US 2385341 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 25 E4. `c. A. D. BAYLEY FLOATING DRYDocK 4 Sheets-Sheet l Filed Aug. l0, 1944 cfll OOOOOOOO uw ww.
BY 'mu ATTORN EY Sem. 25, M5. C. A. D. AYLEY FLOATING DRYDOCK File'd Aug. 10, 1944 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 im y. I l
INVENTOR ar/es 14.0. Bay/ey BY@ AzroRNEY Sept. 2 5, 1945; c. A. D. BAYLEY FLOATING DRYDOCK Filed Aug. 10, 1944 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 lNvENToR '/mr/es A0. ay/ey ATTORNEY Sept. 25, 1945. c, A, BAYLEY 2,385,341 v FLOAT ING DRYDOCK Filed Aug. 10, 1944 4 SheebS-Sheet 4 y .fzy' .00.
f l l f l ,l l l INVENTORl Char/es f4.0. a'y/ey ATTORNEY Patented Sept. 25, 1945 U NITE D STATES PATENT O F F I C EA 2,385,341 FLoArmGlnnY DOCK CharIes'A.- D. Hayley, New York, N. Y.E Application August `10, 1944, `Serial No. 548,85?
(-Cl. ILL-45) 16 Claims.
My invention relates toa-floating drydock andafmethod of making the same. More particu-` larly it'rel-ates to a `drydock that may be assembled fromV pontoon elements into a strong structure.v
In my present invention Vcylindricall pontoon elementsk of wood are' arranged side by side horizontally and transversely to the length of the may be of uniform'construction' and maydoe fori-ned separately as standard or standardized pieces and Vassembled `intoV a drydock structure. They are' preferably ofwood, or largely of wood.
On being assembled into a horizontal' series the pontoonvelements are secured to l'rearn'sr extending lengthwiseV` of the dock, that is, lengthwise of a ship to be supported on the dock. These beams are preferably of reinforced concrete and molded in position.`
The individual pontoon elements are rigidly4 secured to a pair of central beams by fastening members interlocking with the cylindrical walls of the pontoon elements. The ends ofv the pon'- toon elements at each side of the dock are also secured in longitudinal beams, preferably of reinforced concrete.
Side wal-lsl of vertical cylindrical pontoons,
similar to the horizontal p'ontoons",l `may be arranged in longitudinal series atv each side of the horizontal structure and may' be supported and secured thereon. Each side Wall' may be provided" withL one ormore series of vertical pontoons.
To reinforce the horizontal pontoon elements' against bending stresses cross beams of reinforced concrete may be secured on'the longitudinal beams below the horizontal pontoon eleinents'.` The cylindrical Wall-s of the pontoon elements may be formed of watereproofed plywood or of stave-s or partly of plywood; and partly of s'taves, By the use of plywood in which the plies are joined or cemented by resins that are resistant to water and that are not water absorpti've, strnctures' of' great strength and stiffness' relative to weight are obtained and these structures are also resistant-toI deterioration in sea water. The cy` lindri-cal walls of the pontoon elements provide' a' maximum resistance tcicor'npression. They' are Fig. 4;'
closed near their ends by dome shaped headswhich also' offer the maximum resistance to compressiveforce's. The cylindrical walls project beyond the dome shaped heads toprovide means 1 for mounting and securing the pontoonsV to the longitudinal beamstructures.
The various features of the invention are illustrated by way' of example inthe accompanying drawings inwhichY Fig. l is a side view and Fig. 2' a plan view of a drydock embodying my invention and showing the position oi ashp thereon;
Fig. 3 is an end View of the drydock;
Fig. 4 is a plan of one section of the drydock shown in Figsji and 2;*
Fig. 5- is a' plan View on a larger scale of a part of the horizontal pontoons and the central longitudinal be'axn; n l
Fig. 6 is a vertical section on the line 6-6 of Fig. ''is a section Fig. 5A; y
Fig. 8 is a detail" in section of the Iloor of the taken on the line 'I--l of moet.:
9' is a vertical section through the lower part of the-side walls andthe beam structure on which it rests, taken at a right angle to' the sec-Y non ofr'ig, 6;
Fig. l0fis a vertical section on the-'line lllt0 ofV Fig. l1` ofrtlielower part ora vertical pontoon on a somewhat larger scale than that of Fig. 9;
` Figs' ll and 1'2 are horizontal sections taken on mennearriere; Y
Figs. 13` and 14 are respectively plan and vertical sections o'f a detail of the side walls of the' dock.
