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Publication numberUS2381929 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 14, 1945
Filing dateAug 1, 1941
Priority dateSep 6, 1940
Publication numberUS 2381929 A, US 2381929A, US-A-2381929, US2381929 A, US2381929A
InventorsMarcel Schlumberger
Original AssigneeMarcel Schlumberger
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Well conditioning apparatus
US 2381929 A
Abstract  available in
Images(8)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 14, 1945. M. SCHLUMBERGER WELL CONDITIONING APPARATUS Filed Aug. 1, 1941 8 Sheets-Sheet 1 uwzu'roa Marcel Sclrlumhryer O'GGI'UH mar:

Aug. 14, 1945. M. SCHLUMBERGER 2,381,929

WELL CONDITIONING APPARATUS Filed Aug. 1, 1941 8 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR Alan-cl Sc/zlumberyer 3 ZATTORNEYS Aug. 14, 1945. M. SCHLUMBERGER WELL CONDITIONING APPARATUS 8 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Aug. 1, 1941 mm W. 0 E T N 2 o M w m A M mm M M. SCHLUMBERGER WELL CONDITIONING APPARATUS Filed Aug. 1. 1941 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR.

MarceZ Safilumberyer g- 1945. M. SCHLUMBERGER 2,381,929

WELL CONDITIONING APPARATUS Filed Aug. 1, 1941 8 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR Marcel Sci/lamberyer 2 I A TORNECS U an u G 3 r U 1945- M. SCHLUMBERGER WELL CONDITIONING APPARATUS Filed Aug. 1, 1941 8 Sheets-Sheet 6 INVENTOR Mme] Sc/lll/rrzeyer 2 J ZTTORN Y5 MUN U M. SCHLUMBERGER 2,381,929

ITIONING AYPARATUS Aug. 14, 1945.

WELL COND Filed Aug. 1, 1941 8 Sheets-Sheet 7 ll l INVENTOR Marcel Sch/unfieryer ATT RNEYS Patented Aug. 14, 1945 WELL CONDITIONING APPARATUS Marcel Schlumberger. St. Gaudens, Haute Garonne. France; vested in the Alien Property Custodian Application August 1. 1941, Serial No. 405.024 In France September 6, 1940 14 Claims.

The present invention relates to new and improved apparatus for sealing off the space between the wall of a bore hole and its casing at any desired depth or depths therein.

In the exploitation of oil wells drilled into the earth. good engineering practice requires that the space between the wall of the bore hole and the casing which is usually inserted therein be sealed off at a predetermined location or location in order to prevent the flow of fluid or gas therealong from one subterranean bed to another. This is also essential in order to permit the oil bearing layers to be exploited separately.

An object of the invention is to provide new and improved apparatus which is adapted to perforate the casing. and also to inject sealing material into the space between the wall of the bore hole and the casing through the perforation or perforations formed therein.

Still another object of the invention is to provide new and improved apparatus of the above character in which the sealing material is directed to perforating and injecting means in the casing from a source located at the surface of the earth.

A further object of the invention is to provide new and improved apparatus of the above character wherein the sealing material is disposed in a container located in the casing with the perforating and injecting means and is adapted to be supplied therefrom to the injecting means.

Another object of the invention is to provide new and improved apparatus of the above character wherein the means for injecting the sealing material forms a part of the perforating means and includes detachable means for plugging the perforation in the casing after the sealing material has been injected therethrough.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of several preferred embodiments. taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:

Fig. l is a view in vertical section illustrating apparatus const. ucted according to the present invention for perforating the casing of a bore hole and for injecting sealing material into the space between the wall of the bore hole and the casing.

Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional View taken along line 2* 2 of Fig. l and looking in the direction of the arrows. showing the perforating means in the normal inoperative position.

Fig. 3 illustrates the perforating means shown in Fig. 2 after the perforation of the casing has been completed.

Fig. 4 shows the perforating means of Fig. 2

in the retracted position after the perforating and sealing operations have been completed.

Figs. 5, 6, 7 and 7a, 8, 8a and 8b, 9, 9a and 9b. 10, 10a and 10b, illustrate a number of different forms of perforating punches constructed according to the present invention.

Figs. 11 and 11a are views in longitudinal section of a modified form of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1, which is adapted to be lowered into a bore hole on a conventional electrical cable.

Figs. 12 and 12a illustrate further modifications of the apparatus shown in Figs. 11 and 11a and Figs. 13 and 13a illustrate a further modification of the apparatus shown in Figs. 12 and 1211.

Referring to Fig. l, a bore hole I 0 is shown having a casing H therein slightly smaller in diameter than the diameter of the bore hole l0, forming an annular space 12 between the wall of the bore hole ID and the casing II. For convenience it will be assumed that it is desired to form a seal in the space 12 in the vicinity of the upper boundary of an oil bearing formation 13 traversed by the bore hole ID.

