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Publication numberUS2390414 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 4, 1945
Filing dateJul 29, 1943
Priority dateJul 29, 1943
Publication numberUS 2390414 A, US 2390414A, US-A-2390414, US2390414 A, US2390414A
InventorsAyres Waldemar A, Page Ralph E
Original AssigneeIbm
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Stenographic machine
US 2390414 A
Abstract  available in
Images(6)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

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STENOGRAPHIC MACHINE Filed .July 29, 1943 e sheets-sheet' 5 A ZTORNEY 4, 1945. w. A. AYREs ETAL STENOGRAPHIC MACHINE Filed July 29, 1945 -6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Flam.

Patented Dec. 4, 1945 STENOGRAPHIC MACHINE Waldemar A. Ayres, Kew Gardens, N. Y., and Ralph E. Page, West Orange, N. J., assignors to International Business Machines Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application July 29, 1943, Serial No. 436,606

9 Claims.

' the fingers of both hands. The keys are arranged in consonant and vowel groups, there being an initial consonant group at the left to be operated by the lingers of the left hand, an intermediate vowel group occupying a central position beneath. the thumbs' of both hands, and final consonant group keys at the right of the machine under the ngers of the right hand. The keys are not only arranged as to consonant and vowel distinction in a left or right order, but the characters represented by the keys are arranged scientiilcally as a result of a study of letter sequence occurrence and relative frequency of speech sounds. The keys not only represent a complete series f alphabetic characters but they' also represent repetitions of such characters placed to derive the greatest benefit. A common occurrence in the English language is the double TT and double LL arrangements as well as TH, CH, etc. It is an object not only to provide such sequences but to piace them with respect to other letters on the keyboard, so that they fall within patterns of common usage and are recorded by a single stroke of the hands.

Another object of the invention is to provide a simple and yet eii'ective differential mechanism for selecting a third character when two keys are operated together. The keys are arranged in a plurality of longitudinal rows, each row containing Ithree keys for direct selection of the three most frequent letters, and they are used in combination to select two other letters through the Joint operation of two of the three keys.

A still further object of the invention is to provide an automatic print operating device which `is effective for aligning at the same time as it effects the printing impression. The type are arranged on wheels rocked under control ofthe key operated differential mechanism, and alignment is perfected by a wedge formed on the printing hammer coinciding with V-shaped notches arranged at regular intervals around the printing wheels.

A further object of the invention is the provision of a shift control for utilizing the keyboard to select a second set of printing characters including special marks, numbers, and punctuation characters. Each printing wheel carries a double set 0f type faces. one set of five faces relating to the normal alphabet selections and the second set of type faces formed with numerals and special characters. Each wheel is positioned through a link pivoted thereon to be directed for type selection operations by `motions on either side of the fulcrum of the printing wheel. The link is operated by the shift mechanism to swing the character wheel for selection of either set of type faces prior to the selection of a particular type face.

Other objects of the invention will be pointed out in the following description and claims and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, which disclose, by way of example, the principle of the invention and the best mode, which has been contemplated, of applying that principle.

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 is a plan view of the machine.

Fig. 2 is a sectional elevation view taken along lines 2--2 in Fig. 1. Y

Fig. 3 is a sectional elevation view taken along lines 3-3 in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4 is a wiring diagram showing the electrical connections for controlling the print operating solenoids.

Fig. 5 shows an example of the printed strip.

Fig.l 6 is a plan view cf the keyboard.

Fig. 7 shows the shift characters selected by the keyboard of rig. 6, when the shift selection mechanism is operated.

Figs. 8, 9 and l0 show alternative arrangements of the keys involving the rearrangement of the character keys and the shift and space selection bars. Fig. 8 shows the shift bar positioned for index finger control. Fig. 9 is an arrangement without shift control but including a set of initial vowel keys to the left of all initial consonant keys. In the keyboard of Fig. 10, a few letters are rearranged and the space bar is located for operation by the left index finger..

