation calculated to administer surprise, demoralization and destruction to the enemy, particularly by virtue of the fact that the destructive power of the gun is comparable to that -delivered normally by heavy artillery.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide a quick-ring gun which' is light in weight, simple in construction, and which is self-contained, iiexible and fully adjustable, and is adapted to bev quickly brought into action under many different service conditions. A further object of the invention is to provide a powerful gun of the mortar or high-angle ring type that will readily and accurately dispatch projectiles of eiective caliber over relatively long ranges for a gun having a smooth bore barrel.
, In its preferred embodiment, the weapon includes a smooth bore gun barrel with which is associated a multi-cylinder magazine and novel operating and fire-control means all comprising a unit, which is mounted on any suitable type of carriage so as to afford rapid and accurate pointing in the vertical and horizontal planes. Although the gun is particularlyy designed for ammunition of the reaction or self-propelling type, it may nevertheless be used for other kinds of projectiles. A still further object of the invention is the provision of a novel weapon of the type described which is especially useful as an anti-tank gun, the exploding shell being capable of effectively crippling a tank due to its high explosive charge. The gun of the present invention is particularly useful in mountainous countries where the terrain prevents the use of heavy artillery.
A still further object of the present invention is the provision of any improved self-propelled or reaction-type projectile which is particularly adapted to be discharged from a smooth-bore gun barrel, the missive being capable of being dispatched accurately over a relatively long range.
Another object of the invention is to provide a projectile of this type which may be launched or red safely and accurately from a gun of light weight and simple construction, the projectile having novel means for imparting rotation thereto relative to its longitudinal axis. A still iurther objecr, of the invention is the provision of a novel method of propelling a. shell of the reaction type having a self-contained explosive charge.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a complete gun representing one embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a top plan view thereof.
Fig. 3 is a. broken vertical section taken through the center of the gun shown in Figs. 1 and 2.
Fig. 4 is a section taken on line 4-4 of Fig. 3 and showing certain details of the magazine assembly.
Fig. 5 is a section taken on line 5-5 of Fig. 3 and showing certain details of the gun loading and ring mechanism'.
Figs. 6, 7, 8 and 9 are broken sections taken on lines 6 6, 1 1, 8-8 and 9 9, respectively, of Fig. 5, such being vertical sections with the exception of Fig. 7, which is a horizontal section.
Fig. 10 is a broken side elevation of a slightly modified barrel construction having heat-diiusing ns. c
The gun mount illustrated particularly in Figs. l and 2 includes a pair of spaced, tubular frame members III formed with outwardly bent, rear terminal portions Il. These rear terminal portions are received at theirends in a socket I2 formed integrally with a shoe I3 having downwardly extending prongs I4. At its forward end each tubular frame member I0 is received in a. head member I 6 formed with an angular forward extension I1 which receives forward legs I8, the lower ends of which are likewise received within sockets' I2 of shoes I3. Tubular frame members l are maintained in their spaced relationA at their forward ends by means of a transverse supporting bar 2| which is rigidly secured at its op- .posite terminals to head members I6, as shown in Fig. 2. Spaced rearwardly from transverse supporting bar 2| is a transverse frame member 22 having opposed sleeve portions 23 which receive tubular frame members I0, thus giving approved rigidity to the frame structure constituting the gun mount.
The gun mechanism is mounted for horizontal, pivotal movement on a centrally disposed, upwardly extending base portion 24 formed integrally with transverse frame member 22 and having a relatively large central bore 25 therein. Gun-supporting plate 21 is mounted on the upper surface of base portion 24, such gun support having a downwardly extending, vertical trunnion 28 which is received within bore 25. An anti-friction washer 29 is preferably positioned between the upper surface of base portion 24 and the lower surface of gun support 21.
The ring unit includes a rotatable magazine 32, frame elements 33 and 34 which support the rotatable magazine, and a barrel 35. Frame element 33 is formed at its lower end with a plurality of spaced lug portions 31 which are pivotally mounted between a pair of spaced, upwardly extending lug portions 38 formed integrally with supporting plate 21, a shaft 39 passing through the several lug portions. Frame element 33 further includes a housing 42 for the firing mechanism, and a central boss 43 which receives a reduced end portionl 44 of a shaft 45 providing a journal support for the magazine, a pin 52 securing shaft 45 within boss 43. At its forward end shaft 45 is formed with a reduced, threaded portion 46 which is received within a central aperture 41 in forward frame element 34. and is secured therein by means of a nut 48. The barrel 35 is positioned within a sleeve portion 49 formed integrally with frame element 34, and if desired, this barrel may be made removable. At its forward end barrel 35 is provided with a ring 5I to protect the muzzle.