Within the casing II and in the vicinity of the formation 13 i disposed apparatus for perforating the casing and for introducing the sealin material into the space l2 between the wall of the bore hole l0 and the casing Ii. This apparatus comprises a body 14 made of steel or other suitable material. having a cylindrical chamber 15 formed in the upper portion thereof within which is slidably mounted a piston l6 of relatively large area. The. piston I6 is maintained normally near the top of the chamber l5 by means of a compression spring I! which is seated in an annular recess l8 formed in the bottom of the chamber I5 and the upper end of which engages the lower face of the piston IS.

The lower portion of the piston I6 is formed as a coaxial cylindrical plunger H! which is considerably smaller in diameter than the piston l6, and which is slidably mounted within a bore 20 communicating at its upper end with the cylinder 15. The bore 20 communicates through a passage 2! with a cylindrical chamber 22 which extends transversely of the body 14 and which terminates in an opening 22a formed in the wall of the body 14. The portion of the chamber 22 which is nearest the opening 22a is internally threaded at 23 to receive an externally threaded barrel 24 having a central bore 25 formed therein within which a cylindrical perforating and injecting element 26 is slidably fitted.

Located below the chamber 22 and communicating therewith through a passage 42a is a sec ond chamber 22 in which is slidably mounted a perforating and injecting element 26'. Corresponding parts in the lower element 26' and associated apparatus are designated by primed reference characters. Usually there will be a plurality of perforating and injecting elements located about the periphery of the body I4. For the sake of simplicity, however, only two are shown in Fig. 1.

Referring now to Fig. 2, the injecting and perforating element 26 is slightly smaller in diameter than the diameter of the chamber 22' and it has a laterally extending rear portion 21 which cooperates with the barrel portion 24' to limit the extent of movement of the perforating and injecting means 26. The rear portion 21 of the injecting and perforating element 26 is provided with a circumferential groove 26 within which is disposed suitable packing material 29' for providing a tight joint.

In one side of the perforating and injecting means 26 is formed an aperture 30' providing communication with the hollow interior 3| thereof. At the forward end of the perforating and injecting means 26' is provided a closure member 32' within which are formed a plurality of longitudinal extending passages 33 and 34'. Mounted on the closure member 32' and secured thereto by means of a suitable screw 35' is a punch 36' within which are formed a, plurality of longitudinal grooves 31' and 38 which are adapted to register with the passages 33 and 34', respectively, permitting sealing material to be injected from the interior 3I' of the perforating and injecting means 26 through the passages 33 and 34' nd the grooves 31 and 38' into the space I2 between the wall of the bore hole I and the casing II, as described in greater detail hereinafter.

Formed in the piston I6 is a longitudinally extending passage 39 which communicates with a longitudinally extending aperture 40 formed in the side wall of the plunger I9. The dimensions of the aperture 40 are so chosen that it is entirely closed when the piston I6 is in its uppermost position. but when the piston I6 is in its lowermost position it communicates with an aperture 4Ia formed in the wall of the chamber 20. The aperture 4Ia, communicates with a downwardly extending passage 4I formed in the body I4 which in turn communicates with an aperture 42 formed in the wall of the bore 25 in the barrel 24.

The passage 4| continues downwardly through the body I4 and through the barrel portion 24 to an aperture 42' formed in the wall of the bore 25 in the barrel 24 located in the body I4 below the barrel 24.

In this embodiment of the invention, the apparatus is lowered into the casing II on a conventional string of drill pipe 43, at the lower end of which is formed a laterally extending flange 44 which is adapted to be rotatably received within a corresponding groove 45 formed in a head piece 46. The drill pipe 43 is provided with an aperture 41 which is adapted to register with a laterall extending passage 48 formed in the head piece 46 when the string of pipe 43 is rotated with respect to the head piece 46 for the purpose of placing the hollow interior of the drill pipe 43 in communication with the liquid within the casing I I.

At the surface of the earth, the string of drill pipe 43 is connected to a length of flexible tubing 49 to which fluid under pressure is supplied from suitable pumping means 50 located at the surface of the earth.

In operation, the body I4 is lowered on the string of drill pipe 43 until the perforating and injecting elements 26 and 26' are located approx imately at the depth of the upper boundary of the formation I3 where it is desired to form the seal. A liquid cement mixture is then pumped from the pumping means 50 through the flexible tubing 49 and through the string of drill pipe 43 into the chamber l5. At this time, of course, the aperture 41 in the drill pipe 43 will be out of registry with the passage 48 in the head piece 46.

The fluid pressure of the cement mixture within the chamber I5 forces the piston I6 downwardly against the pressure of the spring I1, moving the plunger I9 downwardly and applying pressure to a body of pressure transmitting fluid such as oil 200., for example, contained within the bore 20 and the chambers 22 and 22. The pressure of the oil 200. forces the perforating and injecting means 26 and 26' outwardly and radially against the casing I I, as shown in Fig. l.

