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Publication numberUS2386781 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 16, 1945
Filing dateJun 16, 1943
Priority dateJun 16, 1943
Publication numberUS 2386781 A, US 2386781A, US-A-2386781, US2386781 A, US2386781A
InventorsDaly Webster J
Original AssigneeDaly Webster J
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Photographic apparatus
US 2386781 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 16, 1945. w Y 2,386,781

PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS Filed June 16, 1943 I 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Oct, 16, 1945.

W; J. 'DALY PHOTOGRAPHI C APPARATUS Filed June 16, 1945 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 46 a 4 .J'zyfi.

Patcnted Oct. 16, 1945 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE rno'roonarmc APPARATUS Webster J. Daly, Los Angeles, Calif. Application June 16, 1943, Serial No. 491,074

1 Claim.

This invention relates to photographic apparatus, and more particularly to such apparatus wherein photographic film undergoes various treatment incidental to its development.

It is necessary in developing photographic film to immerse the film incertain chemical solutions, to wash the film to remove the chemicals before passing on to the next stage, and finally to dry the film.

The object of the present invention is to provide such apparatus incorporating a continuous cycle of operation to carry the film completely through the developing process, the cycle including timed periods of inactivity during which the film remains stationary at one or another of the various stages of its treatment.

Another object of the invention is to provide developing apparatus having means to transport the film through its complete cycle of treatment, the transporting means controlling the points at which the film stops for treatment. A further object of the invention is to provide such a device having provisions for treating a number of films simultaneously, the films being in different stages of development and sequentially moved from stage to stage.

A still further object of the invention is the provision of means to move all of the films in unison, each of the films on the transpo tin means being at a developing stage when the transporting means is stopped.

It is an object of the invention to provide improved means to hold the film during its travel through the apparatus to ensure the film remaining fiat.

Other objects will become apparent from the following description taken in conjunction with the drawings which accompany and form a part of this specification and in which. like characters of reference are used to denote identical parts throughout.

In the drawings:

Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view taken through a photographic developing machine constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention;

Figure 2 is a horizontal section through the cabinet and is taken on the line 2-2 of Figure 1;

Figure 3 is a vertical, transverse section taken on the line 33 of Figure 1;

Figure 4 is a vertical section through the motor drive and timer mechanism and is taken substantially on the line 4-4 of Figure 1;

Figure 5 is an elevational view of the motor and timer and cooperating control mechanism;

Figure 6 is a vertical section taken on the line 6-6.of Figure 1, illustrating the film pickup arrangement and the indicating signal switch;

Figure 7 is a perspective view of one of the film holders;

Figure 8 is a wiring diagram showing the electrical hookup between the various parts of the device by means of which the desired control may be assured; and

Figure 9 is a perspective detail of a portion of the transporting chain and micro-switch actuating pin.

Referring to the drawings in detail, the apparatus comprises a two part cabinet having a base section I and an upper section 2 resting upon the base, the two sections forming a com-.

plete enclosure to exclude light, and within which all of the mechanism is housed. Within the cabinet there are a plurality of stationsat each of which a different stage of treatment in the development of the film takes place.

The first of these stations is located in the base I near the front of the cabinet and is indicated by the numeral 3. It consists of a container 4, extending transversely across the cabinet, and is filled with a developer solution. The container 4 rests upon the floor of the base, and has its top edge substantially flush with the top of the base section. The second station, 5, is positioned about midway of the base section, and consists of a tank 6, similar to tank 4, which is filled with a hypo solution. Adjacent the rear of the cabinet, the third station I is formed by placing a partition 8 across the base, and filling,

the tank 9, thus formed, with water. This is the washing station. The three tanks, 4', 6, and 9, are all of substantially the same size, and are equally spaced from one another.

