US 2383649 A
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1945- J. A. HEIDBRINK 2,383,649
BREATHING MASK FOR PARACHUTE ESCAPE DEVICES Filed Aug. 23, 1941 Irivenl'or:
Ta? 11. Heidlorink.
BREATHING MASK FOR PARACHUTE ESCE DEVICES Jay A. liieidbrink, Minneapolis, Minn, assignor to Air Reduction Company, incorporated, New York, N. Y a corporation of New York Application August 23, 1941, Serial No. 408,077
My invention relates to a breathing mask for parachute escape device and is an improvement on the invention of application of Doctors Walter M. Boothby and William Randolph Lovelace H, for Parachute escape device, Serial No. 392,914, filed May 10, 1 941.
The object of my invention is to provide in a parachute escape device adapted to be substituted quickly for normal means of supplying oxygen in an airplane at high elevations, a mask which can be instantly substituted for the regular supply msak which will provide a mouth piece adapted to be gripped between the teeth of the aviator and at the same time will enclose the nose of the aviator so that, in conjunction with novel means of supplying oxygen to the chamber within the mask structure if the aviator forgets to breathe through the mouth and breathes through the nose he will nonetheless receive a suitable supply \of oxygen to maintain life during the period of. descent from high elevations.
In practice aviators, particularly military aviators, are accustomed to fly to great heights up to 35,000 feet and even higher and such military aviators may be forced into combat atsuch high elevations. In order to sustain life at these high elevations an adequate supply of oxygen to be breathed by the aviator at a suitable maintained pressure approximating that of sea level, is customarily provided, this provision embodying a suitable mask structure removably supported upon the face of the aviator and having connection to oxygen tanks maintained in the airplane proper.
However, if from any source the airplane is put out of action so that the aviator must save himself by getting out of the plane and descending under support of a parachute, the connection with the oxygen supply in the airplane will necessarily be broken. If no means of supplying oxygen going vvith the aviator is provided, quick unconsciousness and destruction of the aviator will inevitably follower. As pointed out in the aforesaid application, means is provided for shifting substantially instantaneously from the regular oxygen supply to oxygen supplied from a small tank carried in the clothing of the aviator. In the aforesaid application'a mouthpiece adapted to be slipped into the mouth and be gripped by the teeth of the aviator which, with suitably operative connections with the tank of oxygen maintained in the clothing of the aviator, would enable an instant shift of supply of oxygen from the airplane-carried oxygen tank to the aviatorcarried oxygen tank.
It has been found, however, that occasionally free from the plane and the parachute ripcord is pulled.
Further, on leaving the plane, which usually is moving at very high speed, the aviator will be projected into a wind velocity so strong and violent that with any ordinarymeans of retention such as is customarily employed with oronasal masks the mask would instantly be torn from the aviators face. So I have discovered that any mask structure that will permit breathing through mouth and nose must also have a mouthpiece so constructed that it can be gripped between the teeth. The aviator will naturally clamp this mouthpiece tight with this powerful jaw muscles and thus; secure the mask structure against possibility of being torn off.
It is the principal object of my invention, therefore, to remedy these difiiculties by providing means which can be applied to the face as quickly as could a mouthpiece alone, which will have all the advantages of teeth grip on the mouthpiece in securing the mask on the face and protecting against danger of its being torn off, and yet which will supply the requisite amount of oxygen even if breathing through the nose does take place.
The full objects and advantages of my invention will appear in connection with the detailed description thereof and the novel features of the invention which attain the objects and-produce the advantageous results above referred to are particularly pointed out in the claims.
In the drawing illustrating an application of my invention in one form:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation view of an aviator in position in the airplane under normal conditions when being supplied with oxygen from tanks not shown which are carried in the airplane proper and with the emergency mask structure in position as worn.
Fig. 2 is a view similar to Fig. 1 showing the emergency mask shifted to position on the face I of the aviator.
' Fig. 3 is a longitudinal central sectional elevation view taken through the emergency mask structure.
Fig. 4 is a sectional view through part of the apparatus at right angles to the sectional view of Fig. 3 taken on line 4-t of Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken on line 55 of Fig. 4.
Referring to Fig. 1 the aviator has secured to his face a mask structure in which is held in position by means of an elastic strap II and is provided with a breathing valve l2, rebreathing bag l3 and oxygen supply tube l4, all of known construction, it being understood that the oxygen supply tube leads to a tank or tanks of oxygen secured inthe body of the airplane in a well known way.
As shown in Fig. 1 a somewhat different type of mask l5 has connected therewith an elastic strap l6 by which the mask is and parts carried thereby are suspended from the aviators neck substantially below the regular mask l worn under normal conditions. The strap i6 is elastic and in the event of the necessit of applying the emergency mask, with a single movement of the two hands the mask l0 may be stripped from the face of the aviator and the mask l substituted therefor, the aviator gripping the mouth member which will now be described.
