US 2381524 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 7, 1945.
w. l. TAYLoR PROTECTIVE HEgDGEAR Filed Dec. 16, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet l.
www m Attorneys Aug, 7, 1945.V w. l. TAYLOR 2,381524 PROTECTIVE HEADGEAR Filed Dec. 5.6, 1942 2 SheeAts-Sheet 2.
f gyw Inventor W. LTAYLDR 7 www* MM tlorneys Patented Aug. 7, 1945 PROTECTIVE HEADGEAR William Ivan Taylor, Spondon, near Derby, England, assignor to British Celanese-Limited, London W., England; a company ofGreat Britain Application December 16, 1942, Serial No. 469,177 In Great Britain December 18 1941 10 Claims.
This invention relates to protective headgear andparticularly, though not exclusively, to steel or other impact-resistingy helmets as used by the armed forces.
It is one object-of the present invention to provide an' impact-resistinghelmet of the kind referred to that is resistant to heat rays soas to increase-the comfort of the wearer and to make it possible to use the-helmet under conditions in which it might otherwise be intolerable- According to" the presentl invention a protective helmet comprises an inner Skin covered with ar external layer of textile fabric spaced from the inner skin by means of a. light and porous heatinsulating material, said insulating material including spacing pieces of substantially rigid matex-iai. It is preferable, between the external layer of textile fabric and the inner skin, to provide at least one intermediate layer of textile fabric, the intermediate layer being spaced from the inner skin While the external layer is spaced from the intermediate layer.
Where the basis of the helmet is an impactresisting Steel shell, this shell may itself constitute the inner skin referred to above, but alternatively a further layer of textile fabric may be provided in actual contact with the surface of the impact-resisting shell so as to constitute the inner skin and, by containing the heat insulating material between itself and the external layer or L1 an intermediate layer, to enable the whole heatresisting part of the helmet to be detachable from the impact-resisting part. However. Where an intermediate layer of fabric is provided, the spacing pieces of substantially rigid material may be disposed on the inner side of the intermediate layer, while between the intermediate layer and the external layer heat-insulating material of a different character may be employed, e. g. a layer of fibrous material. In this case, the heat-resisting part of the helmet may be made detachable from the impact-resisting part Without the provision of a textile fabric conetituting an inner skin for the heat-resisting part of the helmet. In either case, since the heat-resistlng part 'or the helmet may be made separable from the impact-resisting part, the invention contemplates, as a separate article of manufacture, a. heat-resisting cover adapted to be attached to an impact-resisting shell.
It is preferable that at least the external layer of the helmet should be water-moored so as to make it resistant to the action of weather and to prevent moisture reaching the insulating material and reducing its effectiveness For this purpose the external layer and, if desired, any other layers of textile fabric involved in the helmet may be doped with a dope containing a water-resistant lacquer base so as to close the pores or meshes of the fabric and to make it lill substantially water-proof and air-proof. Alternatively, the fabric may be Water-proofed by treating it with a substancethat increases its resistance towetting, without closing the pores of the fabric and making it completely air-proof.
Where a water-resistant lacquer base is used for water-proofing the fabric, the fabric is preferably light in weight and may either be relatively closely woven or of an open net-like character, the meshes of the fabric being closed by the dope applied to it. An intermediate fabric of this character may be given some at least of the heat-reflecting properties of a dull white metallic surface in rder to increase its resistance to penetration by heat rays. This may be done by including aluminium powder in the dope with which the fabric is treated. The inner skin may be treated in the same manner, and so also may the external layer of doped fabric unless it is preferred that the external layer should be camouflaged by a colouring more suitable to the purpose.