The application of pressure by the pumps 50 is continued until the punches 36 and 36' on the perforating and injecting elements 26 and 26', respectively, are forced through the casing II as shown in Fig. 1. At this time it will be noted that the aperture 40 in the plunger I9 is in registry with the aperture 4Ia in the wall of the bore 20 while the aperture 42 is in communication with the hollow interior 3| of the perforating and injecting means 26 through the aperture 30 therein. Accordingly, the cement mixture above the piston I6 is forced through the passage 39, the aperture 40, the aperture 4 Ia, the passage 4 I, the aperture 42 in the perforating and injecting means 26, the passages 33 and 34 therein and the grooves 31 and 38, respectively, in the punch 36 into the space I2 between the wall of the bore hole I0 and the casing II. In similar fashion, cement is also injected through the perforating and injecting means 26 into the space I2.

When a sufficient quantity of cement has been deposited in the space l2 to form a sealing ring therein, the operation of the pumping means 50 is stopped and the string of drill pipe 43 is rotated to bring the aperture 41 therein into registry with the passage 48 in the head piece 46. Fresh water is then pumped through the flexible tubing 49 for the purpose of cleaning out the interior of the string of drill pipe 43 and removing any excess cement therefrom.

The reduced pressure in the chamber I5 permits the coil spring I! to restore the piston I6 to its uppermost position, thereby reducing the oil pressure in the bore 20. When this occurs a force of considerable magnitude is applied to the perforating and injecting means 26 and 26' by the pressure of the fluid contained in the bore hole I0, which force results in the withdrawal of the perforating and injecting means 26 and 26' from the casing II and into their normal positions, as shown in Fig. 2. If the punches described below on the perforating and injecting means 26 and 26' jam in the well casing I I, as will usually occur; the punches remain in the well casing I I and the remaining parts of the perforating and injecting means 26 and 26 take the positions shown in Fig. 4.

As shown in greater detail in Fig. 2 the punch 36' is provided with a conical forward portion 5 I an intermediate portion 52' which is slightly smaller in diameter than the greatest diameter of the conical portion 5| and a rear portion 53' which diverges outwardly and abuts the forward end of the perforating and injecting element 26. Experience has shown that a punch of this shape has a marked tendency to become jammed in the metal casing. As a result, a relatively large force is necessary to withdraw the punch after the casing has been perforated, from one to two tons being required for a perforating pressure of about fifteen tons.

The screw 35' which secures the punch 36 to the closure member 32' is made of relatively small section and is designed to break under a tensile stress which is less than that required to withdraw the punch 36 from the casing ll. Accordingly. when a force is applied to restore the perforating and injecting means 26 to its normal position, the screw 35' will break, leaving the punch 36' jammed in the casing H, as shown in Fig. 4, forming an effective closure for preventing fluid transfer between the interior of the casing I I and the space I2 between the wall of the bore hole l and the casing H.

After the screw 35' has been broken. the perforating and injecting means 26' will return to its normal retracted position within the chamber 22', as shown in Fig. 4. Similarly. the perforating and injecting means 26 will be restored to its normal inoperative position. The body ll may then be moved to another position in the bore hole or it may be withdrawn therefrom.

Instead of using a conventional cement mixture, the sealing material might comprise a product having the property of setting by hydration. Such materials may be kept out of contact with water by the novel perforating and injecting apparatus described above and would come into contact with water only after having been injected into the space I2.

It is also possible to use as sealing materials substances which are normally solid at the temperatures usually encountered in wells, but which flow freely at higher temperatures. Lead base alloys such as mixtures of lead and tin have been found satisfactory for this purpose. Such substances can be injected into the space l2 while in the molten state and form an effective seal upon solidification by cooling.

In Figs. and 6 are illustrated a plurality of different punches which are not designed to form a closure for the perforation in the easing after the sealing material has been injected therethrough. In the embodiment shown in Fig. 5, the punch 52a is provided with a sharp conical point 531; and the sealing material is adapted to be supplied through an aperture 54 and a longitudinal passage 55 to a laterally extending passage 56 therein. By virtue of the laterally extending passage 56. a gyratory movement around the casing II is impared to the sealing material, thus forestalling an uneven distribution of sealing material about the casin H.

in Fig. 6, the punch 5'! tapers inwardly from the front to the rear so that its front diameter is slightly greater than its rear diameter. A punch of this character produces a perforation in the casing H which is similar to that produced by a perforating bullet. The sealing material passes through passages 58 in the perforating and injecting element 26 and through the space between the punch 51 and the perforation in the casing H into the space l2 between the bore hole Ill and the casing H.

The embodiment shown in Figs. 7 and 7a 1s adapted to form a closure for the perforation in the casing after the sealing material has been injected therethrough. In this embodiment, the injecting means 26 is provided with a forward closure member 60 in which is formed a centrally located aperture 6|. In the front face of the perforating and injecting means 26 is formed a cylindrical recess 62 within which is tightly fitted a cylindrical member 63 provided with a central bore 64 within which is mounted the shank 65 of a punch 66.

