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Publication numberUS2381162 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 7, 1945
Filing dateDec 24, 1941
Priority dateDec 24, 1941
Publication numberUS 2381162 A, US 2381162A, US-A-2381162, US2381162 A, US2381162A
InventorsFrank W Taylor
Original AssigneeWestinghouse Electric Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hydraulic system for stabilizers
US 2381162 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 7, 1945. F. w. TAYLOR 2,381,162

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM FOR STABILIZERS Filed Dec. 24, 1941 WITNESSES! INVENTOR Patent ed Au 7, 1945 2,381,162

umrw STATES PATENTOFFHGE Frank W Taylor, sprmmem, Mm "donor to Weofiinghomse Electric communal. me me burgh, We, a oorpomllonn oi? lleumylvanle,

Amlloellom Ember 24%, 19411, Serlol No. $4M? v mm (on. Ml llll -My lnventlon relal'ee to hydmmllc eystemc for, showing a palm in eocordence with my lnvemstabilizers and the like and lit has for an object lion lull-e assembled form; to provide Improved apparatus of this character. Fig. 2 is a section on line H-H of Fig. 4.

subject to the opposed eotlon'ol two liquid preeme. e is e schematic View of one form of syssures to efl'ect relative adjustment of the element lem to which my lnvenlion lo edoplelole; the nd support, two sources for supplying liquid unsection of the my being oubslemlilellv on the dam pressure to the hydraulic meme together with llne Iv-w of lllg. l.

valves for the respectlvesoulcea end operative to Relemne to th d a ng. to descripti n 0f th secure ouch relations of euppllecl pressures as to lmml will WWW e m actuate the hydraulic means for stabilizing the A motor M heo turned no its end bell an em element in relation to the support melee groove 8 lnl'o whlch ls fitted e ring mem- A further object of She lzzwezmtlolzzl is to pmbe! 8 Within the opposite end of which ls eeelecl vlale, for on element plvomlly mounted on a against eohoulder the flange-like portion 43 of a. support end coupled to the letter by reelpoocelclxculer plate 5, the entire assembly leelng eelno hydraulic means subject to fihe opposed eeowed to the motor by means of belle l extendtlon of two liquid pressures to efiece relemvo me through holes in eeld flange, the lhrwded adjustment, of me element end ort, m 2o emls of said bolts enewing mpmd holes in the sources eupplylng liquid under pressure eo vthe mole? housing end "bell. Circular golele 5 forms hydraulic meme together with velvea for the we base ol the plmm having therein manage for actuate the hydraulic meens for efiectllee poolthis gem" train is clflvem by the motor M; lte tlonel adjmtment of the element eml ewepom. axle heme ellanecl Willa the molar ehefe 20 to A further object is to provide means for fun receive email have keyed within a bore m its etude nlshlne two euppllee of motive liquid wag uite shell; M the end of the mo shell; Ell lo Meet 62- able reletlve pressures to secure actuation of e lest drive by the motor. A'clrculer mete 223, of e servo-motor and wherein lbhe measures are elm thickness to provide aim-1w; 'cleamnce for the multeneouely changed by valves fee the memegems, has openings 36, 87] end 28 for the gears tlve supplies end which velvee are under con= extending therethromxh, The p mp 1 m is trol of a'contx-ol member movable 11m ogaposlle dlcomplelzed by e clrculer mole of cover plate ll rectlone feomemean position. positioned edjeoent to me plate 528 end lwwlme sun another object of the invention lo to pro redlel oil m es 2%, 2. a n all fo ed h I vlde two slmulteneously opemtlng and poeltlv e= m, the za eeeeeee 82. and 88 serving es pump indlsnlecemenl; pumps Whose outlet or supply peelet p e ee d e pw eee 89 ene (32 ee pump sag h?| e liquid bypassed therefrom by means of outlet or supply pemew. The come-cling sur 3) ages provided with valves operated by an acfaces of the plates comprising Ema mmineled con tuatoz' moved for this urpose in response lo p-os m tlon we ground l0 pr i ill l-l ght seal sltlon ole, control member, the arrangement be when brought into contact. The eeeembly ls ing such that, with the control member in mean bolted together y a plurality f bolls 33 wwposltlom'lhe valves are positioned for themaln me through plates 23 and M and! we tenance of e predetrmlnecl'relatlon of pressures g ggfigg p glggss fllfgrzgldfllifiped 131:: g;