. The framework of the machine comprises a casing 3ll (Fig. 3) mounted on a base plate 32. The sides of the casing 3| are used as side plates and they carry hubs for supporting a number of transverse shafts. Near the forward end of the machine (Fig. 1) there is provided a pair of intermediate side plates 33 and 34 providing supports for the vowel keys and acting as an anchorage for a series of cross bars, such as bars 3B, 3l and 38 (Fig. 2) fastened between the intermediate plate 34 and the right side wall of the casing. These bars act as stopping means for the linkages of the differential mechanism operated by the keys. Before describing the mechanism operated by the keys, it is believed well to endings.

point out the arrangement of the keys and the reasons for su-ch arrangement.

Referring to Fig. 6, it is seen that the keys are divided into three main groups, the group at the left including a shift bar and four longitudinal rows of keys with three keys in each row. The keys are not aligned in the transverse direction but are arrangedjo conform with the normal positions of the finger tips of the fingers on the left hand. It isintended that the ngers occupy a normal position on the center keys of the rows. In other words, the index finger tip Will rest on the R key, the middle finger on the H key, the ring finger on the T key, and the little finger on the S key.

In order to form desired letter selections, one,

or more of the fingers are moved forward into cooperation with the top set of keys or retracted to engage one of the four lower keys. The letter selected by depression of each key is designated by the letter shown on the center of the key. Other letters are selected by joint operation of pairs of keys, the pairs belonging to keys in the same row, for example, in the first row at the left, a D is selected by operation of the small finger overlying the T and S keys. In this same row, a fifth character K is selected when the small finger depresses both the S and the Q keys. In a similar fashion it is possible for the three keys in each longitudinal row to select one of five characters.

From the foregoing it is apparent that the rst three consonants of words, such as school and strolL are represented by a single depression of the fingers of the left hand in cooperation with the consonant keys in the left group. The center group of keys is seen to include two rows of vowel keys flanked by a pair of spacecontrol bars. One of these bars is depressed when a, complete word is printed or when the part of the word selected is the last part of the word. For example, in Fig. 5 the printed slip shows that the first two words were selected by a single movement of the hands, but the third word required a double movement and, therefore, the space sign is printed along with the second part of the word.

Referring back to Fig. 6, it is noted that the E keys occupy a central position in the two rows of vowel keys, The positions on the E keys are the ones occupied normally by the ends of the two thumbs. From these central positions the thumbs are moved back or forth to select and depress the I and U keys. The O and A vowels lare selected by depression of combinations of two vowel keys.

The double set of vowel keys makes it possible to select many combinations involving double vowel sounds, such as OO, EE, as well as the combined sounds OU and IE, and so on.

The group of keys at the right represent the consonants usually required to represent word They are arranged in the positions normally occupied by the finger tips of the right hand and include five rows of keys, one more than the initial consonant group. The fingers are to be placed so that the tip of the index finger of the right hand is over the R key, the middle finger over the N key, the ring finger on D key and the small finger on the H key. When selections are to be made in the column of the keys at the extreme right, the small finger is shifted over to cooperate with the comma key, the E key or the period key. The keys of these rows of final consonant keys are operated singly or in combinations, as already described in con..

nection with the initial consonant keys, to select one of the five characters represented in each row. The characters represented at the center of each key is the one selected by operation of the key alone, the characters represented at the intersections or spaces between the keys is the character selected by combined operation of the twoV keys adjoining the representation. The extreme right row of keys includes the final vowel E which is found useful in many word endings. An example of the use of the group of keys at the right is in the formation of word endings such as the ending of the word brought The selection of the numbers, punctuation marks and special characters shown on the keyboard in Fig. '7 is accomplished in the same manner as described in connection with the keys of the arrangement of Fig. 6. 'I'he only difference is that the shift bar 43 is operated along with the consonant keysto select the special set of type,