The rear portion of the shank 65 is externally threaded at 61 to receive a threaded conical member 68 which is very weakly secured to a rod 69 on the end of which is formed a laterally extending disk 70 for limting the longitudinal movement of the punch 66. The disk 10 is provided with one or more apertures H therein for permitting sealing material to pass from the hollow interior 3| of the perforating and injecting means 26 therethrough. The sealing material passes through the space between the aperture 6| and the rod 69 and through suitable apertures 12 and 13 formed in the cylindrical member 63 and the spaces 14 and 15 between the front face of the cylindrical member 63 and the rear face of the punch 66.

When the injection of the sealing material has been accomplished and force is applied to the perforating and injecting element 26 to withdraw it from the casing II, the cylindrical member 63 becomes disengaged from the recess 62 and the weak connection between the conical member 66 and the rod 69 is broken, leaving the cylindrical member 63 tightly jammed within the perforation in the casing II as shown in Fig. To. It will be seen that the elements shown in Fig. 7a form a valve which serves as a closure for preventing fluid flow between the interior of the casing H and the space I2 between the wall of the bore hole I 0 and the casing H.

In Fig. 8 the punch, which otherwise works in the same way as that shown on Figs. 2-3 and 4. comprises a triangular point I45 in front. which continues by flats I46, and it is slightly conical at the back I41. It is screwed to the end of screw 35', which is slidably fitted inside a passage contained in the closure member 32' similar to that in Figs. 2-3 and 4, the screw 35 being however longer than in the embodiments mentioned above, so that the punch can perforate the casing completely and allow the cement arriving by apertures 33' to flow around its outer surface (Fig. 8a). As is seen on Fig. 8b, during the return stroke of the perforating and cementing means, the punch returning through the hole which it has perforated jams there due to its conical portion I41 and the contraction of the metal constituting the well casing ll. Screw 35 breaks, as in the preceding case, while the punch plugs the hole which it has perforated.

The punch shown in Figs. 9, 9a and 9b is similar to that shown in Figs. 8, 8a and 8b, but it is formed of two parts I48 and I49 both screwed on screw 35', whose weak point is located at the joining of these two parts. When the closure member 32' returns to its normal position. the shaft breaks at this point and only the front part I48 of the punch remains jammed in the casing, while the rear portion is carried back by the perforating and injecting means. This device has the following advantage: after the operation, no part of the punch protrudes inside the casing.

In Figs. 10, 10a and 10b has been shown also a detachable punch I50, which is carried by the perforating and injecting means I5I by means of a flange I52. Both the punch and the perforatin and injecting means are provided with a central passage I53 for the cement. Inside this passage. a screw I54 having at its front end a valve head I55 is attached by its rear portion to the perforating and injecting means by a nut I56 containing apertures I57 permitting the free passage of the cement. Punch I50 perforates a hole in the casing and jams there, being held in front by shoulders I58 and behind by teeth I59 Fig. a). The cement can then flow out through passage I53. During the return stroke of the perforating and injecting means, valve I55 jams inside punch I50 (Fig. 10b) while shaft I54 breaks at its weak point.

The perforating and injecting apparatus shown in Fig. 11 of the drawings is designed to be lowered into the bore hole on a conventional electrical cable of the type used in electrical well logging operations, for example. In this embodiment. the apparatus comprises a hollow cylindrical member I6 threadedly secured to a body 'II, forming a chamber 18 within which a piston I9 is slidably mounted. Above the piston I9 is disposed a quantity of gas 80 under relatively high pressure and below the piston I9 is contained the sealing material BI.

Within the body I1 is formed a laterally extending open-ended chamber 82, the mouth of which is internally threaded at 83 to receive an externally threaded guide member 84 having a bore 85 formed therein. slidably mounted within the bore 85 is a barrel 86 having a centrally located bore 81 and a flange 88 of relatively large diameter at its forward end. The barrel 86 is provided with a laterally extending flange 89 at its rear end which limits its movement within the bore 85. The barrel 86 is normally retained in the retracted position by means of a pair of coil springs 90 and SI which are attached to the body 11 at the points 92 and 93 respectively, and to the flange 88 at the points 94 and 95 respectively.

Between the chamber I8 and the chamber 82 is a passage 96 which is closed at its upper end by a suitable closure means 91 for preventing the sealing material 8I from passing therethrough. is disposed a bullet 98 which is adapted to pierce the closure means 91 to release the sealing material BI as described in greater detail below.

Within the chamber 82 is disposed a charge of powder 99 which is adapted to be ignited by the passage of current through a filament I08, one end of which is connected to the body I1 at the point IOI and the other end of which is connected through a conductor I02 and a switch I03 to one terminal of a source of current I04, the other terminal of which is grounded at the point I05 at the surface of the earth.

Beneath the chamber 82 and communicating therewith by a passag I05a is a second chamber 82 and associated apparatus for firing a projectile I06 through the casing II at a point located about 180 away from the perforation made by the projectile I06. Corresponding parts in the lower firing apparatus are designated by primed reference characters. In practice a plurality of firing apparatuses spaced about the circumference of the body 11 will be used. For the sake of simplicity, however, only two are shown in Fig. 11.

