|Publication number||US2383053 A|
|Publication date||Aug 21, 1945|
|Filing date||Apr 18, 1942|
|Priority date||Apr 18, 1942|
|Publication number||US 2383053 A, US 2383053A, US-A-2383053, US2383053 A, US2383053A|
|Inventors||Fanger Herman J, Henry Gruenhagen, Shaffer Cleve F|
|Original Assignee||Shaffer Cleve F, Henry Gruenhagen, Herbert W Erskine, Fanger Herman J, Martin C Mogensen|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (35), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Aug. 21, 1945. H. J. FANGER ETAL 2,383,053
MOUNTING DEVICE FOR PROJECTILES Filed April l8,-l942 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 17 Fit?! HEE Mn N U-INIZAE HENEY GRUENHAGE/V oLsve F: sMnFFs/e ArTbQMa-v Aug. 21, 1945. H. J. FANGER EI'AL ,0
MOUNTING DEVICE FOR PROJECTILES Filed April 18, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 tll 53 54 l6 "llh.
INVENTORS HEEMNN q. FAA/GE? HENRY GEUENHflGEN CLEVE F- S/MFF'EE Patented Aug. 21, 1945 UNITED; STATE s PATENT OFFICE 4 MOUNTING DEVICE FOR-PROJECTILES Herman I. Fanger and Henry GruenhagemOak- Application April is, 1942, Serial No. 439,456
adapted for drop-firing wherein there is a fixed firing pin at thebreech end of the barrel and the projectile is dropped into the discharge end'of the barrel and forcibly'conta'cts the percussion cap of an explosive charge against the fixed firing pin. However, the mode of operating with a mor tar having a manually operabl trigger ismuch to be preferred, for numerous reasons, instances of which are a more steady and certain aim, certainty of exploding the propelling charge; timing the firing, regulation of distance range, etc. Among the objects of this invention are to provide a mounting support for aproiect le especially adapted for mortar firing; to provide means to releasably hold a projectile in a downwardly inclined barrel; to provide a tight seal relative to the explosive chamber of a mortar barrel bylexplosive force of a propelling charge; to providea -mortar projectile which will maintain a' sealing means perpendicular to 'the axis of the barrel; A further object is to provide for escape of a predetermined selective amount of explosive gases of a propelling charge from the explosion chamber through the discharge end of amortar'barrel. -A further object is to'provide'means to regulatethe distance range of flight of a projectile by control of volume of exhausted gases from an explosive charge. Yet another object is to provide a support for an explosive projectile wherebyprojectilesof varying types and varying diameters maybe readily utilized in asingle mortar, and'fired or explosively propelled in the same manner as a bomb illustrated in the accompanying drawings and pointed out in the claims hereto appended, it :be-
ing understood that various changes in the form,
proportion, size, and details of construction of the apparatusrnay be resorted to within the scop of the claims without departing from the spirit or sacrificinglany' of the advantages of the invention. To more clearly comprehend the invention, reference is directed to the views of theaccompanying drawings wherein like referencechan acters indicate corresponding parts in the respective views, and in which: y
Fig. 1 is an axially longitudinal elevation partly in section and partly broken away. 1
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary perspectiveview of a portion of the structure View of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view'of a portion of structure shown in Fig. 1. Y
Fig. 4 is a lateral transverse section'on line IV IV of both Figs. 1 and 7.
Fig. 5 is a planview of a valve plate. Fig. 6 is an' enlarged fragmentary sectional'view of structure of'valve plates. Fig.7 is an axially longitudinal elevation partly in section and partly broken away, of a modified form of the invention.
Fig. 8 is aper'spective viewof a portion of the structure shownin Fig.7.
Fig. 9 is a plan view of a modified form of valve plate.
Fig. 10 is a longitudinal sectional view of a'modified form in which the invention may be embodied.
Referring to the drawings wherein like character references indicate corresponding parts in the several views, I0 indicates generally amortar barrel which is illustrated here to provide an environinent to illustrate the utility and the advantages of the invention in combination therewith.