For the purpose of doping the fabric any Waterresistant lacquer base may be used, dissolved in a suitable solvent that is not a solvent for the substance of the fabric to be doped. Thus, cellulose acetate is a suitable base for the purpose, though, of course, it should not be used where the fabric itself is made of cellulose acetate. Instead of a thermoplastic resin base, soluble in a volatile solvent, a. thermo-setting resin may be employed for doping the fabric and rendering it air-proof and water-proof, the doped fabric being subjected to a baking treatment appropriate to the resin employed,
The rigid material employed for the spacing pieces may be a pith-lke material of the kind described in British Patent No, 546,121, or alternatively suitably shaped pieces of cork or simi- '5 lar light and substantially rigid material may be used. In conjunction with the spacing pieces other light and porous heat-insulating material of a less rigid character may be employed, for example a fibrous wadding, preferably in the form of a carded lap or web of fibres of cotton, cellulose acetate or other material, such as kapok. The preferred material is a sliver of cellulose acetate bres, of a staple length of about 11/2" carded to form a lap or web. The fibres may either be formed from laments of a medium denier, about 3 denierI or they may be formed from fine laments of say about 0,4 denier, produced by stretching coarser filaments in the presence of an agent adapted to facilitate stretching by softening the filaments, The spacing pieces may be included with the fibrous lap between two layers of fabric so as to prevent the layers of fabric from being crushed together on the fibrous lap and unduly compressing it. Alternatively, or in addition, the spacing pieces may be separate from the fibrous lap, being cemented to the inner side of the inner fabric containing the fibrous lap so as to prevent the inner fabric from resting in contact with the impact-resisting shell.
The shaping of the fabrics into the required form to constitute the part of the heat-resistme." helmet or of a heat-resisting cover for an impact-resisting helmet may be effected either by cutting a number of suitably shaped pieces and sewing them together, or by moulding a single piece cf fabric into the desired shape. Thus, for a heat-resisting cover adapted to be applied to an impact-resisting helmet having a projecting rim, each layer may comprise four pieces connected by four seams meeting at the top of the helmet, with or without an additional shaped strip to cover the rirn of the helmet. One layer of fabric may be caused to project beyond the rest at the edge of the helmet cover, and be formed with a hem to contain a drawstring vvhich may be drawn tight under the rim of the helmet so as to secure the cover to the helmet.
Where the fabrics are moulded into the required form, the operation may be carried out by pressing the fabric into a suitably shaped rigid mould, eY g. of cast iron, by means of a flexible pressing member. Thus, the fabric may be pressed into the mould by means of a thickwalled, hollow rubber pad blown out in the mould and expanded to the shape required by a substantial amount of water pressure, e. g. 150 pounds per square inch. The mould is preferably heated. Where an undoped fabric is shaped in this manner it is preferably impregnated with a suitable size to hold it in the required shape, the sized fabric being soaked in cold water before pressing so as to soften the sizeY After shaping, the moulded shape is allowed to dry for a few minutes before removal from the mould and may then be dipped into a suitable dope. e. g of cellulose acetate, and dried. Af; the dipping and drying may bring about a certain amount of distortion this may be remedied by rcinoulding for a short period. Where the fabric is moulded after having been doped. the doped fabric may rst be softened. e. g. by soaking for about l minutes in water or other softening agent at 'T5-85 C. The shaped fabric is then ready for use on removal from the mould which again should be done after leaving the fabric in the mould for a few minutes to dryv The latter method though simpler than the method of shaping the fabric in the undoped condition makes it difficult or impossible to shape the fabric without creasing and overlapping, which affects the appearance of the finished product. By moulding the fabric in 'the undoped condition, the presence of folds or laps may more easily be avoided. The thickness of insulating material employed between the inner skin and the external layer 0f doped fabric may conveniently be of the order of one inch. this space being split up. if necessary, by the intermediate layers that may be employed The water-proof nature of the doped fabric prevents moisture reaching the insulating material by means of which the layers are spaced from one another4 Where a fibrous insulating and spacing material is employed, the surface of the heat-resisting uzirl, of the helmet is dexible and capable of being pressed in. The resillent nature of the fibrouslap, however. aided by the presence of any intermediate layer employed, causes the surface to return to its original form when pressure is removed.