In operation, projectiles I06 and I06 are In the lower portion of the passage 96 placed in the rear portions of the bores 81 and 81 in the barrels 86 and 86 and the body I1 is lowered into the casing II by means of a cable I06a. When the body 11 has been lowered to the depth where it is desired to effect a sealing operation, the switch I03 is closed, causing current to pass through the filaments I00 and I00 and igniting the charges of powder 98 and 99 in the chambers 82 and 82'. The force of the explosion projects the bullets I06 and I06 through the bores 81 and 87 in the barrels 86 and 86' and through the casing II as shown in Fig. 11a.

At the same time the force of the explosive gases drives the bullet 98 through the closure means 91 whereupon the pressure of the gas acting through the piston I9 forces the sealing material 8I through the passage 96. the chamber 82 and the bore 81 in the barrel 86 into the space I2 between the wall of the bore hole I0 and the casing I I. It will be noted that the pressure of the sealing material in the chamber 82 will force the flange 88 on the barrel 86 into engagement with the casing II against the force exerted by the coil springs and 9I, thus preventing leakage of the sealing material into the casing II or the seepage of water from within the casing I I into the space I 2. Sealing material will also pass through the passage I05a to the chamber 82 whence it will be forced through the bore 81 in the barrel 86 into the space I2 at another location.

In this embodiment, special means is provided for releasing the gas 80 when the sealing operation is completed, in order to disengage the flanges 88 and 88' on the barrels 86 and 86 from the casing II. This means comprises a head piece I01 within which is formed a longitudinally extending deadend passage I08. The head piece I0! is mechanically weakened slightly below the upper end of the passage I08 as shown at I09 in Fig. 11 and the cable I06a upon which the apparatus is lowered into the bore hole is secured thereto in any conventional manner. The head piece I0! is enclosed within a cylindrical casing H0 in the upper surface of which is formed an aperture III which is smaller in diameter than the diameter of the head piece I01. In the walls of the casing III] are formed a plurality of passages II2 communicating with the liquid within the bore hole I0.

At the conclusion of a sealing operation, the flanges 88 and 88 on the barrels 86 and 86 are in effect locked to the casing I I, so that the body 11 cannot move. Hence, if sumcient tension is applied to the cable I06a, it will break off the head piece I01 at the weakened portion I09, permitting the gas 80 in the chamber 18 to escape through the passage I08, the passages H2 and the liquid in the bore hole I0 to the surface of the earth. The tension in the coil springs 90, BI, 90 and- 9| is made sufficient to restore the barrels 86 and 86' to the normal retracted position when this occurs.

In Figs. 12 and 12a of the drawings is shown a modification of the apparatus shown in Fig. 11 in which two ingredients of the sealing material may be stored separately and mixed together at the time of injection into the space I2. This modification comprises a body II4 having a cylindrical chamber II5 formed therein within which a piston H6 is slidably mounted. The piston H6 is normally maintained in its uppermost position by means of a coil spring N1, the upper end of which engages the lower face of the piston H6 and the lower end of which is seated in the bottom of the chamber H5.

Above the piston H6 is located a conventional type cartridge I I8 which is adapted to be ignited by means of a filament H9, one end of which is grounded to the body H4 at the point I and the other end of which is connected to the conductor I02 in the cable I06a.

The chamber H5 communicates at its lower extremity with a passage I2I which in turn communicates with a laterally extending chamber I22 formed in the body H4. The chamber I22 has an openin at one end thereof to receive a cylindrical perforating and injecting means I23 provided with a circumferential groove I24 in the rear portion thereof in which is disposed suitable packing material I25 for providing a tight joint. The perforating and injecting means I23 is of the type shown in Fig. 5 and it is provided with a laterally extending passage I26 communicating with a longitudinal passage I21 which in turn communicates with two laterally extending passages I28 and I29 formed in the perforating and injecting means I23. The lower portion of the chamber H5, the passage I2I and the rear portion of the chamber I22 are filled with a pressure transmitting fluid such as oil, which transmits pressure from the piston H6 to the perforating and injecting means I23.

Below the chamber I22 and communicating therewith through a passage I2Ia is a second chamber I22 having a perforating and injecting means I23 slidably mounted therein. The apparatus associated with the perforating and injecting means I23 is like that described above in connection with the perforating means I23 and corresponding parts have been designated by primed reference numerals.

When the perforating and injecting means I23 and I23 are in the normal retracted position, the passages I28 and I29, and I28 and I29 are closed, but when they are moved into the perforating position as shown in Fig. 12a, the passages I28 and I29 register with corresponding passages I30 and I3I and the passages I28 and I29 with the corresponding passages I30 and I3I formed in the lower portion of the body H4. The lower portion of the body H4 is externally threaded at I32 to receive a conventional type bailer I33 which includes an outer cylindrical casing I34 threadedly secured to the body H4, into the lower end of which is threaded a plug I35. Within the casing I34 is formed a second casing I36 which extends from the plug I to the bottom of the body I I4 in the vicinity of the passage I30. An annular piston I31 is slidably mounted within the casing I34 and a second piston I38 is slidably mounted within the casing I36. Within the plug I35 are formed a pair of passages I39 and I40 which communicate with the interiors of the casings I36 and I34, respectively. The two ingredients comprising the sealing material are placed above the pistons I 31 and I38 respectively, in the casings I34 and I36 respectively.