3, are preferably drilled so that thelrradlel exee and the the 2e m, as and 2e dulled-vertically so as to provide direction of departure. 4 2a a 1mm outle 22 and Further objects and advantegea will become p mew and m p ts more apparent from. a study or the following The pump housing also forms one wall 01' the specification when considered ln'conJunctlon with n reservoir ll, it cover plate '8! having open 4 the accompanying drawing, in which: lugs 40 and 44 connecting the reservolz to the 111- mme 1 m a section on line 14 of m. 4 letpassages a: and a so thatthelatter function in action on the oil in lubricating fluid through the limit opening as ump inlet or suction passages communicating with the reservoir.

Assuming for the moment, rotation of the gears as indicated by the arrows in Fig. 2, it will be seen that in the spaces 33 and 31 where the gear teeth come into mesh, that a squeezing-out action on the oil in those spaces will occur, and conversely, in the spaces 33 and 3| where the teeth of the gears are disengaged. a pulling or suckingthat space will occur. The pressure or outlet oil ports of the pump will, therefore, be located in the spaces 33 and 31 while the inlet ports will be located in the spaces 33 and II. By using the three gears in train, as shown, two simultaneously-operative, positivedisplacement and equal capa'city pumps result and which are formed as a single compact unit to provide two separate sources of liquid pressure.

The sump, or oil reservoir side of the'cover plate 3|, is connected to the-radial oil passages 33, 32, 33 and 33 by holes drilled vertically into this face of plate 3| into the oil passages. The holes 33 and 42 tapped into the pressure or supply passages are drilled to 33 and 35 in the base 31 of the magnetic valve assembly 39 mounted on the reservoir side of plate 3|, to form by-pass passages for the pump outlet or discharge passages for lay-passing liquid from the latter to the reservoir. The holes 33 g 3Vleading into the inlet passages netic valve assembly is sealed within the reservoir chamber 5|. A sealing plate 33 is bolted to the motor side of plate 3 and is of sufllcient dimeter that. a gasket 33 shall include within its seal the three bearings of the ear train l3, l1 and H. A small chamber 33 is provided within the oil seal of late 33 for the p p se of permitting circulation of the oil through the stub shaft bearings, said chamber being connected to the sump or oil reservoir through holes 33 and 33 drilled completely through the laminated pump housing assembly. A packing gland 31 about the motor shaft'tl completes the seal of thechamber. Such small leakage as may occur through packing gland 33 is drained from the motor pump assembly through a hole 33 in the ring 3. The above construction permits circulation of the stub shaft bearings, their bindingr to which the pump is particuthereby preventing A type of system larly adapted is current furnished. by a battery 3| or other source of energy is normally equally divided between the right and left-hand portion of a resistor 32, since it forms parallel. paths extending, respectively, through valve actuating coils 33 and '33. Two valves 31 and 33, cooperating with seats provided in-the by-pass passages and facing in the directions of flow through the latter, are interconnected by a common valve actuating element 1| pivoted at 13 and which abuts the valves to and 33 which actuate the element the poppet or seated'type valves 31 and 33. The

schematically shown in Fig. 4. A

opposite faces of reciprocates,

align with the oil holes pump outlet orsupply passages 33 and 33 are connected by the supply pipes 13 and 13 to the lower and upper portions, respectively, of the cylinder 11. Sincems has been stated, the valves are normally open to a predetermined relative extent, as

- packing seal.