In the patent of Cleve F. Shaffer No. 2,378,735, dated June 19, 1945, for a Grenade, there was disclosed an adapter for receiving an explosive shell, the expanding gases of which passed through perforations of the adapter and into an expansion or explosion chamber at the breech end of the mortar barrel for projecting the grenade; in the application of Cleve F. Shaffer, Ser'. No. 406,301, filed August 11, 1941, for Combination mortar, there was disclosed means for exhausting gases from the explosion chamber-at the breech end of a mortar which was adapted to use the adapter'of the aforesaid grenade application. The present application relates to the'subject matter of the'aforesaid applications-and disclosures, certain modifications being incorporated herein and provision made for a selective and controlled escapement from the muzzle end of the mortar, of theexplosive gases generated in the combustion chamher at the breech end of a mortar barrel by an explosive propelling charge or shell.
In the -ptesentdnvention. there is .zproyided a;
structurefldesignated'herein as an adapter generally indicated II, and comprised of an axially elongated body having an axially elongated. tubu-r lar central portion l2, which conveniently isinternally cylindrical, and is provided externally with axially aligned aeroguides, which are exemplified herein as radially extending elongated ,fins :3, in spaced relation circumferentially ab'out'the exterior of the cylindrical tubular portion- The tubular portion I2, more nearly adjacent its-closed as copper, it being observed that the terminal end of the skirt of the fiexible disc 33 extends slightly beyond the terminal end of the underlying skirt of the disc- 32 as beSt'$h0Wnm a/t 34 in- Fig. 6, whereby the more, flexible skirt of lthesofter sealing plate 32 may be spread radially by the explosive force of the propelling charge and make a tight sealrelative to the mortar barrel, it being obvious that the projectile body as a whole should be of slightlyiess diameter than the mortar barrel in. orderthat the'projectile may be slidably inserted in the muzzle end and slide to firing posi- .tionf'at the *breech. Having a relatively small sealing area also 'reduces friction with the barrel,
prevents-the barrel'from heating, and decreases resistance, whereby the explosive charge is more effective to propel the projectile a greater disable shape but conveniently may be elongated slots as indicated in the drawings. The opposite end I6 of the cylindrical body I2 is open and is adapted to receive an explosive shell ll, or other suitable type of explosive charge which preferably abuts a breech block 18 at the closed. end of the mortar barrel, a firing pin is being operable at said breech block-end of the mortar, preferably operated by a manually operable trigger (not shown), to penetrate and therebyexplode a percussion fuse 20 in the shell or explosive charge ll.
At its opposite or closed end I 4 the adapter has the end of the fins l3 tapered radially inwardly and upwardly as at 2| to a crown 22 upon which there is co-axially mounted a means for tightly sealing the explosion chamber of the barrel and for selectively controlling an escape or exhaust of explosive gases which are generated'in the explosion chamber at the breech end of the mortar barrel by explosion of the shell or. charge ll, said control means being generally indicated 23. The
tapering 2! of the fins l3 provides an unobstructed chamber at the top of the adapter for equalizing explosive forces exerted upon a control valve and sealing plate to be hereafter described.
In Fig. l the control means 23 is combine with a base plate of a bomb projectile body generally indicated 24, the base member or plate being indicated 25. It Will be noted that the adapter member I I at its forward end or crown 22, is provided with an integral axially extended stub or hub 26 which is threaded at its free end as at 52".,
the threads preferably terminating in spaced. adjacent relation to the crown'22 providing an unthreaded bearing portion 28 upon which combination seal and valve is rotatably mounted.
The valve comprises a pair of overlying, relatively thin, circumferentially skirted disc members and 33, in substantially superficial contact one nesting within the skirted port'on of the other, as best shown in Fig. 6. For brevity of statement, they may be referred to as coinciding plates, meaning thereby that they are substantially similar in circumference and are overlying in plan, but not necessarily that the flexible plate 33 must be of similar area with plate 32,'since, if desired,
its central portion may-be removed. These 1.
