US 2390112 A
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E. W. MCGAFFEY 2,390,l l2l WELL PAckER 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 libwww.
Filed April 29, 1940 E. w. MCGAFFEY WELL PACKER Filed April 29, 1940 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ibs/1,2 WMC GAF/f5);
ilk/tam Patented Dec. 4, 1945 UNHE gaaanz reo Edgar W. McGaey, Bakersfield, Calif., assigner of forty-five per cent to Claude C. Taylor, Long Beach, and ten per cent to iD. W. Ward. Huntington Fark, Calif.
Application April 29, 3.940, Serial No. 332,2E
(Gi. 16S-l2) il Cias.
This invention relates to tools for all uses in oil wells which require removable packers in the casing or lining.
Packers in oil wells, whether used for cementing and other development operations or for such production operations as bottom hole packing, setting the bottle hole bean, or other devices intended to withstand pressures from below, all depend upon the weight of the tubing carrying the packer or slip mechanism engaging the sides of the casing to maintain the packer in position. If the packer is equipped with ordinary slips to prevent downward movement the pressure from below has a tendency to force the packer upward, possibly kinking the tubing or even driving it out of the bore entirely. Attempts have been made to overcome this tendency by inverting the slips, giving, in effect, an updrive spear. This type of mechanism is eilicacious in holding the packer down in the well against pressure tending to force it upwardly but has the very serious defect, ii mudded up or clogged with cement, of refusing to lock out of engagement with the casing when the tubing carrying the slips is lowered to engage the J-lock. Under such circumstances,
the packer may be driven downwardly but, as itI is impossible to move it in it must be drilled out.
It is desirable to have a packer which may be lowered in the well or raised therefrom without the packer producing a swabbing eect on the casing, both to promote ease of insertion and removal, and to prevent a "Wet job while pulling the tubing.
an upward direction,
It is, therefore, a primary object of this invention to provide a mechanism for securing a packer in a casing which will withstand pressure from below but which can be Withdrawn from the casing with ease.
It is a further object of this invention to provide-means for packing a well which can be inserted and withdrawn without interference caused by the well iluid.
It is a further object of this invention to provide bypass means in a packer which will automatically close upon the setting of the packer securing mechanism.
This invention possesses many other advantages, and has other objects which'may be made more easily apparent from a consideration of several embodiments of the invention. For this purpose there are shown two forms in the drawings accompanying and forming 'part of the present specication. 'I'hese forms will now be described in detail, illustrating the general principles of.
the invention; but it is to be understood that thisy detailed description is not to be taken in a limiting sense, since the scope of the invention is best deilned by the appended claims.
Referring now to the drawings illustrating embodiments of the invention.
Figures 1 and 2 show in elevation, partly in section, one form of the device in twodiierent positions of operation.
Figure 3 is a cross section of Figure 1, taken along lines 3 3 thereof.
Figures 4 and 5 illustrate a Second form of this invention in two positions of operation similar to those of Figures 1 and 2.
In the drawings, the casing IIJ is within the well to be cemented. A tubing or drill pipe El is run into the well with the packing device attached thereto. This device,. forming the subject matter of thepresent invention, consists of a slip head I2 attachable to the tubing II, with slips I 3 sliding in the slots I3' cut in the slip head, as is usual. This slip head is so shaped that downward movement of the head with respect to the slips engages the slips with the Wall of the casing it.
Below the slip head I2 and attached thereto is the tube I4,l which extends downwardly therefrom. This tube contains a smaller tube I 5, at-
tached thereto, and so arranged that no iluid can flow in the annulus past the upper end of tube I5. This may be accomplished by simply providing a ring I6' secured to the outside of the small tube I5 and secured to the interior of tube I5. This small tube I5 may extend a considerable distance beyond the end ,of tube I4, as when the device is used to deposit cement.
. Surrounding tube I4 is a sliding sleeve I6, equipped with a spring assembly I'I and a J-lock I8, the lock to hold the sleeve I6 down with respect to tube I4 when locked. YThis spring assembly is shown as of the usual form comprising a ring I8' iixed to sleeve I6, and a ring I'I' slidable on sleeve I6. Rings I'I and I8' are connected by springs I1 adapted to frictionally en-l gage the interior of casing II). The drag of springs I'I tends to prevent axial or rotational movement of sleeve I6 with respect to casing I0, hence by appropriately moving tube II and connected parts it is possible to cause relative rotary or axial movement between sleeve I6 and tube I4.