- placement ment of the actuatin ressure differences may occur lower pressure determined by the normal position of the actuator or rocker 1|, the fiuid pressures on op sides of the piston 3| are in such relation as to keep the piston in a fixed position. As a consequence thereof, there will be no torques exerted by the piston element being stabilized and consequently such maintained in its angul r position with respect to the forces exerted by liquid pressures acting on the piston 3| are in equilibrium, the piston remains in fixed position; however, with reciprocal movement of the valves in relation to their seats, one valve moving in a closing direction and-the other in an opening direction, flows through the by-pass passages are correspondingly varied and the differential pressure condition thereby created causes piston movement. A leakage line 33 is connected to theoil reservoir chamber 3| and leads the packing seal through which the piston rod so that as excessive pressure is (1* in the piston chamber, oil will leak into the line 33 insteadof being forced through the device 31 comprising a plurality o flexible contact members resistor 32 is operated by the actuating (or pilot) element 33, and is herein used to unbalance the currents in valve actuating coils 33 and 33. As shown. the leaf spring contacts 3!, are arranged as right-hand and left-hen groups with the actuating element 33 therebetween. For the function of this controlling device with reference to the velocity of dis t and disof a gun, or element to be stabilized, reference may be had to a eopending application of C. R. Hanna, Serial No. 366,817, filed Nov. 23. 1940, entitled "Gun stabilizers." For the purpose of my description, however, the contact actuating element 39 may be assumed to be controlled provement in plication is confined to the pump s m. Moveelement 33 to the left will close the contacts 3| of the leftwhile o ening those of the rightdecreasing the resistance through portions of resistor 3| while inprogressively hand group connection with the element or body whose position is controlled, will rotate said element or body'clockwise to decrease its elevation angle. Movement of the piston in either direction due to as liquid at the side is expel ed by through the associated supp charged "through its lily-passfor the reason that spect to its seatjan orifice and presents an area subject to the upstream As each orifice is restricted, the u stream pressure is increased to increasethe fluid ressure about the trunnion axis 33 of the directly thiOllih t pp on this instance over said patent appressureofthelatters aesaiez force acting on the valve. Movement of the actuating member H in consequence of a change in the relation of magnetic forces due to a disturbance is accompanied by an opposed change in the relation of the fluid pressure forces with the result that the actuating member has an equilibrium-seeking tendency. Whenever the controlling member 89 ceases to change its position to change the current value of the supplies for the windings 63 and 65, the magnetic forces of the latter cease to change and equilibrium of the actuating member H is attained when the clockwise moments due to magnetic and fluid pressure forces exerted on the latter are equal to the counterclockwise moments. Movement of the actuating element 89 to the right obviously has the opposite effect on the contacts and the hydraulic means controlled thereby.

The stabilizer is equipped with an additional feature of control preventing substantial deviation or departure of the element or gun from wanted position when subject to the effect of unusually large unbalancing torques, such as those due to gun recoil and which may be of a magnitude many times larger than those normally acting on the system. Since the relatively short periods of recoil, usually of one-half second duration, render impractical the construction of a system suflicien'tly large to cope with these unbalances, an additional coil 93 has been added to the pole piece controlling valve 61, and is connected in series with the battery 60. A recoil switch 95 normally biased closed by a sp ing, is maintained open by the gun breech and closed during recoil when the gun breech recedes therefrom, energizing the valve coil 93 and firmly closing valve 61, diverting full pressure of the associated side of the pump to the bottom chamber of cylinder ll, thus firmly coupling the gunto its mount and supporting it during the recoil period. A ball or check valve 91 is installed in the pump output which leads to the bottom portion of the cylinder chamber to prevent the back pressure exerted by the piston during recoil unbalance from entering the pump when it is in excess of the peak delivery of the pump. The hydraulicpressures in the cylinder '71 are controlled by their respective valve currents. As the stiffness regulator resistor 99 is adjusted to increase the valve currents and magnetic flux densities, negative stiffness is also increased. Regarding the definition of "stiffness," a body is said to have positive stiffness if its resistance increases upon compression, such as is inherent in a spring. An electromagnet has negative stifiness, since, as the armature is at tracted toward the core, a smaller and smaller force is required. If such negative stiil'ness increases beyond the positive stiffness, arising from the hydraulic pressure on the valves, unstable operation occurs. The range of instability may be varied by changing the valve clearances, air gaps, or other constants and may be kept low by keeping the total valve currents at a minimum value. Relief valves IM and I03 are installed in pressure outlets connectedto the sump for the purpose of preventing air from being pumped or drawn into the hydraulic system, in the event the gun should be moved in elevation manually. The

mechanical advantage in this case would be largeand the pumping action of 'the'piston could possibly draw air through any of the oil line connections. a

The pump design as shown, is simple in construction and has few wearing parts. It forms, in effect, two separate pumps, but has the adill) vantage of being a compact unit requiring but one motor for-its drive.