Referring more particularly to` Figs. 1l and 2 a drydo'ck is shown as' being formed of a number of sections Z arranged end to' end to support a ship 2|. Five suchA sections are shown in the particnlar4 embodiment illustrated but it' will be understood that any` required' number may be employeddepending upon the size of the sections andI 'oftlriek ship;A to' be supported. Working plat forms 2'2 and 23' are provided on the end sections ofthe drydock. l
r"As shown in Figs; 3- and 4 eac-h section 20 comprisesa horizontal base 'or `raft-like structure 24 between a pair of `side wal-ls- 25 and 26, one at each side of the" section.
As shown in more detailin Figs. Y5 to`- 9`- inclusive', the base or raft structure s formed of a series of horizontal cylindrical' pontoon elements In the particular embodiment of the invention shown in'Figs.. 6, and 9,*two such series of horizontal pontoon elements are provided, namely, an upper series or layer of the elements 21, 28, 29, 39, etc., and a lower layer made up of the elements 3i, 32, 33, 34, 35, etc. It will be understood, however, that there may be one or more such layers, depending upon the size of the dock and of the respective cylinders.
The series of cylinders are united by longitudinal beams, there being two spaced mid beams 36 and 31 kas shown in Fig. 5 and a pair of spaced side beams 38 and 39, one at each side of the toons as shown, for example, in Fig..'7.
The several pontoon elements are' secured'to' the longitudinal beams 35, 31, v38,39,which unite the pontoons into a rigid unitary structure.
Each pontoon element is formed of a cylindrical wall- 43 and dome shaped 'end closures or heads v44, one at each end, spaced inwardly of the end of .the cylindrical wall to provide a projecting portion or extension 45. The'cylindrcal walls and ythe heads arepreferably formed entirely or principally of wood, preferablyof ply- Wood in-which several pliesof shaped wood are united byawater resistant, waterproof resinous cement. Or these walls maybe made of wooden staves orof staves and yplywood structures.- Such constructions form .as tructurehaving `great resista-nce to compressiveforcesjand also tobendingmoments.v
Eachof the horizontal pontoon elements is formed of a pair of closed cylindersarranged v end to endand with the opposed ends abuttingl one ofthe mid beams 35 or 31. is shown in Fig. 5 the elements are preferably so arranged that one pair of cylinders will abut the ybeam'3i extending Ain opposite directions therefrom; one of the cylinders extending through the beam 31 while the next pair will vabut and be secured to vthe beam 31,. while the opposite l cylinder extends through the beam 36 and in this way the series of cylindersis alternately secured to the longitudinal beams 36 and 31 and alternately'passes through the other of gthese beams so as to break' the joints'longitudinally of the docln The lower layer is similarly .arranged and secured tothe beams andthe elements may b e secured to the oppositebeam from lthe element immediately above it'as, for example, the element 21 may be secured to the beam.3'6, while Ythe element 3l immediately beneath it l,may Abe secured to the beam 31, thus breaking joints vertically as well as longitudinally.
ln the embodiment illustrated the elements of theY lower layer are immediately beneath those of the upper layer but in some constructions may be staggered relatively thereto.A
Similarly the outer ends of the cylinders may be secured either to the inner of the side beams 38 or may pass through this beam to be secured to the outer beam 39. For example one cylinder of the pontoon 21 may be secured to the beam 39 and the opposite one pass through the. inner beam 38 on the opposite side and be secured to the outermost beam 39 thereof. It will thusbe apparent that between the side beams 38 and 39 there are alternately pontoons and spaces Ain the upper series that extend between vthe beams 38 and 39. The lower series of cylinders all extend to the outerbeam 39. A
The vertical side walls 25 and,2'6 are formed of one or more series of vertical cylinders 45and 41, Figs. 3 and 4, two being shown by way of example. Each of the series 46 and 41 comprises a number of vertical cylindrical pontoon elements 48, 49, 59, 5i, etc., Fig. 6, similar in construction to the horizontal pontoon elements, that is, having cylindrical walls 43 and dome shaped heads 44. The vertical pontoons of each series are alternately longer and shorter, the shorter elements such as 48 and 58, Fig. 6, resting upon or above the horizontal pontoon elements 21 and 29 that extend between the longitudinal side beams 3B and 39, while the alternate vertical pontoons 49 and 5l extend in the spaces between the beams 38 and 39 and between the'pontoon elements 21 and 29 to be supported immediately above the corresponding lower pontoon elements 32 and 34.
The vertical pontoons of the outer series 41 Amay extend upwardly and be connected to an vertical pontoons.