tance. For these reasons, and also in order that explosive gases permitted to escape by manipulation of the valve plates 32, 33 in relation to base plate. 25, the transverse diameter of portions of the bomb body 24 should be less than the planar diameter of the valve plates 32, 33 and base plate 25. The two'valve plates-32, 33 are perforated in registerwith aseries of perforations which are graduated in size as indicated 35a, 12, c, d, in Fig. 8. There is a one series of these perforations for each of the holes or openings 36 through the base plate 25 of the projectile'or bomb24, said base plate 25 being stationary and integral with the body of the bomb 24, which is securely mounted upon the threaded stub 26. Adjacent the base plate 25 the body of: the projectile bomb is provided with circumferential recessed indentations 31-, which communicate with the holes or openings 36 inthe base plate'25, and there may be provided webs 38 for separating the indentations 31 and also adding reinforcementto'the COliIlC- tion of the circumferential body portion of the bomb body with the circumferential portion of the base plate 25. The mainportion of the-bomb body 24 may assume any elongated form of hollow shell, as shown in section in Fig. l, the internal wall of the hollow shell being circumferentially grooved as at 40; and its external diameter is less than the diameter of the plate elements 25, 32 and 33, which comprise the control valve means generally indicated 23, the latter being substantially of the same diameter as the transverse di- 'ameter of the adapter-member II from one longitudinal edge to an opposite longitudinal edge, 'themaximum diameter of the adapter I! and valve control means 23 being substantially the same as the inner diameter of the mortar barrel, but sufiiciently'less to provide slidability therein. The main body 24 of the projectile being less than the internal diameter of the mortar barrel. it follows that there is a space between said main body 24 and the internal wall of the mortar barrel, thus providing aspace for the by-pass of explosive gases which are exhausted under regulated control through the openings 35a, 1), 0, din the valve plates 32, 33 and through the opening 36 in the base plate 25. Means are provided on the bomb body to position the bomb co-axially with the bore of the mortar barrel without interfering with the exhaust of explosive gases as explained above. Such a means may comprise elongated fins or strips 42 extended radially from body 24 and in spaced relation circumferentially about the bomb body, the number thereof preferably being about the same as the number of fins l3 on the adapter I I, the desirable number of fins on either the adapter or the bomb body being variable according to the gauge of the projectile, the smaller projectiles n'otrequiring as many fins as those of larger sizes. These fins 42 are afiixed to the bomb body by insertion of one edge in elongated recesses 43, the latter serving the additional purpose of scoring the external wall of the bombs and thereby cooperating with the internal grooves 40 to weaken the wall of the bomb in substantial rectangular platting for more effective fragmentationwhen the bomb is exploded. The bomb body 24 at its forward end is threaded to receive a nose or cap 44, in which may be mounted any suitable percussion or time fuse 45 which serves to explode the powder charge indicated by stippling 46 within the hollowed bomb body.
' Referring to the modification of the disclosure in Figs. 7, 8 and 10, there is an adaptation of the invention to a mounting support for a type of a, projectile well known in military parlance as a hand grenade. The adapter member ll may be substantially identical in most of its elements with the adapter disclosed in Fig. 1. However,
7 Fig. 7, since,the valve plates 32, 33, are rotatable relative to the plates 25, 25a,and since it is intended that they-.may be relatively adjusted so that the perforation'35a, b, c, (2, may register with the holes or openings 36 in plates 25, 25a, it is desirable to providesuitable means to set up a small or slight amount of resistance to such relative rotation, so as to prevent casual, un-
intended relative movement. Any suitable means instead of the plate being an integral part of a 'bomb body, the plate indicated 25a in Figs. 7 and 8 is a separate member which overlies the valve disc plates 32, 33, the perforations or vents in the valve discs being adapted to register with the openings 36 in the plate 25a. The valve discs 32, 33, are rotatable upon the unthreaded portion '28 of the stub 26a, which has its free end in may be so employed, and as herein exemplified, comprisesan upward detent 10 in the upper disc plate '33, such detent'being provided with a relatively sharp peak Tl which is adapted'to engage circular 'ratchet'teeth 12 which may be stamped or machined into the lower face of the plates 25, 25a. Not only does the detent ratchet provide for a resistance to relative casual movement of the said plate and valve disc, butit also'provides an index means whereby the number'of ratchet teethor clicks maybe counted by a soldier andv thus determine the-proper adjustment of the,
registering cf the desired opening or vents 35a, b, 0, cl, with relation to the openings 36, even though the soldier' be' operating in darkness.