Through the walls of tube I4 and the sleeve I6 are portsy I9 and 20. As shown in Figure 1, these ports are in alignment when the J-lock is engaged to hold the sleeve I6 down with respect to equally well be in' the sleeve I5.
the tube Il. To render the ports effectual in shutting oi! flow, packing means 2| and 22 may be provided between the sleeve I5 and the tube Il. This packing has been shown as recessed in tube Il but it is to be' understood that it could In such case, the`upper packing 2| may be in such a position as to cover port I3 when the slip mechanism is lowed by fluid or water. so that the nal condition is a well with cement on the bottom and water or iiuid in the tubing. 'The tubing Il is then rotated to unlock J lock I8 and lowered,
which sets the slips I3 in the casing and closes ports I8 and 28. vIf now pressure is applied to set, in which case the lower packing 22.would not be necessary.
Attached to the lower end of sleeve I5 by coupling 23 is the packer assembly 28. This assembly may be of any suitable form, that illustrated being a tube 25 with a, rubber or like packer 25 held thereon between airing 21 and cup 28 on one sidefand a ring 28 on the other side, `ring 28 being held in place by ring 35 threaded on tube 25. Within tube 25 is secured the ring 3|,
which is ported at 32 and surrounds tube I5 so as to be movable with respect thereto. It is seen, with the above construction, that any movement of the tube II and the head I2 serves to move `tubes I4 and I5 with respect to the packer and sleeve I5.
Attached to the upper end of the sleeve I5 is' ring 33. which is arranged to move axially with sleeve I5 but is free to rotate with respect thereto. This may be accomplished in a number of ways, perhaps the simplest being the provision of a groove and inturned flange 3l and 35 formed on the sleeve I5 and the ring ,33, respectively. the flange 35 fitting the groove 34 loosely enough to turn therein. For assembly purposes, the ring 33 may be split and welded in position with the flange 35 inserted in groove 3l. v
The upper end of the ring 33 is arranged toop- ,erate the slips I3. The particular mechanism by which this has been done is the provision of links 35 pivoted to the slips and ring 33 at 3'I an'd 38, respectively. This mechanism together with ring 33 may be said to form abutment means between the sleeve I5 and the slips I3. Provision is made for some lost motion between the slips and ring by utilizing a slot 39 rather than a circular hole for one of the pivots' in each link. The slips I3 and ring 33 abut each other upon downward movement of the slips I3 with respect to the ring 33. This can be conveniently accomplished by having the links 35 work in slots 48 in the ring 33, although any other method may be used.
In operation, the sleeve I5 is first locked in the position shown in Figure 1, which holds the slips out of engagement with the casing. In that position. the whole device can be lowered by the tubing II into the well. the iluid in the well passing up tube 25 to the annular space between the same time. fluid passes up tube I5 into tube II, thus obviating floating. and entrapment of air in tube II. When the lower end of tube I5 is near the bottom of the hole, wash water may be run in, which will displace the well fluid up through the annuJar space and out ports I8 and 28. As an alternative method of washing, water may be run down the annular space between the tube II and the casing I8 under pressure. When this is done. the water will pass packer 25 which is not effective to prevent flow in a downward direction. and the water will pass downwardly to the bottom of pipe I5 and thence up through pipe I5 and tubing II to the surface. Cementmay then be run down the tube II, and the assembly lifted as it runs in, until a suillcient amount hasV force the cement into the formation surrounding the casing, the upward pressure on the packer 23 serves to merely set the slips tighter, without lifting the'slip head appreciably. The only downward force necessary on the slip head is to hold the slips in engagement with the casing, which is a veryvsmall force compared to the upward pressure on the packer.
After the cement has `been presumably put away under pressure, it is desirable to clear the tubing of any excess cement. This can be done in either one of two ways. The slips can be locked down, thus opening ports I3 and 28. and 'iluid fromthe surface pumped down the tubing and circulated back up to the surface through ports 32, I9 and 28, and up through the annular space between tubing II and casing I8, or it can be accomplished by pumping fluid down through the annular space between tubing II and casing I8 and past the compressible packer 25 and up through the tubing I5 and II to the surface of the well. In case it is impossible to lock the slips down through failure of equipment or mudding up of same the latter method would have to be used. It will be noted that the ports I8 and 28 operate only upon operation of the slip setting mechanism, and that they are positively controlled by the position of the slip setting mechanism. This feature possesses several important advantages. It gives assurance that the ports will close when the slips are locked for squeezing, thus preventing inadvertent escape of cement into the space above the packer,` which might clog the mechanism, and also assures that the assembly cannot be lowered unless the ports are open. This last prevents tearing of the packer, by pressures built up in the space below the packer, as the string of pipe or tubing is lowered. At the same time, failure of the ports to open upon upward movement of the string. due to failure of equipment, is not fatal to the success of the cementing job, and does not cause the loss of the packer in the well. as fluid can readily flow past the packer when the pressure above it is greater than that below it.