The lower ends of the ,pontoons are supported on'a concrete filling, indicated at 54 Fig. 6, between thev side beams 38 and 39,.this filling extending upwardly about thoser horizontal pontoons that projects between the,y sidebeams 38 and 39 but not into the spaces between the Side beams and the projecting,pontoonelements, such as 21 and 29; andecorrespondingly the vertical wall pontoons lrestalt'ernately on different levels as shown in Fig. 5,.,'one level being above the upper layer 0f pontoons vand theother below this layer Yand above the lower'layer of pontoons Ths the joints at which the vertical pontoons are secured to the horizontal raft Ystructure are broken or staggered andgiven greater strength and rigidity. f
"1 -he cylindrical pontoon elements, of the vertical and horizontalA series may. be joined and secured to their respective beam, either the horizontal beams 36, 31, 38, 39, or to the filling 54 between the beams 33 and 39 by similar securing or locking means. This securing means is shown more particularly in Figs,v 10, 11 and 12. lAs shown in these gures that part of the cylindrical Wall 43 that projects beyond the dome shaped head 44 is 'reinforced by a collar (55 secured integrally tothewali 43; Y y
Projecting inwardly fro'm'the collar ,55 at spaced intervals are lugs 56, four being shown by way of example in Figs. 10 yand 12. The aggregate circumference of `these lugs Will total somewhatless than one-half the circumference of the 'ring or collar 55 and they are equally spaced Aso that between each pair of lugs is a space'of equal or approximatelyl slightly-greater Width. Abuttingor supporting the lower edge ofthe projecting wall 43 is a plate 51 of concrete'whenthe longitudinal beams -are of concrete. 'Ihis plate 51 is slightly larger in area than the cross-sectional area of the walls 43 and may beof square or polygonal perimeter as'shown in Figs'. l1 and l2. VIt may be provided withfprojecting irons 58 to be molded or cast intov the concrete beams .as Athe latter are formed.` A number of spaced projections 59 eX- tend upwardly from the plate 51 of a circumferential width and of a 'diameter to pass up- Wardly between 4the lugs V56 `and extending some- -whatfabove these'lugs. The outer vertical sur- 'Bracing blocks B8 and 59 may mounted faces of these projections are cylindrical and lit closely against the inner surface of the ring or collar 55 -as indicated in Figs. 10 and 12. They may thus be passed upwardly Vbetween the lugs 56 then in the positionshown in Fig. 11. Each of the projections 59 is providedwith a recess to receive the lugs 51 when the cylinder is given a turn relative-to its base or plate 51 from the position shown in Fig. 11 to that shown in Fig. 12. The lugs 56 and projections 59, therefore, inter-- lock in a manner similar to a bayonet joint or to the interrupted threads of a breech block. The cylinder may then be secured against rotating and unlocking by any suitable means.
Each of the projecting walls 43 and collars '5 may be provided with a manhole or-door or opening 5D, as shown in Fig. 12, through which the space between the plate 51 and the head 44 may be inspected at intervals.
The above construction is one that permits of an assembly ofthe various elements of the dock from standardized or uniform parts to form a very7 rigid strong construction but one that is relatively light for its size and'strength.
In forming the structure it is only necessary that the end plates 51 be fitted on the respective horizontal cylinders 21, 35, one plate for each end, and that the opposite plates of each pair of cylinders forming one pontoon element as, for example, the cylinders of the pontoon element 21, be placed and spaced to receive the respective beams 35. And similarly the plates of the cylinders of the pontoon element 2B spaced and positioned to receive the longitudinalbeam 31. When the cylinders have thus been placed and secured in position the beams 36 and 31 may be cast in position, using suitable forms, and thereby anchor the respective cylinders through their bases and through the anchorage 58 and also by being cast about those cylinders that project through one of the beams.
Similarly the side beams 38, 39, may be cast in position. In this way the elements of the lower or raft structure are united into a unit of longitudinal beams of reinforced concrete cast into position on the relatively light wood cylindrical pontoons. Thereupon Vthe lling 54 is placed 'ih position together with the plates 51 of the vertical cylinders after which these cylinders may be placed and locked in position by turning them as indicated in Figs. 1l and 12. Similarly the top plates may then be locked in position and built in the horizontal platforms 52 and 53. Y
To prevent warping of the pontoons between the longitudinal beams they may be braced by suitable bracing blocks as shown in Fig. '1. The several cylinders 21, 28 and 29, for example, of the upper layer or tier of pontoons may be spaced and braced by means of a pair of bracing blocks 5| and 62 between each adjacent pair of cylinders, these blocks being shaped to iit the curvature of the cylinders. The pair of blocks are suspended from the loor beams 40, 4l 'or 42 respectively by means of a threadedrod 63 4an` chored in the floor beam and extending downwardly through the'block 6l and provided with an upper nut 64 and lower nut 65 which may be screwed 'in opposite directions `against the respective blocks 6l and 62 to bring them tightly against the surfaces yof their respective cylinders. A side beams extends downwardly from each of the beams '45, 4l, l42, being secured thereto at its upper end and bein-g secured to a lower beam-51 below the lower tier of pontoons.