4o in'other suitable ways, and as one illustration ient releasable snap-in latch means for engaging in scored grooves which are normally a part of the "exterior body of the well known hand grenade i The hand grenade illustrated in this application is of the usual well known type consisting of a bomb body 56 which is hollow and filled with explosive material and has an opening 5'! at one end for filling the body and forrthreadedlvreceiving a fuse cup 58 within'which .there is a friction time-fuse 59. Over the top of the fusecup 58'there is a springlever 60, which has a terminal claw .6! at one end for engaging, a rim onthefuse-cup. Thelever 66 extends transversely across the top of the fuse-cup and down the side of the hand grenade body in a portion termed a lever handle 62.- Intermediate .its ends the lever 60 has a flange or lip 63 which overlies the plane of an car 64 on the side wall ofthe fuse-cup 58, a removable jerk-pin or safety pin 65 securing the ear and lip in juxtaposition. When jerk-pin 65 is pulled out, the resilience of lever 62, 60, would normally cause the lever' to spring away from the grenade body andthereby release a hammer 66 actuatedby a coilspring 61, sothat the point 68 of thehammerj-would come forcibly in contact with the ignition fuse 59, ignite the same, which in turn would'explode the bomb, the fuse 59 being of the time? type, which is set 'to explode the bomb a reasonable time after it could be normally thrown by .a soldier. It is therefore obvious that when asoldier pulls the safety jerk-pin 65 he would hold lever 62 in his hand on the side of the bomb until he throws it, whereupon the lever 66, 62 automatiofanal-ternative,there is shown in Fig.9 a' plur'ality of graduated slots'tapere'd from a larger open e'nd'35e to anar'rower po'rtion 35f. v I It will be noted that the external diameter of the fiexible-skirt 33in Figs 3, 6, and"8,-and 33b in 10, is intended in its original condition to havesubstantially the same diameter as between the-outer'edgesof opposite fins l3, so that the projectile will slide easily in the mortar barrel." But when the propelling charge I! is exploded, the force of the explosion' in the breech end of the mortar, rearwardly ofsaid flexible plate's 33, 331) causes the skirt to radially expand to tightly seal against the wall of the barrelfin which position it is shown in Figs. 1 and 7 and in the manner shown in the dotted lines of Fig. 6. There may be provided in all of these devices means for releasably holding the projectile and adapter in the barrel'of a mortar when the muzzle'c'f the barrel is held' in adow'nwardly inclined position. As exemplified herein, there is a slightly raised annular portion of the barrel wall closely adjacent the firing pin 19, which provides an annular ring Illa, the upraised wall of which has a gradual incline from the barrel wallL To cooperate with this ring Illa there is provided at the lower ends of the fins l'3 narrowelongated slots Ila which impart'a resilience to the outer edge of the fin adjacent the end whereby there is a s'uflicient resilience" given'to the edge of the -fin adjacent the slot to'permit that portion of the fin to ride'up'the gradualincline of the annular ring and pass thereby until the base of the adapter and its included'shell H are seated "at thebreech block l8. To facilitate the releasable gripping of the resilient portion of the fin on the ring Illa, the edge of the fin is provided with an indent lflb to releasably engage ring Ilia. The resilient pressure of the slotted portions Ila of the adapter provide sufficient resilient hold to prevent the projectile and adapter from sliding in the barrel if the barrel is inclined downwardly.
In the operation of the devices of Figs. 1 and 7 of the present invention, the projectile bomb 24 or grenade 56 is first mounted upon the assembly of adapter H and exhaust control valve 23, and explosive propelling charg or cartridge ll having been inserted in the adapter, and then the combined structure is dropped into the discharge end of the mortar barrel l0, sliding by gravity to the breech thereof, where it is subject to firing by the pin l9. In the case of the hand grenade, the jerk-pin 65 is not removed until the handle portion 62 of lever 60 is engaged within the mortar barrel and is held against release until the projectile is fired by the mortar. The gripping means Ila holds the projectile against dislodgement if the mortar barrel is downwardly inclined, as might be necessary by parachute troops.