While the invention has been particularly described above with reference to steel or other impact-resisting helmets provided, in accordance with the invention, with an external heatresisting structure, it may also be employed to provide an internal heat-resisting structure in some cases, as for example in crash helmets for motor-cyclists or jockeys as previously referred to, the heat-resisting structure in such examples being combined with the internal padding employed. The invention may also be employed for the production of sun helmets having no particular'impact-resisting qualities other than those afforded by the heat-resisting structure provided in accordance with the invention.
By way of example three forms of heat-resisting helmet according to the present invention will now be described in greater detail with reference to the accompanying drawings in which- Figure 1 shows a. section of a helmet comprising an impact-resisting part and a detachable heat-resisting part.
Figure 2 shows the shape of the separate pieces employed in the helmet shown in Figure l.
Figure iis a detail of the helmet shown in Figures 1 and 2.
Figure 4 is a figure similar to Fig-ure l of another form of helmet according to the invention.
Figure 5 is a plan view of the helmet shown in Figure 4 and Figure 6 shows a third form of heat-resisting helmet in accordance with the present invention.
Referring to Figure l, the helmet there shown comprises an impact-resisting shell I of the kind commonly used by the armed forces. The internal padding and supporting gear of the helmet has been omitted for greater clarity. Covering the impact-resisting shell I is a cover generally indicated at 2 comprising several layers of fibrous Wadding 3 held away from the impact-resisting shell by means of studs 4 of pith-like material of the kind described in specification No. 546,121. The cover is secured to the shell I by means of an edge or fringe of single fabric 5, having a hem 6 containing a draw-string I which is drawn tight beneath the rim 8 of the impact-resisting shell I.
The cover 2 is formed in ve pieces of the form shown in Figure 2, each piece comprising four layers of fabric 9, I0, II and I2 as shown in Figure 3` Between the layers of fabric 9, Ill, II and I2 are disposed carded laps or webs of fibres of cellulose acetate I3, the bres being made by forming continuous cellulose acetate filaments of about 3 denier into staple fibres of an average length of 11/2. The laps I3 and the layers of fabric 9, I0, II and I2 are secured to each other by being quilted along the lines I4 of Figure 2` The five pieces shown in Figure 2 comprise four segmental pieces I5 and a curved strip I6 to correspond with the rim 8 of the shell I. The studs 4 which are about 5/8" in diameter and about deep are cemented to the inner layer I2 of fabric by means of a nitro-cellulose dope containing a small proportion of absorbent filler such as ne saw-dust. Each of the fabrics 9, ID. Il and I2 is a thin but closely Woven fabric doped with a water-resistant lacquer.
The helmet shown in Figures 4 and 5 is similar in general character to that shown in Figures 1 to 3. In this case, however, only two layers of fabric are used, an inner layer ll to which the studs 4 are secured and an outer layer IB. As shown in Figure 5 each of the layers comprises four segments I9 and a circular piece 20 at the top. No Separate strip is provided corresponding to the piece I6 shown in Figure 2. Between the two layers is a thick fibrous lap 2| consisting of cellulose acetate bres of an average length of about 11/2 and a denier of about 0.4, the fibres being formed from filaments that have been stretched in the presence of a softening agent to increase their strength. The lap 2| is held down on the inner layer Il by means of eight cross tapes 22 and two circles of stitching 23 shown in Figure 5. The stitching 23 passes through the inner layer of fabric I1, the fibrous lap 2| and the tapes 22, but not through the outer layer of fabric i8. The outer layer I8 projects beyond the edge of the helmet so as to constitute a fringe 24 similar to the fringe 5 described with reference to Figure 1, the fringe 24 having a hem 6 and a draw-string l. The fabrics Il and IB are of cotton drill material, the inner layer being lighter in weight than the outer layer. Each of the fabrics is given a shower-proofing treatment.