tween the cylinders 3l, 32, 33 of the lower tier of pontoons and tightened by a bolt 1U extending downwardly into the lower beam 61. In this way the cylinders of the lower tier or layer may be held in proper spaced position.
Bracing blocks 1| and 12 are similarly mounted between cylinders of the upper and lower tiers and tightened by means of bolts 13; the outer-V most of these bolts may be extended to and se-` cured in the side beams 65. By means Aof this bracing 'the cylinders may be held rigidly in uniform spaced position between the mid beams 36 or 31 and the outer beams 38. Similarly the lower tier of cylinders may be braced between the beams 38 and 39 by means of bracing blocks 14 and 15 and bolts 16 as shown in Figs. 6 and .9.
When a ship is in position on the drydock and the latter is floated the center of the upward lifting forces on the several pontoons will be at some distance from the mid beams 3B and 31 on which the weight of the shipis directly received. To reinforce the pontoons against the resultant bending forces transverse beams `11 may be mounted below the lowermost tier of pontoons and extend transversely across the pontoons and rigidly connected to the end beams andthe mid beams. These transverse bea-ms 11 may be of reinforced concrete cast integrally with the longitudinal beams or precast and secured to them during the formation of the dock. It will beapparent'that the bending stresses will cause tension on the beams 11 so that the cylindrical walls of the pontoon will be required only to -resist compressive stresses for which their structure is particularly suited.
The several horizontal and vertical pontoons will be provided with a piping system and pumps,
such as indicated in dotted lines at 18 in Fig. 9,
whereby the pontoons may be pumped free of water, or water may be admitted. Any suitable arrangement of piping and pumps may be employed and the system of piping is, therefore, not illustrated.
A floor made up of concrete slabs 19, Figs. '7 and 8, may be mounted on the floor beams 40 and secured thereto bymeans of bolts 80. The sections of the drydock may also be provided with wooden sides 8 I, as shown in Fig. 7, and with bottom planks 82 to protect the-.concrete from abrasion. Also the side walls may be protected by means of vertical bui'ing structures 83 of wood or timber secured in holding brackets 84 lon thel platforms 25 and 26.
Through the above invention I have provided a floating drydock that may be -assembled from `standard parts, namely cylindrical structures of standard sizes. These cylindrical structures may belfabricated at any suitable place, either ,at the shipyard or distant therefrom, and shipped and assembled where the dock is to be built. The
then joined end to end in the manner known the art to Vform a complete dock. i
'The cylindrical `pontoons need not be of .cincular cross-section but some, or all, of the pontoons may be of other than circular cross-section. The word cylindrical is, therefore, not to be construed as applying only toucylinders of circular cross-section, although they are preferred in most constructions.
What I claim is: ,Y
1. A floating drydock which comprises a, longitudinal series of transverse horizontal cylindrical wooden pontoons, each pontoon having dome shaped heads and walls projecting beyond said heads,` end pieces locked to said projections-of said walls andA longitudinal beams secured to said end pieces. i
2. A iioating drydock which comprises a longitudinal series of transverse horizontal cylindrical wooden pontoons, each pontoon having dome shaped heads and cylindrical walls projecting beyond said heads,vmiddle longitudinal beams to which said pontoons are secured, sidewalls comprising longitudinal series of vertical cylinders of wood havingr heads, said cylindersA projecting beyond said heads, end pieces on which said cylinders are supported, means for securing said cylinders to said end pieces, spaced longitudinal side beams secured to said pontoons, and means for securing theY supporting end pieces of said vertical walls on said horizontal pontoons between said side beams.y
, 3. A iioating drydock which comprises a longitudinal series of transverse horizontal cylindrical Wooden pontoons, each pontoon having dome shaped heads and cylindrical walls projecting beyond said heads, the ends of said cylindrical walls being reinforced and having inwardly projecting lugs at regular intervals about their inner surface and end pieces of concrete having projections extending into said projecting cylindrical walls and having recesses to receive and interlock with said lugs.