The cylindrical wall l2 of the adapter is reinforced against the force of the explosion of the shell H by the elongated fins I3 and additionally reinforced by the fact that the fins 13 have mere slidable clearance relative to the internal diameter of the barrel and expand slightly radially when the propelling charge I1 is exploded. When the charge 11 is exploded, the expanding gases flow out through the openings l5 of the adapter, and into the combustion chamber at the breech end of the mortar barrel and thus propel the projectile. The-upper valve disc 33 being of relatively soft flexible material has its skirt portion spread by the force of the explosion and thus makes a seal against the walls of the barrel. .g
From actual experience it has been found that the force of the explosion crowds the explosive gases between the skirt portion of thevalve discs 32, 33 and. spreads the skirt of the softer plate 33 at the angle between the skirt and the plate of the disc as shown in dotted lines in Fig. 6 at 330., thus providing a seal of substantial length against the barrel wall, and whereby the only substantial amount of escaping gases are those which are regulated and controlled in predetermined amounts by relative manipulation of the valve disc 32, 33, in relation to the openings in the plates 25, 25a, which operates to control the size of the valve vent and the exhaust of explosive gases from the combustion chamber of the mortar through the openings 36 and out through the discharge opening ,of the barrel by virtue of the spacing of the projectile from the barrel walls.
In Fig. 10, there-is disclosed a modification of the invention, more particularly adapted for firing from a mortar in which escapement of explosive gasesmay be controlledby valve means at the breech end of the mortar barrel, such as disclosed in co-pending applications of Cleve F. Shaffer, Ser. No. 434,646, filed March 14, 1942, and Ser. No. 406,301, filed August 11, 1941; Therefore, in the modification shown in Fig. 10, it is not necessary to provide openings through sealing plates 25b, 32b and 33b. The means 53,54, for releasably mounting a bomb body on the adapter ll of Fig. 10, is similar to the corresponding element of'Fig. '7. Since there isno relative rotation necessary'between plates 25b,
33b and 32b in the device of Fig. 10, the plate i- 5 b may be tightly threaded down upon the plates 33b and 32b for fixed relationship.
It is believed to be an important factor in the invention that the explosion chamber in the mortar barrel for the expansion of the explosive gases shall be maintained cylindrical, that is, rectangular in longitudinal sections, since this provides an equalized pressure within the barrel from the time of the explosion to the time that the regulating plates 32, 33 and 25, 25a, entirely clear the discharge end of the barrel when the projectile is fired. In order to accomplish this, the plates 32, 33, which are referred to as the skirt plates upon which the projectile is mounted, should have a diameter substantially similar to the diameter of the barrel, an allowance for slidability being made. In more simple terms, and by way of illustrative comparison, if a teardrop or torpedo-shaped projectile were employed in connection with the same adapter, without employing the plates, the force of the exploding gases would be dissipated as soon as the enlarged forward end of the teardrop or torpedo-shaped projectile cleared the discharge end of the barrel and the projectile would be deprived of the follow through force of the explosive gases, whereas with the present invention the explosive gases continueto exert their propulsive force until the projectile is completely cleared of the barrel. Thus, the only substantial portion of the explosive force which is dissipated is that portion which is intentionally exhausted as by the control and regulation of the valve plates 32, 33, in cooperation with the opening in the plates 25, 25a in the devices of Figs. 1 to 9, or by way of other controlled means mentioned in the description of the device of Fig. 10, for the purpose of mechanically controlling the flight range of the projectile.
It will be understood that various sizes and types of bomb bodies may be employed with a single size of adapter.
Inthe claims the terms forwardly and upwardly refer to that end of the apparatus mounting the bomb body, and, conversely, the terms rearwardly and downwardly refer to the opplosite end which mounts the propelling explosive s e l.
Having described the invention, what claimed as new and patentable is:
1. A mounting device for explosively propelled projectiles, including an adapter provided with an elongated tubular body, said body having radially extended circumferentially spaced fins and being provided with perforations in its body intermediate its ends and having. an opening at its rearward end' for receiving an explosive charge, a plurality of relatively rotatable overlying plates at the forward end portion of the adapter body, said plates having openings therethrough adapted to register in the respective plates and relatively adjustable by rotation of the respective plates for providing a control valve for explosive gases generated by the explosive charge in said adapter when the mounting device is confined in a gun barrel, and means for mounting a projectile body at said forward end of the adapter.