The top of the casing I I is closed off by means of a closure member I4I provided with a suitable stuffing box I42 which permits the cable I06 to be raised and lowered within the casing I I. The flexible tubing 49, which supplies fluid under pressure from the pumping means is connected to a suitable inlet I 43 in the closure member MI and a conventional pressure indicating instrument I44 is provided for indicating the pressure of the liquid within the casing II.

In operation, the body H4 is lowered to the approximate depth where the seal is to be made and is brought to rest at that position. The switch I03 is then closed, supplying current to the filament H9 and igniting the cartridge H8. The explosive gases created by the ignition of the cartridge H8 move the piston H6 downwardly against the force of the coil spring I I1, increasing the pressure of the oil contained in the chamber II5, the passage I2I and the chambers I22 and I22, and forcing the perforating and injecting elements I23 and I23 through the casing II, as shown in Fig. 12a. This brings the passages I28 and I29 in the perforatin and injecting element I23 into registry with the passages I30 and I3I, respectively, and the passages I28 and I29 in the element I23 into registry with the passages I30 and I3I respectively.

Pressure is now applied to the liquid in the bore hole by means of the pumping means 50 at the surface of the earth. This forces the liquid within the casing II through the apertures I39 and I40 in the plug I35 and against the pistons I38 and I31, respectively, moving them upwardly and forcing the respective ingredients of the sealing material contained in the casings I36 and I34, respectively, through the passages I30 and I3I, respectively, in the body I I4 through the passages I28 and I29, respectively, in the perforating and injecting means I23. From thence, the sealing material flows through the passage I21 in the perforating and injecting means I23 and out of the passage I26 into the space I2 between the wall of the bore hole I 0 and the casing II.

In smilar fashion, sealing material is forced through the passages I30 and I3I, respectively, and the passages I28 and I29, respectively, to the passage I21 in the perforating and injecting means I23. This may be continued until the pistons I38 and I31 have reached their uppermost limits of travel, which event will be indicated by an increase of pressure at the pressure indicating instrument I44.

In order to retract the perforating and injecting elements I23 and I23 from the casing II it is necessary to release the powder gases from the chamber H5. This is done by applying tension to the cable I060, to break the head piece I01, thereby permitting the powder gases to escape through the passage I08 and the passages H2 to the liquid in the casing II. This permits the coil spring H1 to restore the piston H6 to its normal position, releasing the pressure on the oil contained in the chamber I22 and I22 and permitting the perforating and injecting elements I23 and I23 to be withdrawn into their normal retracted positions by the pressure of the fluid in the bore hole I0.

For the sake of simplicity, only two perforating and injecting means I23 and I23 have been shown in Fig. 12 and described above. In actual practice, there may be a plurality of such perforating and injecting means disposed about the circumference of the body H4, each being actuated by the oil in the chamber H5, and each adapted to receive the sealing material ingredicuts from the casings I36 and I34.

The apparatus described above in connection with Fig. 12 enables a sealing material to be employed which comprises two or more substances which, when mixed, tend to harden rapidly. For example, a cement which sets relatively slowly might be placed above the piston I31 in the casing I34 and another substance such as, for example,

sodium silicate, which when added to cement causes it to harden rapidly, might be placed above the piston I38 in the casing I36. In similar fashion, liquid latex and an acid might be used as the ingredients of the sealing material since they tend to produce a relatively solid substance when mixed together. Other suitable sealing materials will readily suggest themselves to those skilled in the art and they need not be set forth herein.

In Figs. 13 and 13a is shown a modification of the apparatus shown in 12 and 12a, comprising a special device for controlling the return stroke of the perforating and injecting means.

Punch I60 and perforating and injecting means IEI are similar to those shown in Figs. 7, 8 and 9, that is to say that the punch is adapted to jam in the casing when the perforating and injecting means returns to its normal position, so as to plug the hole previously perforated by this punch. The special device for controlling the return stroke of the perforating and injecting means comprises a chamber I62. of appropriate and rather large dimensions, provided in the body of the apparatus, above the powder combustion chamber H5. The pressure inside said chamber I62 is very low (atmospheric pressure for ex ample) in relation to the pressure inside the bore hole. To obtain this result the chamber is tightly closed before the apparatus is lowered in the bore hole. For controlling the return stroke of the injecting means, this chamber is brought into communication with the powder combustion chamber. In this way the combustion gases then expand in the said chamber until a pressure is reached which is much lower than the pressure of the mud inside the bore hole. At this moment, due to this difference of pressure, the perforating and injecting means I6I is thrust inside chamber I22 carrying with it punch I60 which jams in the casing. The shaft of the punch then breaks, and the perforating and injecting means continuing its movement returns completely inside chamber I22 (see Fig. 13a).