The helmet shown in Figure 6 is of a different character from either of those shown in the preceding gures and comprises three layers 26 of fabric of an open 0r net-like character, the pores or meshes of the fabric being closed by the application of a cellulose acetate dope of concentration. Each of the fabrics 28 is moulded into the shape shown in the manner previously described, and the three layers are secured together at the edges by means of an adhesive cement, the junction being reinforced and protected by a metal rim 2l of V-section. Between the layers are included two fibrous laps 28 of cellulose acetate fibres amongst which are interspersed spacing pieces 29 similar in character to the spacing pieces 4 described with reference to Figures 1 to 5. The assembly is secured to the impact-resisting shell l by means of the spring clips 30.
Having described my invention what I desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. A protective helmet comprising an inner skin covered with an external layer of textile fabric spaced from said inner skin by means of a light and porous heat-insulating material, said insulating material including spacing pieces of substantially rigid material,
2. A heat-resisting cover for an impact-resist ing helmet, said cover comprising at least two layers of textile fabric, a layer of light and porous heat-insulating material between said layers of fabric and a plurality of spacing pieces of substantially rigid material, the outer layer of textile fabric being adapted to be spaced from the impact-resisting helmet by said spacing pieces and said heat-insulating material.
3. A cover according to claim 2, wherein one layer of fabric extends substantially beyond the rest of the cover and is provided at its edge with a draw-string adapted to be drawn tight beneath the rim of the helmet for securing the cover to said helmet.
4. A heat-resisting cover for an impactresisting helmet, said cover comprising at least two layers of textile fabric, a layer of light and porous heat insulating material between said layers of fabric, and a plurality of spacing pieces of light but substantially rigid material secured to the innermost layer of textile fabric and adapted to contact with the external surface of the impactresisting helmet.
5. A protective helmet comprising an inner skin covered with an external layer of textile fabric doped with a dope containing a Waterresistant lacquer base, said external layer being spaced from said inner skin by means of a light and porous heat insulating material, said insulating material including spacing pieces of substantially rigid material.
6. A heat-resisting cover for an impact-resisting helmetl said cover comprising at least two layers of textile fabric, each layer being formed from a number of pieces sewn together to give the required shape, a layer of light and porous heat insulating material comprising a lap or web of fibres of cellulose acetate between said layers of fabric, the lap or web being secured to said layers of fabric by lines of quilting stitch extending through the heat insulating material and through at least one of the layers of fabric, the external layer of which is doped with a dope containing `a water-resistant lacquer base, and a plurality 0f` spacing pieces of light but substantially rigid material secured to the innermost layer of textile fabic and adapted to Contact with the external surface of the impact-resisting helmet.
'7. A heat-resisting cover for an impact-resisting helmet, said cover comprising at least two layers of textile fabric, each layer of fabric being molded into the required shape from a single piece of fabric, a layer of light and porous heat insulating material comprising a lap or web of bres 0f cellulose acetate between said layers of fabric. the lap or web being secured to said layers of fabric by lines of quilting stitch extending through the heat insulating material and through at least one of the layers of fabric, the external layer of which is doped with a dope containing a water-resisting lacquer basel and a plurality of spacing pieces of light but substantially rigid material secured to the innermost layer of textile fabric and adapted to contact with the external surface of the impact-resisting helmet.
8. A heat-resisting cover for an impact-resisting helmet, said cover comprising two layers of fabric, each layer being formed from a number of pieces to give the required shape, a layer of light and porous heat-insulating material comprising a lap or web of fibers of cellulose acetate between said layers of fabricI tapes for holding the lap or web against the inner layer of fabric, the lap or web being secured to said layer of fabric by lines of quilting stitch extending through said tapes, said lap or web and said inner layer, and a plurality of spacing pieces of light but substantially rigid material secured to the inner layer of fabric and adapted to contact with the external surface of the impact-resisting helmet.
9. A heat-resisting cover in accordance with claim 8, wherein the external layer of fabric is doped with a dope containing a water resistant lacquer base.
10. A heat resisting cover in accordance with claim 8, wherein one layer of fabric extends Substantially beyond the rest of the cover and is provided at its edge with a draw-string adapted to be drawn tight beneath the rim of the helmet for securing the cover to said helmet.
WILLIAM IVAN TAYLOR.