I am, of course, aware that others, particularly after having had the benefit of the teachings of my invention, may devise other devices embodying my invention, and, I, therefore, do not wish to be limited to the specific showings made in the drawing and the descriptive disclosure hereinbefore made, but wish to be limited only by the scope of the appended claims.

I claim as my invention:

1. In apparatus providing two simultaneouslyeffective supplies of motive liquid for a pressureresponsive device, first and second simultaneously-operating, positive-displacement gear pumps; a reservoir for liquid; passages for the supplies of liquid open to the outlets of the respective pumps; pump inlet passages communieating with the reservoir; bypass passages for conducting liquid from the respective supply passages to the reservoir and having valve seats facing in the direction of flow therethrough; a pair of valves movable toward and away from said seats to change the flows through the by-pass passages in order to change the supply passage pressures; mechanism for so that the force of liquid pressure applied to one valve is opposed by that applied to the other; said mechanism including a rocker, stems connected to the valves and abutting opposite ends of the rocker, and pivot means for the central portion of the rocker and reacting to oppose liquid pressure forces exerted thereon: a" controlling member movable in opposite directions from a mid position; and means for applying oppositely-acting tilting forces to saidconnecting mechanism and responsive to departure of the controlling member from mid position in opposite directions to vary the tilting forces relatively to control the positions of the valves relative to their seats and consequently the relative liquid pressures in said supply passages so as t trolling member in mid position, for a predetermined relation of pressures in the supply passages and to provide, with departure of the controlling member from mid position, for increase in one supply passage pressure and decrease in the other supply passage pressure according to the direction and extent of departure.

2. The combination as claimed in claim 1 wherein the pumps are of equal capacity and are comprised by two gears individual to the pumps and meshing with an intermediate gear common to the pumps.

3. The combination as claimed in claim 1. wherein at least one of the supply passages is provided with a check valve opening away from the associated pump outlet.

4. In apparatus providing two simultaneouslyefiective supplies of motive liquid for a pressureresponsive device, first and second simultaneously-operating, positive-displacement and equalcapacity gear pumps; passages for the supplies of liquid open to the outlets of the respective pumps; a reservoir for liquid; pump inlet passages communicating with the reservoir; byepass passages for conducting liquid from the respective supply passages to the reservoir and having valve seats facin in. the direction of flow therethrough; a pair of valves movable toward and away from said seats to change the flows through the bychange the supply pas sage pressures; mechanism for connecting said of liquid pressure applied to one valve is opposed by that applied to connecting said valves provide, with the con- 3 asemee the other; said connecting mechanism including a rocker, stems connected to the valves and abutting opposite ends of the rocker, and pivot means for the central portion of the rocker and reacting to oppose liquid pressure forces exerted thereon; a controlling member movable in opposite directions from a mid position; a pair of electro-magnets for applying oppositely-acting tilting forces to the connecting mechanism; a pair of circuits for supplying electrical energy in parallel from a suitable source to the windings of the electro-Inagnets; and variable resistances in the circuits and cooperating with the controlling member to vary relatively the oppositely-acting tilting forces applied to the connecting mechanism to control the positions of the valves relative to their seats and consequently the relative liquid pressures in said supply passages so as to provide, with the controlling member in mid position, for a predetermined relation of pressures in the supply passages and to provide, with departure of the controlling member from mid position, for increase in one supply passage pressure and decrease in the other according to the direction and extent of departure.