The fourth station, or drying station I0, is located in the upper section of the cabinet. The side wall of the cabinet at the station 10 is cut away and a drying unit I I is fitted in place with a portion of the dryer housing l2 projecting into the cabinet. That portion of the housing i2 which projects into the cabinet is provided with louvres l3 through which warm, dry air may be blown out over the film that is at the station. A heating coil I4 is secured within the housing, and a fan i5 is located behind the coil to force air across the coil so as to heat it, and then through the louvres [3 to the interior of the cabinet.

Means to transport film from one station to another throughout the complete cycle of developing treatment is provided by a pair of endless chains l4 and I1, located on opposite walls of the upper part of the cabinet. At equally spaced intervals along the chain rods II are secured, the rods extending across the cabinet between the chains and having their opposite ends fixed to the chains to move with them, providing supports for the film carrier IS. The chains follow a serpentine pattern to lower and raise the film carriers into and out of the various tanks, and to move them from one tank to the next. To control the path of movement 01'. the chains, direction changing sprockets over which the chain passes are journaled along the side walls of the cabinet. Two pairs of these sprockets, 20 and 2|, position the top horizontal flight 22 of the chains. The chain passes around the sprocket 20 and downward and around the sprockets 23 which starts the chain upon its lower, interrupted flight 24. A spring pressed slack take up 25 bears against the chain between the sprockets 20 and 23. A number of sprockets 26 are spaced along the side walls of the cabinet to support the lower interrupted flight 24, the sprockets being arranged in pairs. Between each of the pairs the chain.loops downwardly,

each of the loops being directly over one of the tanks, 4, 6 or 9, or midway between the tanks. The bights of the depending loops pass around sprockets 2! just above the top of the tanks. By this arrangement five downwardly extending loops are formed to carry the film down until it is immersed and then to carry it back to the level of flight 24 where it is moved longitudinal of the cabinet. the end loop continues up and around the sprocket 2| to bring the chain back to the top flight 22 and to complete the circuit.

The two loops in the chain which are between the tanks 4, 6 and 9 are to bring the film down so as to dip it in the water with which the base section is filled to rinse the film between stations. Whereas the film remains in the tanks 4, 6, and 9 for definite periods of time, it is only momentarily dipped in the rinse water between the tanks during its travel from one tank to the next.

As it is essential that the film carrier supporting cross rods l8 be equally spaced along the chains, it maybe necessary to make some provision to take up chain between the third station, at the tank 9, and the fourth station at the dryer, as the chain follows a more direct route between these two stations than between the others. Four or more sprockets may be provided to cause the chain to follow a circuitous path, as at 28, to lengthen the course the chain must travel so that it equals that between the other stations.

Cross rods l8 may be secured to the chains in any desired manner, but as shown on the drawings the chains are provided with links 29, properly placed, having inwardly projecting studs 30. The studs on one chain have an opening II, and the studs on the other chain have an elongated opening 32. Rods l8 have their ends bent downwardly at right angles to form hooks 22 to engage the openings in the studs 30. The hook and slot connection between the rod and one chain permits some lateral movement between the chains to allow the chains to adjust for any unevenness in spacing between sprockets Journaled upon opposite walls of the cabinet.

Spaced inwardly from the hooks, the rods have disks 34 permanently positioned to act as retainers to position the hooks 35 of the film The upward moving leg oi ally along the rod.

carriers I9 to prevent them from shitting later- The film carriers I! are composed of a number of metal rods soldered or otherwise secured together. The top and bottom of the carriers consist of several of the rods 36 arranged in parallel spaced relation, held by tie rods 31 placed transversely across them, and the top and bottom are joined by vertical rods 38. Each of the rods 36 of the bottom have spring clips 39 fastened to their ends to hold the lower edge of the film. The upper rods 26 are each provided with a spring member 40 fastened to the under side of the rod near its middle, providing a pair of oppositely disposed spring arms 4| and 42 carrying at their outer ends spring clips 43. By this means, film of slightly diiierent lengths can be held, and the film will be under tension to hold it fiat during developing and drying. Any desired number of pairs of clips 39 and 43 may be used. The front of the upper section of the cabinet is open and provided with a blind, or curtain 44, mounted on a conventional spring roller 45. Channel members 46 are positioned vertically along the sides of the cabinet opening to receive the edges of the curtain 44 to guide the curtain and to seal the opening to keep out light. A catch 47 holds the blind in lowered position.

