US 2382280 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug-14, 1945. w IM. ALUSON PISTON AND CRANKSHAFT ARRANGEMET y CYLINDER,
AFiled Dec. 2a, 1940 4 Sheets-sheet 1` n O .s .h .Rw me my mv ,ww w
WITN 5555 n ATTORNEYS Aug., .14, 1945. l
W. M. ALLISON CYLINDER, PISTON AND` GRANKSHAFT ARRANGEMENT Filed Dec. 728,` 1940 4 she'es--Shee 2 Y ATTORNEYS w. M. ALLls'ON Aug. 1'4, 1945.v
Filed Dec. 28, 19404 CYLINDER, PISTON VAND CRANKSHAFT ARRANGEMENT Wson W BY w'TNEssEs ATTORNEYS Aug. 14, i1945. w. M. ALLisoN V 2,382,280
CYLINDER, PISTON AND CRANKSHA'FT ARRNGEM-ENT' i 4 sheetsshet 4 Filed Dec. 28, 1940 I INVENTOR t wilson MaJ/ne Willson BY Wyk? Patented Aug. 14, 1945 l CYLINDER,
assazs e P1s'roN,ANnoRANKsHAFT ABRANGEMENT Wilson Mayne Allison, Knockshegowna, Swinburne, F. S., Union of South Africa f Application December 28, 1`940,`Seria1 No. 372,134 In the Union of South Africa January 2, 1940 This invention relates to a new and-improved cylinder'andpiston arrangement and its" relation to 'the 4crank pin member assembly adapted for the development of power for anypurpose as, for example, prime movers` or pumps. Y
An object ofthe invention is to provide means tor operating. pistons and the cylinders cooperating with them relative toaJ rotational mass, such as a flywheel -or crank pin carrying member, in :such a mannerthat the pistons and cylinders have differing'rotational or `fundamentally rotational paths .which cause alternating increasing and decreasing volumetric capacities between the cylinder heads and piston crowns.
It is the purpose of this invention to. provide means whereby suchdiffering volumetric capacities'` are useful in a1n7f,man`"nery offpuniiziingy or prime mover operations' which require variable volume sequence; j i
`It is therefore an object of this invention to providea mechanism in which the loadingdue to recprocatory masses is reduced to a minimum.
mission 4ofthe `airfcharge.
A further object is toprovidea mechanism in y which :the rotation of the cylinder assembly combined with the rotationof the crank pin assembly in different planesgi'ves a smooth and continuous motion with the least-amount of resistance` due to the forces of inertia. 'A
Affurther object is to. provide a mechanism of the type described in which the crankpins being evenly spaced eliminate torsional strain or vibra` tion and which permitthe use of ball or rollertype bearings on saidrcrank pins. f
It is a furtherobject "to producel a mechanism in which the angle of thrust from the piston remains in `the'range of usable pressures longer, and in which the conversion `of gas pressure to torque is an improvement overthe present crank mechanism. I i A l A further object is to provide amechanism having inherent fundamentals of designl which may .be calculated for the 'most advantageous angles of thrust to give al longer stroke-to-bore ratio, .and in which when applied td compression ignition work, where pressure is 'very high forl a given volumetric capacity per cylinder, the piston area, due to the longer stroke-to-bore ratio, may be less than in prior devices, thus reducing the pressure on `connecting-rod bearings and `bearings throughout the mechanism.` f
A further object is to provide` a mechanism in which, when operated as a two-cycle engine with ported cylinders, thecentrifugal force due tothe rotation of the assemblies will assist in exhaust scavenging, and jwhichin two-cyclefoperation may use rotation of .the cylinder assembly `around the central lspindle as `a rotary 'valve for the ad- `Otherobjects and advantages lie in the ability to use a single-foam for fuel'pump operation 'providing accurate means of controlling the required amount'of fuel to individual cylinders with the elimination of l piping 'under injection pressures. Moreover, .thecentrifug'al force developed :by "the cylinder lassembly can fb'e used in aliquidcdoled engine to maintain circulation. l
A furtlierfobjectv is to provide La mechanism which, in addition `to thegimprovement of `the angle of thrust, provides means in the fuel injection engine whereby, due to the fall-backof the connecting rods while the 'piston approachs topfdead center; vthe speed of the piston'isyre duced and the injectionoffuel may boundartaken through a" smaller'angle of rotation, thus avoiding the danger of undesirable pressures.