The mask l5 consists primarily of a back memher I! which is provided with a nose-receiving piece, as shown in Fig. 5, is made of metal or other rigid substance and is provided with a pair of annular flangesv 21. and 28 and with an integral mouth piece member 25 having an opening 30 narrow in breadth, as indicated in Fig. 3, and wide and expanded, as indicated in Fig. 4, so as to be adapted to be held within the mouth and between the teeth of an aviator; and a round expanded rim portion 3| is provided, as shown in Fig. 4, and over this is a rubber cover 32 to give the teeth a grip on the mouth-piec without there being any direct contact with the metal thereof.
The flange 21 is adapted to contact the base portion I9 of the mask body, as clearly indicated in Figs. 3 and 4, and the flange 28 is contacted by the rubber cover member 32 which is held in position on the mouth-piece 30 by means of said flange 28-and the outwardly extended rim 3!.
'Between the flanges 21 and 28 is a. cylindrical portion 33 of connector member 26 which is formed with a multiplicity of perforations 34, as clearly shown in Figs. 3, 4 and 5. The connector piece 26 is provided with an outwardly extending nipple 35 which receivesthe end of a rubber tube 36 leading to a supply of oxygen carried in a pocket of a garment, preferably the trousers,
worn by the aviator, as indicated diagrammatically at 31 of Fig. 1.
From the above description the operation and advantages of my invention will be apparent,
With the emergency mask structure supported upon the neck of the aviator, as indicated in Fig. 1, when it'becomes necessary to bail out of the airplane the aviator will first release oxygen to the supply tube 36, then will push forward on the normal oxygen supply mask ill with one hand, stripping it from his face, and at the same time with the other hand bring the emergency mask l5 upon his face stretching the elastic securing band l6 in doing so; As the mask comes over the face the aviator will grip the mouth-piece 29 between his teeth thus insuring retention of the mask upon his face. He will then bail out, pull the ripcord. and float down under the parachute to earth breathing a suitable supply of oxygen regardless of whether he breathes through the mouth or the nose. If he breathes through the mouth the oxygen will be delivered directly through the channel 30 on inhalation and the exhaled gases will pass down through the opening in the center of 'connector piece 26 and into and out of the extension tube 40 which is united therewith. This extension tube, while free to the outer air, acts as a reservoir for oxygen and for exhaled gases and has a tendency to prevent freezing, as outlined in the above identified application of Boothby and Lovelace.
The arrangementis such that if the aviator has not been rendered unconscious-by accident or attack he cannot be without supply of oxygen long enough either to render him unconscious or to cause any kind of bodily injury. And after the mask structure has been attached and the mouth-piece 30 gripped by the teeth, as indicated in Fig. 2, the aviator cannot fail to receive a sufficient supply of oxygen for the relatively short time required for his descent to earth.
1. A mask structure for a parachute escape device comprising a mask body adapted to be held against the face of a wearer and thereby form a breathing chamber enclosing the mouth and nose of the wearer, flexible strap mechanism adapted to hold the mask structure suspended at the neck and permitting the same to be quickly applied to the face, a breathing tube extending outwardly and downwardly from the breathing chamber to outside atmosphere, 'a mouth-piece connected with said breathing tube and projected within said chamber andadapted to be gripped between the teeth when the mask is positioned on the face, and openings into the breathing tube from the breathing chamber independent of the opening therefrom to. the mouth-piece, whereby breathing may be effected through the nose.
2. A mask structure for a parachute escape device comprising a mask body adapted to be held against'the face of 'a wearer and thereby form a breathing chamber enclosing the mouth and nose of the wearer, flexible strap mechanism adapted to hold the mask structure suspended at the neck and permitting the same to be quickly applied to the face, a breathing chamber to outside atmosphere, amouth-piece connected with said breathing tube and projected within said chamber and adapted to be gripped between the teeth when the mask is positioned on the face, the body of said breathing tube being projected into the breathing chamber and being provided with a circumferential row of holes opening into the breathing chamber which are independent of the opening from the mouth-piece whereby breathing may be eifected through the nose, and
means for supplying oxygen to the breathing tube.
3. A mask structure for a parachute escape device, comprising a mask body adapted to be held against the face of a wearer and thereby form a breathing chamber enclosing the mouth and nose of the wearer, a rigid breathing tube structure extending outwardly and downwardly to form a reservoir passageway for conveying respiration gases to and from the breathing chamber, sets of openings into said reservoir for independently conveying said respiration gases to and from the mouth or to and from the nose, and means for continuously supplying oxygen to the interior of th breathing tube to constantly mix with the gases therein independently of the breathing of