The magazine assembly comprises a plurality of spaced, tubular elements 55 which receive shells 4l and which are maintained in their spaced relation at their forward ends by means of a specially formed, circular plate or spider 56, and at their rear ends are secured by means of a plate 51 formed with an external band 58, shown particularly in Fig. 2. The forward face 52 of frame member 33 serves as the breech element or ring head, and since the shell-receiving, tubular members 55 have relatively thin walls, it is desired to increase the area of surface contact between the revolving member and front far-,e 52 serving as the firing head. This is accomplished by the provision of band 58 which may be in the form shown. or may be a circular member engaging a still larger portion of surface 52. In order to increase the resistance to any of the combustion gases which may escape, frame element 33 is formed with an annular ange 54, and a similar flange 59 is formed integrally with frame element 34 (Fig. 3). Frame elements 33 and 34 are supported in their spaced relationship by shaft 45. and also by a ,pair of tie bars 63 which are received within apertures in upper extensions 64 l of such frame elements.
Elevation of the gun barrel is obtained by means of a lead screw 65 formed with a threaded portion 66 at one end thereof, and an oppositely threaded portion 61 at its opposite end. The upper threadasados` ed portion is received within a threaded sleeve 68 having a lug 69 through which a pin 10 passes, the pin also passing through a lug 12 formed integrally with frame member 3.4. The lower threaded portion 61 of the screw 65 is received within a threaded sleeve 15 somewhat similar to sleeve '68, such lead screw having -a centrally disposed hand wheel 16 keyed thereto. Horizontal adjustment of the barrel is obtained by means of a threaded lead screw 19 which is journalled at its opposite ends in upper extensions of head members I6, and a hand wheel 8| is keyed to such lead screw at one end thereof.
Lead screw 19 is received in a threaded aperture 83 in sleeve 15, and it will accordingly be seen that as hand wheel 8| is rotated in one direction or the other, the gun barrel is moved to the right or to the left, and as hand wheel 16 is rotated sleeve members 68 and 15 are drawn toward or away from each other, thus lowering or elevating the gun barrel. It will accordingly be seen that a simple, effective, rapid and close adjustment is afforded in both the vertical and horizontal planes. This affords the gun pointer easy means of sighting the gun barrel, which means are within reach of either side of the weapon.
In order to more effectively transmit horizontal movement of sleeve 15 through rotation of lead screw 19 to the gun frame structure, such sleeve is provided with a collar 85 formed with a lug 86 which is pivotally connected with a rod 81, such -rod being freely movable longitudinally in a sleeve 88 formed integrally with plate 21. The rear end of radius rod 81 is made freely slidable in sleeve 88 in order to compensate for changes in radius as lead screws 65 and 19 are rotated. A gun sight of any suitable design is indicated at 90, such sight being located in a position convenient to the operator who sits upon a saddle 9| mounted onone of the frame members Il. Shells 4| are introduced into tubular members 55 through an aperture formed in frame element 34, as shown in Fig. 4.
The ring ymechanism includes a shaft |00 provided at one end thereof with an arm I0| having a handle |02, such shaft being journalled in housing 42, as shown in Fig. 5. The opposite end of the shaft is provided with a collar |03 keyed thereto. The mechanism of the gun is so designed that movement of arm IOI backward and then forward through an arc of about 45 performsl all the functions of bringing a shell into registry with the barrel, cocking the hammer, justifying the registry of the shell chamber with the gun barrel, locking the mechanism in justified vposition, and firing the shell from the gun. In Fig. 3 arm |0| is indicated in broken lines in three positions designated A, B and "C, respectively. Keyed or otherwise secured to shaft |00 is a collar |05 formed with an arm |06 having a roller |01 at its outer end. This roller engages and moves a sliding hammer retractor |09, which, by means of a projection H0, engages hammer head III. The hammer assembly further includes a rod I2 carrying the firing spring I|3 and being provided with an external knob H4 at its rear end, such rod being journalled for longitudinal movement in a bonnet II5 supported in a boss H6 at the rear of housing 42.
Prior to firing, arm |0| normally occupies position B (Fig. 3). When this arm is drawn rearwardly to position A, thelhammer retractor |09 and hammer I I are in the position shown in Fig. 3, spring I3 carried on rod I2 being compressed and in position to deliver an impact against firing ture is provided with a jaw shown in Fig. 8 when arm pin ||9. When arm I| is moved forward, retractor |09 is also moved forward to permit the hammer to strike firing pin I I9, which, however, does not take place until arm |0| is moved forward through about the last 15 of the stroke.
In other words, hammer is retained in its rearward position by means of the mechanism shown, particularly in Figs. 6 and 7. This mechanism includes a vertical shaft |20 journalled in housing 42 and provided at its upper end with a hammer-retaining detent |2|, and at its lower end with an arm |22, a spring |23 normally urging shaft |20 in a clockwise direction when viewed as in Fig. 7.