The device for bringing chamber II into communication with chamber I62 may be of any type. In the figure, shaft, I63 which is attached to the supporting cable [060. comprises a weak point I64 and is chambered out in its centre I65. The upper end of said shaft I63 goes through a flange I66, integral with a plate I61 which closes the upper part of the chamber I62, said upper end being located underneath another chamber I68, communicating with the inside of the well through holes I69. A rubber sleeve I tightly joins shaft I63 and flange I66. After the perforation followed by cementing, which is brought about by the ignition of the powder in chamber II5, the device is brought back to its normal position by means of strong traction on the cable, which has the effect of breaking shaft I63 at the level of the weak point I64. This brings chamber II5 into communication with chamber I62 by means of passage I65 and the perforating and injecting means then returns to its normal position as indicated above. The apparatus remains held by the cable by means of the upper end of shaft I63 abutting against the cover I'II of the apparatus.

It will be apparent from the foregoing that the invention provides novel apparatus for producing a highly effective seal economically and in a short space of time. By virtue of the fact that the sealing material is injected through the same means which perforates the casing, sealing operations may be carried out more rapidly and with greater case than has been possible heretofore.

The several specific embodiments described above are intended to be illustrative and not restrictive of the invention. Those embodiments are obviously susceptible of numerous changes 7 in form and detail within the scope of the appended claims.

I claim:

1. Apparatus for perforating a bore hole casing comprising a body adapted to be lowered into a bore hole casing, said body having a longitudinally extending chamber therein terminating in a chamber of reduced diameter, means forming a plurality of laterally extending bores in the body and communicating with said chamber of reduced diameter, casing piercing means slidably mounted in each of said bores initially in retracted position, a pressure transmitting fluid in said chamber of reduced diameter, piston means having a larger working surface slidably mounted in said first chamber and a smaller working surface slidably mounted in said chamber of reduced diameter above the pressure transmitting fluid, spring means for normally maintaining said piston means at the top of its stroke, and means for applying downward pressure to the larger working surface of said piston means to actuate said casing piercing means.

2. Apparatus for sealing off the space between the wall of a bore hole and its casing comprising a body adapted to be lowered into a bore hole on a string of pipe, said body having a longitudinally extending chamber therein communicating at one end with the interior of said pipe and terminating at its other end in a chamber of reduced diameter, means forming a plurality of laterally extending bores in said body and communicating with said chamber of reduced diameter, casing piercing means slidably mounted in each of said bores, each of said casing piercing means being closed at its inner end and having a conduit therein opening outwardly at its outer end, piston means having a larger working surface slidably mounted in said first chamber and a smaller working surface slidably mounted in said chamber of reduced diameter, a pressure transmitting fluid in said chamber of reduced diameter below the piston means, each of the said casing piercing means having an opening in the side Wall of its conduit near its inner end, conduit means in the body adapted to establish communication between said first mentioned chamber and the side wall opening conduits in said casing piercing means when the said casing piercing means and the piston means have reached the respective outer and downward limits of their respective strokes, and means for supplying sealing material under pressure through said drill pipe to said first mentioned chamber to actuate said piston and said casing piercing means.

3. Apparatus for sealing off the space between the wall of a bore hole and its casing comprising a body adapted to be lowered into a bore hole and having a plurality of laterally extending bores therein each terminating rearwardly in a powder chamber, a tubular member slidably mounted in each of said bores and having a laterally extending flange at the forward end thereof adapted to fit snugly against the interior wall of the casing, spring means for retaining said tubular members normally in retracted position, a projectile in each of said tubular members, a chamber in said body having sealing material therein, means for applying pressure to said sealing material, conduit means in said body, connecting said chamber and said powder chambers, frangible closure means for said conduit means, means for firing said projectiles through the casing, and means for breaking said closure means to render it ineffective when one of said projectiles is fired.

4. Apparatus for sealing oil the space between the wall of a bore hole and its casing comprising a body adapted to be lowered into a bore hole and having a plurality of laterally extending bores therein each terminating rearwardly in a powder chamber, a tubular member slidably mounted in each of said bores and having a laterally extending flange at the forward end thereof adapted to fit snugly against the interior wall of the casing, spring means for retaining said tubular members normally in retracted position, a projectile in each of said tubular members, a chamber in said body and having a piston therein, sealing material disposed on one side of said piston, a body of fluid under pressure on the other side of said piston, conduit means in said body, connecting said sealing material and said powder chambers, frangible closure means for said conduit means, means for firing said projectiles through the casing, and means for breaking said closure means to render it inefiective when one of said projectiles is fired.

5. In apparatus for use in bore holes, which apparatus includes a body suspended in the bore hole on a cable, said body having a chamber therein and being adapted to be secured at a given level in the bore hole, means for providing communication between said chamber and the bore hole, comprising a member having a deadend passage therein communicating with said chamber, said member being secured to said cable and having a mechanically weakened portion adapted to be broken on upon the application of tension to the cable, and means on the body for maintaining the connection between the body and the cable after said mechanically weakened portion has been broken off.