In Figures 4 and 5 a modified form of slip and packer assembly is shown. In this form, the
. slip head is attached to the packer to move thereto the tool forming the subject matter of this invention by means of coupling 5I engaging a threaded portion of tubular member 52. This member 52 telescopes over the tube 53, which forms an inside sleeve with respect to tube 52. A J-lock comprised of a pin 54 secured to the outer surface of sleeve 53 and a slot 55 in tube 52 is provided so arranged that when locked the J-lock holds the outer tube 52 against downward movement' with respect to the inner tube 53. Secured to tube 53 is a slip head 55 which may be secured by means of cooperating threaded portions on the slip head 55 and tube 53. This slip head 56 has a tapered outer surface so arranged that downward movement of the .slips with respect to the slip head 55. or upward movement of the head with respect to the slips will cause engagement between the slips and the sides of .75 the casing. Secured to the lower portion ofthe before, the device is adapted to be used for any f purpose in which it is desired to set a packer, and .the essential feature lof this invention consists of the novel cooperation between the slip assembly and the packers, whereby'any pressure on the lower side of the packer tends not to lift the slip of usual form here illustrated as a rubber or -I like packer 82 held between a ring 63 and cup 65 on one side, ring 53 being welded to tube 60, and on the other side a ring 65 held in place by another ring 68 threaded to tube 60. It is, therefore, seen that the packer and spring assembly and the slip head 56 form one unit and any movement of the packer would 'be transmitted to the slip head 55.
Secured to tubular member 52 is a collar 61 so arranged that it will follow any axial movement of tubular member 52 but is free to turn with respect thereto. This is accomplished in the' illustrated form by providing tubular member '52 with a recessed ange 52' in the recess of which the inturned iiange 58 of collar 61 is free to turn. For ease of assembly, this collar 61 may be split and united by welding or the like after the flange '58 has-been inserted in the recess in the ilange 52' of tubular member 52. A series of slips 59 is secured to the collar 61 by means of links pinned to the collar 61 and slips 59, respectively. The links 1Q have provision for lost motion between the slips 69 and the collar 61 which may be readily accomplished by providing a slot for one of the pins securing the link 1@ t0 the collar 61 and slips 69, here illustrated as slot ii for the pin mounted on collar 61. Provision is made to allow the collar 61 upon downward movement to abut the upper surface of the slips which may be readily done by mounting the links in slots in thel collar 61 and permitting the bottom of the collar 61 to engage the surface of the slips 69, as shown in Figure 5. The wall of the tubular member 52 and wall of tube or sleeve 53` are provided with a pair of ports which coincide when the J-lock is locked in the position shown in Figure 4. These ports 12 and 13 permit passage of iluid from the interior of tube 53 tothe exterior of the tool and provide bypass means for use during lowering or Washing operations.
In order to prevent leakage of fluid through port 13 in sleeve 53 when ports 12 and 13 are in a position shown in Figure 5, a packing 14 is proof iiuid therethrough.
Within the tubing 53 and extending downwardly beyond the bottom of the tool is the Wash pipe 15 which is secured in place by the annular ring 16 at the top thereof above ports 12 and 13. A second ring 11 secured in tube 50 near its lower end serves as a guide for tube 15 and is provided with ports i8 to permit passage of fluid through the annular space outside of tube 15 to ports 12 and 13. l
-The operation of this form is exactly as the form shown in Figures 1, 2, and 3, the parts cooperating in a very similar manner, the only difference being that motion of the tubing string 50 directly moves slips 59 rather than the slip head 56 when the tool is being engaged or disengaged from the walls of the casing 59. It is to b e clearly understood that both forms of this invention shown may be used for other purposes than cementing of wells. For instance, as mentioned vided. This packing is arranged in such a p`0si- A.
mechanism but to tighten the same. At the same time, it is not necessary to lock the slips out of engagement with the walls of the casing when withdrawing the tool therefrom, Ias mere upward movement of the -tubing supporting the tool disengages the slips from the walls of the casing.
l. A well cementing device including a tubing extending to the surface; a pair of spaced tubes one within the other, said tubes being connected to said tubing and extending therebelow; means preventing ilow through the annular space between said tubes; a slip mechanism on the device means operating the slip mechanism including a sleeve on the outer tube; a packer surrounding the sleeve and ports in the'outer tube and the sleeve below said flow preventing means but above the packer, said ports being in registry uifhen said slip mechanism is in inoperative posit on.