Shaft |00 carries a second collar |25 keyed thereto formed with a. finger |20 thereon, and such finger occupies a position relative to arm |22, shown in Fig. 6, when arm |0| is at or about position B in F'ig. 3. 'I'he movement of arm. |0| from position B to position C causes finger |26 to engage arm 22, thus rocking shaft |20, which, in turn, moves detent |2| out of the path of hammer |II, allowing the same to strike the firing pin, thereby exploding the shell primer. In order to keep the inner end of firing pin I|9 out of the path of the rotatable magazine, a small spring |30 is employed. Hammer spring II3 is preferably so proportioned that when compressed and suddenly released, it drives the hammer forward with a sharp blow against the firing pin. However, its length when released is not sulcient to cause the hammer to remain in the extreme firing position and overcome the firing pin retraction effect by smaller spring |30.
For the purpose of justifying and locking the magazine in correct position for firing, a series of equally-spacedindex holes |32 are formed in the rear face of the' magazine about its axis. As shown in Fig. 8, a locking bar |34 is so positioned within housing 42 that it may be caused to enter one of such holes for the purpose set forth. For the operation of this locking means, a third collar |35 is secured to shaft |00, such collar supporting an arm |36 which carries a cam structure |31 pivoted thereto 'at |38. This cam structure is formed with a slot |39 having an angular extension |40. The upper surface of the cam struc- |4| which engages a collar |42 carried by locking bar |38. A stationary pin |43 is positioned within slot |39.
The operation of this portion of the mechanism is as follows: Arm |36 occupies the position As arm |0| is moved forwardly from position "A to position 13, carrying with it arm |36, no arcuate movement of cam structure |31 relative to arm |36 occurs. When, however, fixed pin |43 engages angular extension |40 of slot |39, the cam structure moves upwardly wherein jaw |4I engages collar |42, thus moving lockingbar |34 into one of holes |32 of the rotatable magazine. This movement of the locking bar |34 occurs only during movement of arm |0| from position B to position C," which represents approximately the last 15 of the forward or firing stroke of the arm.- `It .will also be apparent that locking bar 0| is at position A.
|34 is completely withdrawn from hole |32 during I the rearward movement of arm 0| C to position B. Jaw I4I from position is made wider than collar |42 for timing reasons. If desired, bar |34 9 is employed. Shaft |00 carries a. fourth collar |46 keyed thereto provided with an arm |41, at the outer end of which a pawl |48 is pivoted at |49. A spring |44 is fixed at one end thereof to a projection 5| on collar |46, and is secured at its opposite end to a projection |52 on pawl |48, thus urging the pawl in a clockwise direction, when viewed as in Fig. 9. The rear surface of the rotatable magazine 32 is provided with a plurality of equally-spaced pins |50', one being provided for each shell chamber. These pins are located relatively close to the axis of the rotatable magazine.
Arm |41 is shown in Fig. 9 in the position it occupies when arm |0| is in position A. Assuming that arm 0| has been drawn back to this extreme position, it will be seen that pawl |49 has engaged one of pins |50 which was originally in the position ofpin I 50 and moved it to its position shown at |50, thus having brought a shell into firing position with respect to gun barrel 35. When arm I 0| is moved forward, as in approaching the firing position, arm I 41 will be moved downward, carrying pawl |48 considerably below the position of pin |50', and upon arm IOI being moved backward subsequently, the pawl will move idly in its upward travel before engaging another of the pins and moving the same to the final position shown at |50.
Shell-receiving elements 55 are illustrated in connection with the preferred embodiment of the present invention, and inasmuch as no housing encloses such elements ample opportunity for aircooling even during rapid firing is afforded. It will be appreciated, of course, that any suitable water-cooling means may also be provided, if desired. Likewise, barrel 35 may be received in a collar |54 which is somewhat longer than sleeve 49 of the preferred embodiment, and such collar may include a plurality ofv radial heat-radiating nns |55. If desired, iins of this character may also be used on the shell-receiving elements 55.
It will be further apparent that whereas the preferred embodiment of the present invention is designed for' support on a gun mount of the type disclosed, nevertheless any other type of mount may be provided, and if the gun is made exceedingly light in weight, it may also constitute a shoulder weapon, particularly in view of the fact that the recoil from a shell of the type hereinafter described is not considerable. It will also be understood that'the firing, magazine-rotating, locking and sighting elements described herein are illustrative only and are not to be taken in any limiting sense.
What I claim is:
In combination with a gun provided with a rotatable .magazine having a plurality of tubular shell-supporting elements and a gun barrel, a spring-pressed hammer, a firing pin, and means for intermittently rotating the magazine to successively position the shell-supporting elements in alignment with the barrel, fire-control means comprising a manually-movable rock-shaft, a plurality of fingers |carried thereby, hammercooking means connected with one of said fingers during rearward movement of the shaft, magazine-locking means actuated by another of said fingers during forward movement thereof, hammer-releasing means actuated by a. third finger when'the shaft has reached its maximum forward position, and magazine-rotating means associated with a fourth finger for actuation during return movement of the shaft.
EDWARD F. CHANDLER.