Just inside the open front of the cabinet and slightly above the chain flight 24 a hanger rod 48 extends completely across the cabinet. A filled film carrier is suspended from the hanger 48, and, as the chain moves forward, one of the cross rods l8 will engage the hooks of the carrier, transferring the carrier from the hanger to the chain to carry the film through the developing cycle. The chain carries the film down into the first tank containing the developer fluid and stops. After a timed interval, the chain starts lifting the film from the tank, transporting it to the second tank containing the hypo fiuid, momentarily dipping the fllm in the rinse water between the tanks in transit. The chain again starts, moving the film to the third tank for washing; and again, without pausing, dips the film in rinse water for a preliminary washing duringits travel. The next movement of the chain carries the film to the drying station. After the film has dried, the

'chain moves on, its next stop being at the first tank to begin a new cycle.

A short distance beyond the drying station the hooks of the film carrier hanging from the chain are engaged by a second hanger rod 49 extending transversely of the cabinet just below the chain, and the chains move on, leaving the film carrier suspended from the hanger rod. As the film carrier is caught by the hanger rod 49, the film carrier contacts a spring arm 50 which actuates a micro switch 5| closing a circuit thru an indicating signal 52, which may be either visible or audible, informing the operator of the apparatus that completely developed film is ready to be removed from the cabinet.

The above describes the cabinet, the various stations, the film carrier, and the movement of the film. thru the cabinet. We now come to the mechanism for moving the chain, controlling the points at which the chain stops, and determining the period of rest at each station.

Secured to the side of the cabinet just above the drying unit, a housing 53 provides space in the film transporting chain l6. One end of the motor shaft is provided with a sprocket wheel 56, and a chain 51 passing over sprocket B transmits power from the motor to a sprocket 58 fixed upon a shaft 59 passing through the cabinet wall and carrying sprocket 59 on its inner end. The opposite end of the motor shaft is fitted with a brake drum 60 upon which the brake shoes 6! bear to stop the motor when the brake operating linkage 62 is actuated.

A solenoid 63 controls the operation of the motor brake. The solenoid armature 64 has a cross member 65 fixed to its outer end, one end of the cross member being connected to the brake linkage to apply or release the brake as the solenoid armature moves.

Housing 53 also contains a timer 56 to control the length of time the transporting chain is at rest, and a double acting relay 61 to close the circuit to the motor and the circuit to the heater and fan unit alternately.

Referring to the wiring diagram shown in Figure 8, two sources of electrical supply are shown,

one for 220 volts to operate the electric motor,

and the other for 110 volts to operate the control mechanism. A line 68 runs directly from one side of the 220 volt power line to the motor. A return line 69 connects the motor with a stationary contact 70 on the relay 61, and movable contact ll of the relay is connected to the other side of the 220 volt power line. Whenever the contacts 10 and H of the relay are closed, current flows through the motor and the transporting chain is in operation.

A micro switch 12 is fixed to the inside of the cabinet adjacent the drying station and is provided with a spring arm 13 to be actuated by pins M which project outwardly from the chain and are in alignment with the film carrier supporting cross-rods l8. Thus there will be one pin for each of the cross-rods, and as a cross-rod reaches the drying station a pin 14 will strike the micro switch spring arm closing a circuit through the solenoid 63; the circuit being from one side of 110 volt line to the micro switch through wire 15,

opening a circuit to the timer through the coil 88 of the double-acting relay 6! through a cir-v and fan unit by way of wires 86, 81 and 88. Timer 66 may be of any well known type which when started will continue operation for a predetermined period of time, at the expiration of which it will close a switch making the circuit to the solenoid to start the motor and then permit the timer to return to its position of rest. The time that the film remains in the developing tank is the most critical of all of the stages of treatment in the development of a film and the timer is, therefore, set to keep the film in the developer fiuid for just the proper length of time and this, of course, determines the length of time the film will remain at the other treatment stations.