In addition to the foregoing objects, it is'one ofthe purposes of this "invention to provide a mechanism in `which` thellayout gives the maxiL mum 'of volumetric capacity the `minirinim of frontal area, 'and at the -salme time greater accessibility ltothe r'noving parts` l vOther objects and advantageslwill appear as `the description proceeda and itwill become apparent that Whether my inventionis `adapted to a pump or to a, .prime lmover the same basic principle is involved.` Itiwill benoted that twolprii mary axes vforrotation are' involvedi rIlhismay take the form of :a .single spindle bent upon itself or `separate Amembers componently constructed. A predetermination ofthe angle between `the `carrierspind1e andthe cylinder or central spindie must be `governed by `certain'considerations l :into which the cylinder assembly spindle is iittd. i
ofthe bore-toestrokefratio -of thej pistons, but, generally speaking, -the greatest efficiency will be secured when the two` spindles form anobtuse .angle as near as'possible `to `a right angle? f It be appreciated that,` dueto the size of the Aconnecting rodsand the necessity `for `pins` to carrythe connecting rods and other mechanical factors, itis not feasible to'moilnt the'l cylinder assembly and :crank pin carrier at absolute right angles. 1
In the simplerlfofmlof my invention the 'e'yiinder assembly `is ofthe `barrel rotary type in which 4each cylinder bore is; parallel to thebore However, this is not an essential feature, and it `will belnoted that in certainfembodiments 'of my invention, Aforreasons which will `be` discussed later, the cylinders are mounted 'inthe bore at a OPE-ICE 23 and 24.
predetermined angle to the bore of the cylinder assembly. Means are provided to synchromze the rotation ofthe cylinder assembly with the rotation of the crank pin carrier. These means may be used to transmit power to` and operate the accessories necessary to the functioning of the unit in accordance with the purposes for which it is used. The basic principle involved may be applied to many types of prime movers whether operated by ignition combustion, compression combustion, or compressed air, and Y either end, that is, from a shaft connected by 'suitable gearing, or other means to the crank pin carrier or from the cylinder-carrying tube.
In the accompanying drawings which illustrate certain embodiments of my invention- Fig. 1 is a side elevation of an assembly employing cylinders, pistons, crank pin carrier and connecting rods, and synchronization of crank pin carrier and cylinder assembly;
Fig. 2 illustrates a modified type of connecting rod;
Fig. 3 is a View of two units embodying my invention' connected to a common drive shaft;
Fig. 4 is a cross-sectional view, `taken on the line 4 4 of Fig. 6, showing the application of my principle to a 'compression ignition four-cycle engine;
Fig. 5 is a detailed view of the reduction gearing used to operate the motor accessories;
Fig. 6 is a cross-sectional view of a four-cycle motor, taken on the line 6 6 of Fig. 4;
Fig. '1 is a cross-sectional View, taken on the line 1-1 of Fig. 4;
Fig. 8 is a cross-sectional view,'taken on the line 8-8 of Fig. 4.
In'Figs. 4 and 6'the rear cylinders have been omitted'from the drawings for the purposes of clarity and in order to avoid confusion.
Referring to Fig. 1, I provide a spindle I0 which is formed in an obtuse angle YII having an upper portion I2 and a lower portion I3. Mounted on the upper portionk I2 is a cylinder-bearing sleeve I4 including the cylinders I5 and I6. Mounted on Vthe lower Vportion I3.is a crank pin carrier member I1 which may engage with or merge into a drive shaft I8.
For the purposes of synchronizing the crank pin carrier and the cylinder assembly 20, a ring gear 2l is mounted on the lower portion of the cylinder assembly and engages a similar gear 22'on the crank pin carrier. It will be understood that both the cylinder assembly and the crank pin carrier rotate around their respective axes, the
cylinder assembly around the spindle portion I2 and the crank pin carrier around-the spindle portion I3.
'Working inthe cylinders VI5 and I6 are pistons The piston 23is provided with a connecting rod 2.5 which is'pivotally connected with the crank pin 26. A similar connectingrod 21 connects with the crank pin 28. The crank pins 26 and 28 are mounted in the carrier I1 for rotation therein and are provided with suitable bearings 29. The crank pin carrier -I1 may be made of suicient weight to act as a flywheel. As the unit rotates, the crank pin carrier I1 revolves in one plane, the cylinder assembly 20 rotates in another plane, while the pistons operate in a basically diagonal plane, with the result that the position of the pistons with relation to the cylinder varies from the top to the bottom` upon this rotation. Itwill be appreciated that Where the-unit is used as a pump, suitable valves may be installed, and where used as a prime mover, apparatus such as will be hereinafter described, will also be provided.