2. A well packing device including a tubular element adapted to communicate with the surface through a string of tubing, a slip mechanism operatively connected to said tubular element for gripping the walls of the well and preventing movement of said tubular element, operating means for said slip mechanism including a sleeve slidingly mounted on said tubular element, and packing means mounted on said sleeve closing the annular space between said sleeve and th'e walls oi the well, there being a port through said tubular element adapted to communicate with the exterior of said tubular element above said packing means, said sleeve operating to close said port upon setting of the slip mechanism,
' 3. A well packing device including a tubular element adapted to communicate with the surface through a string of tubing, a slip mech'anism operatively connected to said tubular element for gripping the walls of the well, operating means for said slip mechanism including a sleeve slidingly mounted on said tubular element, ports through said tubular element and said sleeve, said when said mechanism is in another position of operation, and a packing means mounted on said sleeve and closing the annular space between th'e sleeve and the walls of the well.
4. In a packing device for use in a well, said device including slip mechanism adapted to be operated to a position for restraining movement of said device in the well, slip operating mechanism including a slip head for moving the slips of said slip mechanism to and from casing engaging position and including a pair ot tubular elements one mounted within the other, said elements being axially slidable with respect to 'each' other, the slip head being connected to one of said elements, the slips being connected to the other element, whereby relative axial movement .between the elements causes the slips to move when said elements are in position to maintain said slips in restraining position, and means forming a bypass around said packing element and including said ports, whereby the bypass is open when the slips are out of restraining position and closed when they are in restraining position.
5. A packing casing and including a tube adapted for communication with the mouth of the well, a packer adapted to seal against the casing, means telescopically connected to said tube and mounting said packer for axial movement with respect to said tube, a slip head, said means mounting said slip head for movement axially of said tube, said means connecting said slip head with said packer for transmitting axial movement of the packerv to the slip head, slips cooperating-with the slip head to engage said casing upon downward movement of the slips relative to said head, and means operatively connecting said slips and said 'tube for transmitting axial movement oi the tube to the slips to cause movement the slip head.
6. A packing device adapted for use in a well casing and including a tube adapted for communication with the mouth of the well, a packer adapted to seal against the casing, a sleeve slidably mounting said packer on said tube for axial movement with respect thereto. a slip head mounted on the sleeve for axial movement with respect to the tube, slips cooperating with the.
slip head to engage said casing upon downward movement of said slips with respect to said head, and abutment means between said tube and said slips to transmit downward motion of the tube to the slips. v
'7. A packing device for wells and the like including a tube adapted for communication with the surface; a. packer; means slidably connected to said tube mounting said packer for axial movement with respect to said tube when said packer is in sealing relation with the well casing; means forming a communication between said tube and the space below the packer; a slip head; means device adapted'for use in a welll of the slips relative to mounting said slip head on said tube; slips cooperating with said slip head to grip the well casing and prevent downward movement of the tube; and an operative connection between the packer and the slips causing wedging of the slips between the slip head and the casing upon upward movement of the packer relative to the slip head under influence of, the iluid pressure below the packer.
8. A packing device for wells and the like comprising a tube adapted for communication with the surface of the well; a packer; a sleeve telescopically connected to said tube and mounting said packerjior axial movement with respect to the tube; means forming communication between the tube and the space below the packer; a slip head; means mounting said slip head on the tube; slips cooperating with said slip head to grip the well casing and prevent downward movement of the tube; and abutment means connected between said sleeve and said slips to transmit the upward force of said packer generated by the fluid pressure below the packer to the slips to cause wedging of said slips between the slip head and the well casing.
9. A packing device for wells and the like including a tube adapted for communication with the surface; a ring and a sleeve; means mounting said ring and sleeve on said tube, said ring and sleeve being movable axially as a unit on said tube but rotatable with respect to each other;a packer mounted on the sleeve; a J-lock between the sleeve and the tube to lock said sleeve in a downward position; a slip headron said tube; slips cooperating with said slip head to wedge between the casing and the slip head to hold the tube against downward movement in the casing; and links connecting the ring to the slips.
10. A packing device as in claim 9 in which the sleeve carrying the packer carries resilient means engaging the casing and resisting motion of said sleeve with respect to the casing.
EDGAR W. MCGAH'EY.