When the timer has reached its limit the circuit will be made, energizing the coil of the ing station the micro switch will be actuated and the cycle repeated.

By having the microswitch 72 at the drying station actuated by the pins 14 on the transporting chain, the cycle of operation will be' started regardless of whether or not film is carried on the particular cross rod adjacent the pin. By having the indicating signal micro switch 5! actuated by the film carrier the signal will not be energized unless a film carrier is on the chain and has actually gone through all of the stages of treatment.

While I have, in the above, described what is believed to be a preferred and practical embodiment of the invention, it is to be understood that those skilled in the art may make changes in the precise structure shown without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in the appended claim.

' What I claim is:

Photographic film developing apparatus comprising, an enclosure, a plurality of film treating stations within said enclosure, a pair of endless chains spaced from one another, film supporting rods interconnecting said chains, said rods being spaced along said chains so as to divide said chains into sections of equal length, said chains bein so arranged within said enclosure as to lie adja cent each of said film treating stations with the chain length between each station being equal to the distance between said film supporting rods, 9. motor to operate said chains, pins carried by said chains equal in number and spacing to said fihn supporting rods, and control means including a switch to be actuated by said pins and a timer operatively connected to said switch and having means connected to said motor to stop and start said motor.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2431442 *Nov 22, 1946Nov 25, 1947Wilson Dern MMachine for automatic development of photographic films
US2440314 *Mar 6, 1944Apr 27, 1948Roger Turner CharlesMethod and means for photographic developing or the like
US2473280 *Apr 4, 1946Jun 14, 1949Internat Mutoscope CorpAutomatic photographing and developing apparatus
US2491981 *Apr 27, 1948Dec 20, 1949Automatic DeveloperFilm developing machine
US2553014 *Jan 6, 1947May 15, 1951Internat Mutoscope CorpPhotographic strip developing apparatus
US2737865 *Nov 18, 1952Mar 13, 1956Bernard KleinApparatus for simultaneously processing and washing photographic prints or negatives
US2916976 *Nov 12, 1954Dec 15, 1959Philip S AllenAutomatic photographic apparatus
US2920548 *Dec 21, 1955Jan 12, 1960Brown Forman Distillers CorpPhotographic film developing apparatus
US3165049 *Mar 28, 1962Jan 12, 1965Vester DickAutomatic photographic color processing machine
US3195437 *Aug 3, 1962Jul 20, 1965Carlseen Howard EApparatus for processing strips of roll film
US3225675 *Jan 31, 1963Dec 28, 1965CrossAutomatic film processing apparatus
US3396956 *Feb 4, 1966Aug 13, 1968Brueninghaus Gmbh StahlwerkeMachine for bending and hardening leaf springs
US3624728 *Nov 20, 1968Nov 30, 1971Clark Charles WPhotographic apparatus
US3675564 *Jul 13, 1970Jul 11, 1972Michaelis WernerPhotographic developing apparatus
US4188414 *Jan 2, 1976Feb 12, 1980Champion International CorporationDrying with dielectric dryer
US7089768 *Jun 27, 2003Aug 15, 2006Bsh Bosch Und Siemens Hausgeraete GmbhWashing machine with conveyor device
DE1143709B *Dec 8, 1958Feb 14, 1963Foto AutomatenAnlage zum selbsttaetigen Behandeln blattfoermiger fotografischer Schichttraeger
U.S. Classification134/71
International ClassificationG03D3/10, G03D3/08
Cooperative ClassificationG03D3/10
European ClassificationG03D3/10