2. A mounting device for explosively propelled o mortar projectiles, including a perforated tubular adapter member having radially extended circumferentially spaced elongated fins and provided at its rearward end with an opening for receiving an explosive charge, means at the forward end portion of the adapter for connecting a projectile body thereto, a control valve at the forward end of the adapter for substantially closing a mortar barrel, said control valve being intermediate the projectile connecting means and the finned adapter and comprising a plurality of relatively rotatable plates, each of which has openings therethrough selectively adapted for registering by relative axial rotation of the plates, one of said plates being of relatively softer and more flexibl material and having a circumferentially rearwardly depending skirt and having within said skirt a substantially coinciding reinforcing plate of more rigid material, and another of said plates being forwardly of the softer plate and in superficial contact therewith.
3'. In combination with an armament projectile, a device for mounting the projectile, in-
cluding a perforated tubular adapter member having radially extended circumferentially spaced elongated fins and provided at its rearward portion with an opening for receiving an explosive charge, means at the forward portion of said adapter for holding the projectile, a disc control valve at the forward end of the adapter for substantially closing a mortar barrel intermediate the projectile body and the forward end of the finned adapter, said disc valve including a plurality of relatively rotatable overlying plates substantially in facial contacting relation, each of said plates having openings therethrough selectively adapted to register in open, closed and intermediate adjustment by relative rotation of said plates, one of said plates being rigid and forming an integral base plate for the projectile body, and another of said plates being more nearly adjacent to the explosive charge and being of relatively softer and more flexible material,
, said last mentioned plate having a circumferential downwardly depending skirt at its periphery.
4. A mounting device for explosively propelled projectiles, including a finned adapter having an elongated perforated tubular body and having at its rearward end an opening for receiving an explosive charge, a plurality of relatively rotatable disc plates coaxially mounted at the forward end portion of the adapter body, said plates having their disc portions in overlying sliding substantially contacting relation and each plate having openings therethrough, providing a disc control valve, said openings in the respective plates being selectively adapted, by relative rotation of the plates, for adjustment -from an aligned open relationship to a closed relationship, two of said plates being of substantially rigid material and another of said plates being interposed therebetween and being of relatively softer and more flexible material and having a circumferential downwardly depending skirt at its periphery, and means for mounting a projectile body at the face of said disc valve farthest removed from the adapter.
5. In combination with an explosive projectile, a mounting device, including an adapter comprising an elongated perforated tubular body for selective adjustment from an aligned opened to a closed position, one of said plates more nearly adjacent the adapter being of relatively softer and more flexible material than the other plate and having a circumferential downwardly depending skirt at its periphery, means for connecting a projectile at the face of said valve opposite the adapter, the said projectile body having portions of lesser transverse exterior diameter than the planar diameter of said disc plates, and havin at other portions of its body axially longitudinal radially extended fins whereby elongated channels are provided along the projectile body forwardly of said plates, the openings in the plate adjacent the projectile body being in communication with said channels.
' 6. In combination with an explosive projectilethe mounting device comprising a plurality of relatively rotatable overlying disc plates in slidable facial contact, each of said plates having openings therethrough, one of said plates being integral with and forming a base plate for the projectile body and the openings therethrough having communication with said channels of the projectile body, the openings in the respective plates being selectively adapted by relative rotation of the plates for relative adjustment of the openings therethrough from a registered open to a closed position, one of said plates more nearly adjacent the mounting device being of relatively soft and flexible metal and having a circumferentially downwardly depending skirt at its periphery, and a disc plate f more rigid material snugly fitting within said downwardly depending skirt.
7. A device for mounting an explosively propelled projectile, comprising an adapter member having an elongated externally finnedtubular body for receiving an explosive propelling charge at an open end portion, means mounted end portion free, the free end f said fingers having sufiicient resilience for releasably holding the bomb body; and a sealing plate interposed be tween the adapter member and the base of said fingers, said sealing plate having substantially the same planar diameter as the maximum diameter of the adapter and having a slightly greater planar diameter than the maximum transverse diameter across said finger-structure, said plate including a circumfe'rentially skirted peripheral portion of a relatively soft flexible metal adapted for radial expansion responsive to explosive force of the propelling charge in the adapter; said tubular body of the adapter having openings therethrough providing communication between said tubular body and the chamber of a mortar lbarrel whereby explosive gases generated by the propelling charge may expand into the mortar barrel rearwardly of said sealing plate. I
HERMAN J L FANGER, HENRY GRUENHAGEN. CLEVE F. SHAFFER.
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|U.S. Classification||102/372, 89/1.3|
|International Classification||F42B10/06, F42B10/00|