5. In apparatus providing two simultaneouslyefiective supplies of motive liquid for a pressureresponsive device, first and second pumps comprising a pair of gears meshing with an intermediate gear and a housing for the gears; a reservoir for liquid; said housing forming one of the walls of the reservoir and including a cover plate; a pair of pump inlet passages formed in the cover plate and communicating with the reservoir; a pair of passages for the liquid supplies havin portions formed in the cover plate and open to the outlets of the pumps; by-pass passages formed in the cover plate for conducting liquid from the supply passages to the reservoir and having valve seats facing in the directions of flow therethrough; a pair of valves movable toward and away from said seats to vary the flows through the by-pass passages in order to vary the supply passage pressures; an actuating member abutting the valves, cooperating with the latter so that the force of liquid pressure applied to one valve is opposed by that applied to the other, and operative to move the valves in a reciprocal manner; a controlling member movable in opposite direction irom a mid position; and means for applying oppositely-acting forces to the actuating member and responsive to departure of the controlling member from mid position in opposite directions to control the positions of the valves relative to their seats and consequently the relative liquid pressures in said supply passages so as to provide, with the controlling member in mid position, for a predetermined relation of pressures in the supply passages and to provide, with departure of the controlling member from mid position, for increase in one supply passage pressure and decrease in the other according to the direction and extent of departure.

6. The combination as claimed in claim 5 wherein the cover plate is provided with ports connecting the supply passages and the reservoir and check valves to close the ports in response to pressures in the supply passages and developed by the pumps.

7. In apparatus providing two simultaneouslyeffective supplies of motive liquid for a pressureresponsive device, first and second pumps comprising a pair of gears meshing with an intermediate gear and a housing for the gears; a reservoir for liquid; said housing forming one of the walls of the reservoir and including a base plate and a cover plate; journals connected to the gears and fitting bearings extending through the base plate; a driving shaft connected to one of the journals; a plate having sealed attachment with respect to the outer face of the base plate and having an opening through which the driving shaft extends; a packing gland having sealing relation with respect to the driving shaft and carried by the sealing plate in order that the latter may form, with respect to the base plate, a sealed chamber open to the outer ends of said bearings; at least one passage formed in said housing for connecting said sealed chamber to the reservoir; a pair of pump inlet passages formed in said cover plate and communicating with the reservoir; a pair of passages for the supplies of liquid including portions formed in said cover plate and open to the outlets of the respective pumps; by-pass passages formed in said cover plate for conducting liquid from the supply passages to the reservoir and having valve seats facing in the directions of flow therethrough; :i pair of valves movable toward and away from said seats to vary the flows through the by-pass passages in order to vary the supply passage pressures; an actuating member abutting the valves, cooperating with the latterso that the force of liquid pressure applied to one valve is opposed by that applied to the other, and operative to move the valves in a reciprocal *manner with respect to their seats; a controlling member movable in opposite directions from a mid position; and means for applying oppositely-acting forces to the actuating member and responsive to departure of the controlling member from mid position in opposite directions to control the positions of the valves relative to their seats and consequently the relative liquid pressures in said supply passages so as to provide, with the controlling member in mid position, for a predetermined relation oi. pressures in the supply passages and to provide, .With departure of the controlling member from mid position, for increase in one supply passage pressure and decrease in the other according to the direction and extent of departure.

' FRANK W. TAYLOR.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2432502 *Mar 1, 1939Dec 16, 1947Sperry Gyroscope Co IncHydraulic control system
US2550671 *Jul 27, 1945May 1, 1951George I ChinnControl means
US3015254 *Dec 29, 1945Jan 2, 1962IbmStabilized control mechanism for a gun mounted on a turret
US4178831 *Jun 27, 1977Dec 18, 1979Ab BoforsFluid pressure device for supporting and elevating a gun barrel
DE3038816A1 *Oct 14, 1980Apr 22, 1982Pietzsch LudwigFirearm locking system on base - operates while firing torque exceeds that of aiming mechanism
Classifications
U.S. Classification417/428, 60/463, 60/907, 418/196, 60/429, 89/41.12
International ClassificationF41A27/26, F15B21/08
Cooperative ClassificationY10S60/907, F41A27/26, F15B21/08
European ClassificationF15B21/08, F41A27/26