6. Apparatus for sealing off the space between the wall of a bore hole and its casing, comprising a body adapted to be lowered into the casing, said body havirm a longitudinally extending chamber therein communicating with a plurality of laterally extending bores, casing piercing means in each of said bores, each having a conduit therethrough, a pressure transmitting fluid in said chamber, means for applying pressure to said fluid to actuate said casing piercing means, a plurality of separate compartments in the body for storing ingredients of a sealing material, means for applying pressure to the ingredients in said compartments, and conduit means in the body for permitting the passage of said sealing material ingredients to the conduits in said casing piercing means when the latter have pierced the casing.

'7. Apparatus for sealing off the space between the wall of a bore hole and its casing, comprising a body adapted to be lowered into the casing, said body having a longitudinally extending chamber therein communicating with a plurality of laterally extending bores, casing piercing means in each of said bores, each having a conduit therethrough, a pressure transmitting fluid in said chamber, piston means in said chamber adapted to apply pressure to said fluid, a powder charge for actuating said piston means, electrical means for igniting said powder charge, a source of electrical current at the surface of the earth, and an electrical circuit connected to said source and electrical igniting means.

8. In apparatus for sealing oil the space between the wall of a bore hole and its casing, the combination of a body adapted, to be lowered into the casing, said body having at least one laterally extending bore therein, means forming an aperture in the side wall of said bore, casing piercing means in said bore and having a conduit extending therethrough and communicating with an aperture formed in the side wall thereof, said aperture in the casing piercing means being adapted to register with said aperture in the wall of the bore when the casing piercing means has reached the end of its stroke, and means for supplying sealing material to said aperture in the wall of the bore.

9. Apparatus for sealing oil the space between a bore hole and its casing, comprising a body adapted to be lowered into a bore hole and having at least one bore therein, casing piercing means disposed in said bore and having a conduit therethrough, means for actuating said casing piercing means to cause it to penetrate the casing, and means, independent of said actuating means, for supplying sealing material through said conduit in the casing piercing means into said space, said independent supply means being inoperative until the casing piercing means has penetrated the casing.

10. Apparatus for sealing off the space between a bore hole and its casing, comprising a body adapted to be lowered into a bore hole, and having at least one bore therein, casing piercing means disposed in said bore and having a conduit therethrough, means for actuating said casing piercing means to cause it to penetrate the casing, and means independent of said actuating means for supplying sealing material from the surface of the earth through said conduit in the casing piercing means into said space, said independent supply means being inoperative until the casing piercing means has penetrated the casing.

11. Apparatus for sealing oil the space between a bore hole and its casing, comprising a body adapted to be lowered into a bore hole and having a chamber and at least one bore therein, sealing material in said chamber, casing piercing means disposed in said bore and having a conduit extending therethrough, means for actuating said casing piercing means to cause it to penetrate the casing, and means independent of said actuating means for supplying sealing material from said chamber through said conduit in the casing piercing means into said space, said independent supplying means being inoperative until the casing piercing means has penetrated the casing.

12. In apparatus for sealing off the space between the wall of a bore hole and its casing, the combination of a body adapted to be lowered into the casing on a string of pipe, said body having at least one laterally extending bore therein, means forming an aperture in the side wall of said bore, casing piercing means slidably mounted in said bore and closed at its outer end and having a conduit therein opening outwardly at its outer end and communicating with an aperture formed in the side wall thereof, said aperture in the casing piercing means being adapted to register with said aperture in the wall of the bore when the casing piercing means has reached the outer end of its stroke, conduit means in said body communicating with said string of pipe and said aperture in the wall of the bore, and pumping means at the surface for supplying sealing material under pressure through said string of pipe.

13. In apparatus for perforating the casing of a well, a reciprocable carriage, means adapted to drive said carriage toward the casing, and to retract said carriage from the casing, a punch secured to the forward end of the carriage by a frangible connection, said punch piercing the casing to form a perforation in the casing, when the carriage is driven toward the casing, and being disengaged from the carriage, the said connection being fractured, when the carriage is retracted from the casing, the punch forming a closure for the perforation.

14. Apparatus for injecting material through perforations in the casing of a well into the space between the wall of the well and the casing, comprising at least one punch for piercing at least one perforation in said casing, a reciprocating carriage for said punch to which said punch is secured by a frangible connection, means adapted to reciprocate said carriage so that said carriage is tightly applied against the wall of said casing, the punch piercing the casing to make th perforation, while the piercing operation is being performed, means for supplying the material through the said perforation to the said space, said means for reciprocating said carriage being also adapted for retracting said carriage after the injecting operation, said punch being disengaged from said carriage, the frangible connection being fractured when the carriage is retracted from the casing, the punch forming a closure for the perforation.

MARCEL SCHLUMBERGER.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification166/55.1, 166/165, 175/2, 166/300, 166/285, 166/290, 166/100, 175/72, 166/169
International ClassificationE21B43/112, E21B43/11, E21B33/14, E21B33/13
Cooperative ClassificationE21B43/112, E21B33/14
European ClassificationE21B43/112, E21B33/14