4. A floating drydock having a horizontal base and having side walls, said side walls comprising a series of vertical wooden cylinders and closing heads therein spaced from the ends of said cylinders, the ends of said 'cylinders beyond said heads being reinforced and having lugs at spaced intervals projecting inwardly, the horizontal base of said drydock having upward projections at spaced intervals to nt into the inner surface of the projecting part of said wooden cylinders and having recesses to receive and interlock with the lugs of said cylinders.
5. A drydock which comprises a middle pair of spaced longitudinal beams of reinforced concrete and a longitudinal series of transverse horizontal cylindrical pontoon elements of wood, each of said pontoon elements comprising a pair of aligned closed cylinders secured to one of said beams on opposite sides thereof, one of said cylinders passing through the other of said beams, successive pontoon elements 0f said series being secured longitudinally Ato opposite beams of said pair.
6. A drydock which of spaced longitudinal beams of reinforced concrete and a longitudinal series of transverse horizontal cylindrical pontoon elements. of Wood,l
each of said pontoon elements comprising a pair of aligned cylinders having dome shaped heads spaced inwardly from the ends of said cylindersV the cylinders of each pontoon element being secured to one of said beams on opposite sides thereof, one of said cylinders passing through the other of said beams, successive pontoon elements ofY said series being secured alternately to the opposite beams of, said pair.
ycomprises a middle pair` 7. A drydockiwhich comprises a middle pair ofy spaced longitudinal beams of reinforced concrete-and a series of transverse horizontal cylindrical pontoon elements of wood, each of said pontoon'v elements comprising a pair of aligned cylinders closed at a distance from the ends of said cylinders,the opposed ends of the cylinders of each `pontoon element having end pieces interl ock ed with the ends of said cylindrical elements and secured to one of said beams on the oppositesides thereof, one of said cylindrical elementsy passing through the other of said middle beams, successive pontoon elements of said series being secured alternately toopposite beams of f said pair. f
8. A drydock which comprises 'a middle pair of spaced longitudinal beams of reinforced concrete and an upper anda lower series of transverse horizontal cylindrical pontoon elements of wood, each of said pontoon elements comprising a pair of aligned cylinders of wood closed near their ends, end pieces interlocking with the opposed endsof said cylinders and secured to one of said beams, one of said cylindrical elements extend- Y ing through the other of said beams, successive pontoon elements of said series being secured alternately to opposite beams of said pair and each pontoon element of the lower series being se- -cured to the other beam of the pair from that secured to the pontoon element of the upper series immediately thereabove.
" of said pontoon elements comprising a pair of aligned cylinders closed at their ends, end pieces interlocked with the opposed ends of said aligned cylinders and secured to one of said longitudinal beams, one of the cylinders of said elements passing through ,the other of said longitudinal beams and spaced pairs of side beams secured to the ends of vsaid pontoon elements.
10. The drydock of claim 9 and side walls of vertical closed cylinders of wood secured to said horizontal structure between side beams at each side of said drydock.
1l. A drydock which comprises a longitudinal series of transverse horizontal cylindrical pontoon elements of wood, a mid pair of spaced longitudinal beams of reinforced concrete embedding and secured to said pontoon elements, two pairs of spaced longitudinal concrete beams, one pair at each side of Said drydock embedding the ends of said pontoon elements, alternate pontoon elements ending at the inner side beam of said pair and vertical cylinders of wood between the side beams of each pair of longitudinal beams, the lower ends of successive vertical cylinders being supported alternately on and between the horizontal pontoon elements between said side beams. Y
12. A drydock having longitudinal beams, plates secured to said beams and having projections and cylinders ended on said plates, said cylinders having heads spaced inwardly from the ends thereof and having lugs interlocking with the projections of said plates.
13. The structure of claim 12 in which said heads are dome shaped.
14. A floating drydock which comprises a longitudinal series of transverse horizontal cylindrical wooden pontoons and longitudinal beams of reinforced concrete embedding said pontoons and uniting said pontoons in a unitary structure.
15. A iioating drydock which comprises a longitudinal series of transverse horizontal cylindrical wooden pontoons and longitudinal beams of reinforced concrete embedding said pontoons and uniting said pontoons in a unitary structure and braces between the lengths of successive pontoons between said longitudinal beams.
16. A oating drydock which comprises a 1ongitudinal series of transverse horizontal cylindrical wooden pontoons, a pair of mid longitudinal beams of reinforced concrete embedding mid portions of said pontoon elements, a reinforced concrete beam at each side of said drydock ernbedding the end portions of said pontoons and a transverse beam of reinforced concrete below said pontoon elements and secured to said mid and side longitudinal beams.
. CHARLES A. D. BAYLEY.