In some instances where the angles of movement on the connecting rod are relatively small, a bearingless connection may be made between the piston and the crank pin, as shown in Fig. 2. where the piston 30 is iixedly connected to the flexible connecting rod 3| and to the crank pin 32. The connecting rod 3| is relatively thin in cross section and will have suicient exibility and spring to prevent jamming. It will be seen in this construction, as shown in Fig. 1, that the pistons operate in the cylinder with a minimum of side thrusts and thata long stroke-to-bore ratio is possible due to the relative positions and motion of the crank pin carrier and the cylinder assembly. A variation of the angle II will create a diierence in the'bore-to-stroke ratio, as will also a variation of the pitch circle centers of the spindle I IJ and the cylinders I5 and I6. A further va'riation of bore-to-stroke ratio may be brought about by1 giving the cylinders angularity, that is, by mounting them'at an angle to the bore of the spindle. It will also be seen thatA the construction provides possibilities of design in the casing 33 whereby With the removal of the door 34 the various moving parts are readily accessible for' repair or adjustment.
In the modification," shown in Figs. 4, 5, 6, '1 and 8, the principles apply to a compression combustion four-cylinder four-cycle motor. In this construction the spindles40 4and 4I may be of a single piece or joined together by the elbow 42 or vmay be built up or formed of a number of pieces. The cylinder assembly 43 is mounted upon the spindle 4I which is hollow, for 'the purposes hereinafter described. Four cylinders, A, B, C and D, are provided.`A The cylinders are each providedwith a piston 45 and a connecting rod 46 which is pivotally mounted at 41 to a pin 48, in turn pivotally mounted in the sockets 49, so that the relationshiplof the connecting rod with the piston is such that movement in any direction is possible. It will be noted that the cylinders A, B, C and Dare mounted at a slight angle to the spindle 4I which allows the connecting rod a slight fall-back in operation, which causes the piston to approach the top of the cylinder at a slightly decreased speed.
For the purpose of synchronizing the cylinder assembly and the crank pin carrier on the assembly, I provide a'hub 50 at the bottom of the cylinder assembly 43 which carries a beveled gear 5I. The beveled gear 5I engages a ring gear 52 mounted on the sleeve 53 and is axed thereto by the key 54. Also mounted on the sleeve 53 is a planetary gear mount 55 afxed to the sleeve by the key 56 and carrying the'planetary gears 51. Mounted on the sleeve 58 and affixed' to the spindle 4I) by the key 59 is an annulus 60 which engages the outer teeth of the planetary gears 51. The inner teeth 'of the planetary gears 51 c arcoolingfmedium is introduced througlrwthe pipe engage the teethGI on-'the ring "sun pinion 62 i which is afxed to the `inner portion litt ofthe crank pin carrier 61|.. `A`plate sleeve`|55I is bolted tothe inner section of the crank pin carrierl and extends along the spindle 40where it may be bolted to the drive shaftv 66 and held by the sleeve |571.` The crank ypin carrier 64@ carries crank pins T mounted for rotationinsuitable bearings II andhaving a pivot I2 "attheir outer endsto engagev the` connecting rod '4 at 13.-
A section of the; spindle` 4I is provided with teeth 80'- which engage the gears. 8|?. The'gears 8| are mounted on the same shaftwithf the gears 82r in the cylinder assemblyv andi-are keyed thereto. The gears 82 engage teeth 83 on the `sleeve 84= mounted onthe spindle 4| `te rotate said` sleeve at a ratio of one-to-twoto `the rotation. 'of 4the cylinder assembly. Mountefdon the sleevef84`is a ring 85 having high points 86 adapted to operate the air intake valves ofthe cylinders. intake valves 81 are provided for each cylinder. These valves are mounted on the section 88 of the cylinder assembly and are provided with springs 80 which keep them normally closed. The valve rod 90 has a tappet 0I which is engaged by the high point 86 of the cam to open the valve on the air intake stroke of the cylinder.
Fuel injectors 95 are mounted in the cylinder heads and are operated by a c am 96 mounted on the ring III on the internally threaded sleeve H2. The sleeve 84 and the internally threaded sleeve H2 are provided with sharply pitched threads H3. The sleeve H2 performs the function of a fuel control and may be operated by the mechanism H4 `so that the endwise movement of the sleeve H2 will determine the extent to which the cam 96 will operate the fuel injectors 95. Because of the sharply pitched threads H3 the endwise movement of the sleeve H2 will cause a relative turning of the sleeve I I 2 and therefore of the cam 96, thus keeping the `injection period synchronized. It will be noted that the mechanism H4 has a rod H5 extending into the hollow spindle engaging the rod I I6 which other end of the rocker arms engage rods |08 which are adapted to be engaged by the-high points of the cams v|09 for the cylinders A and B, and I I0 for the cylinders C and D. As shown in Figure 4, the cylinder A is about to start the power stroke and the cam 96 is engaging the fuel injector for that cylinder.
As shown in I',20'"`lnd the channel IZI" into. the `vvaiterfiacket |122. The centrifugal forcelcaus'ed'bythelrotation` of the cylinder assembly will aid 'the c'iriculation throughvthe jacket. A return` channel n|23 i'na pipe |24 is `provided to complete-1 the circulation. Whil'e I have shown a liquidlcooling system, thisispurely optionalandthecylinders c may be air-cooled'or maybe cooled byza vcombination of liquid and air. l l i 1 i Suitable bearings |25 and |26 are interposed between the cylinder' assembly and the/shaft. Other'bearingsof` the `ball and roller type* may be'interposed and used in other moving parts:- i
vThe motor casing I30is made in sections for ready accessibility to' 'all' of the moving `parts andis `proi'fidedwitlr air portsA |"3I. `By `the removal of the lower` casing'` it is. possible to geti at the pistons andfcrank'pins as well as the. crank pincarrier.
I1; win be appreciated that my invention `dis'- closes an engine fundamentally of the `rotary type `which is adaptable to either two-cycle or four-cycle operation when equipped with conventional ports or valves.
the cylinder assembly from wasting power by air churning. Due to the fact that the cylin-` c be readily adapted to a carbureted electric -ignition engine for ignition combustion.
Because of relatively large individual cylinder capacity, fuel metering is easy, and undesirable pressures due to any error in metering are reduced. The use of the single cam avoids timing errors.. For these reasons a smoother running motor is possible. It will also be apparent that the design makes possible the use of very short connecting rods relative to stroke ratiowithout detrimental side thrusts due to angu- Fig. 6., the piston of cylinder B is half way t through the intake stroke and the air valve is open. The piston of cylinder C is starting the exhaust stroke while the piston in cylinder D is half way through the exhaust stroke.`
It will be understood that the `arrangement of cylinders shown in this application is only for the purpose of clearly disclosing the invention in its most simplified form and that in actual practice an odd number of cylinders would be` used in order to get evenly spaced ring `periods where the four-cycle principle is used.
A circulation system may be provided in which larity. Centrifugal force `will assist the scavenging both on the exhaust outwardly and the transfer inwardly. The rotation of the cylinder assembly synchronized with the crank pin carrier' gives a ywheel eilect to the entire motor which is particularly desirable in compression combustion engines.`
It `will also be apparent that because of the design it' is possible to space the crank pins evenly wlth relation tol each other and in the same plane, `which results in smoother opera.-
between the cylinder assembly carrying spindle c `By` -removingfthe upper `section ofi the lcasing the valves and cylinder hneadsare` As shownV in Fig. 8, `a cylinder cover |35 may be provided to prevent 4 radiizand length of the connecting rods are predetermined to accomplish thedesired result.
- As shown in Fig. 3, a pair of motors |40 and I lll-may be joined by a common shaft |42 to a drive shaft- |43 by means of the gears |44 and injector actuating means comprising a sleeve mounted on said spindle, gear means interengaging said sleeve and spindle whereby said sleeve is retated at a predetermined rate, sharply pitched threads on said sleeves, an internally threaded sleeve 'engaging said sharply pitched threads, a cam ring on said second-mentioned sl'eeve'adapted toV engage and operate said fuel injectortappets, said cam ring having a beveled face, and means for rotating said second-mentioned sleeve with relation to .said first-mentioned sleeve whereby the extent of engagement of said cam with said tappets can be controlled. 2. Fuel injector actuating means for fuel injectors having' operating tappets, said` actuating means comprising a rotatable sleeve, gear means engaging said sleeve and rotating said sleeve at a predetermined rate, sharply pitched threads on said sleeve, `an internally threaded sleeve engagingy said sharply pitched threads, a cam ring on said second-mentioned sleeve adapted t0 engage and operate said fuel injector tappets, said camring `having a beveled face, and means for rotating said second-mentioned sleeve with relation to said first-mentioned sleeve whereby the extent of engagement of said cam with said tappets may be controlled. y
W. M. ALLISON.