The operation of the keyboard of Fig. 8 is controlled for letter selection as described hereinbefore, one difference being that the shift bar 43 is operated by the index finger rather than the small finger as in Figs. 6 and 7. There is another difference in operation called for by the arrangement of Fig. 8, in that the space bar 44' is centralizedfor operation by the tip of either thumb. This differs from the kind of operation called for by the arrangement involving two space bars 44 and 45 (Fig. 6) located for operation by the middle part of the thumb of either hand. In Fig. 8 the index finger of the right hand is also called upon to make a greater number of key selections, and in doing so relieves the little finger which in Fig. 6 has the normal position over the H key, but in Fig. 8 has a home position on the E key. Figs. 9 and I0 relate to arrangements also calling for further use of the agile index fingers.

The key arrangement of Fig. 9 is in some ways the same as that of Figs. 6, 7 and 3. The three keys of each row are operated singly or in combination to make one of five type selections, as already described. One difference is in the omission of the shift control which is optional and for machines providing larger selection capacity. The main difference is in the provision of a set of vowel keys placed at the extreme left and before the entire set of initial consonant keys.

\ Since many words are started with vowal letters,

the arrangement of Fig. 9 is desirable in this respect.

Fig. 10 shows a key -arrangement involving a reversal of 'position of keys in some rows, and the rearrangement of the X, M, V and F keys in the final consonant group. The space bar 44" is located for left index finger operation and the two sets of vowel keys are isolated for unencumbered thumb control.

Since the section line 2-2 in Fig. 1 passes alongside the keys 40, 4|, 42, it is in connection with these G, D and C keys that an example of the differential mechanism is shown in Fig. 2. In Fig. 2 it is seen that the three stems attached to key tops 40, 4| and 42 are formed differently to provide pivot points and operating abutments for a connected linkage of differential mechanism. The three key stems 48, 49 and 50 pass through and are guided by rectangular slots cut into the top of the casing 3|. The stems are formed with shoulders cooperating with the underside of the casing to act as limiting stops for the upward movement of the keys. The lower ends of the keys Il are of a narrow elongated shape passing through guide openings in a cross 2,soo,414

bar l2 secured between the intermediate plates The ey stems 48, 49 and il have a common 1 characteristic in that each one is provided with a spring holding projection, stem 5l having a pro- Jection 5l for guiding a spring 56, stem 49 having a projection 51 for a spring Il and stem 48 having a projection 59 for a spring 6l. These three springs 56, 5l and 80 are supported at their lower eids on the ends of a pair of horizontal opera g links 6I and 62. Link-6| is pivotedkat ll on its right end in a notch cut into a shoulder on the key stem 49. A similar pivot is provided for link I2 by a notch cut into stem 48 to receive'the pivot 64 on this lower link. The-1eft end of the upper link 6| carries a pin 65, which iirst of a series of ilve type faces arranged around the periphery of the print'wheel I1. It is seen that the first degree or portion of diiierential movement of the center II towardV the right will rests on an extension 66 formed as part of key stem il.

'Llhe two horizontal links are tied together by a short vertical link 61 which is articulated at 68 with link 62 and has a pivotal connection v69 located at a point about one-third the distance bev tween centers 65 and-63 of link El. A second vertical link 1n is pivoted between a center 1| on the lower horizontal link 62 and a pivotal mountlng 12 on the end of an operating lever 13 fulcrumed on a shaft 14 extending across the machine.

The object of the'dierential linkage described -is to produce ve diiferent degrees of downward movement of link 10 and lever 13 under control of the three keys 4'0, 4I and 42. It is possible Y to attain such different degrees of movement because of the ratio of operating movement produced by the placement ofthe various operat- `ing centers of the four operating links. Consider- -ing these operating movements in theorder. of

their degree, taking the smallest degree of operation first, it is noted that when the key 4l is depressed, spring 58 presses down on the right end position but the center 69 is lowered to push downen link 61 an amount which is about onethird the movement of the key stem. The movenient `of link 61 is transmitted through horizontal 4link 62 when the latter is swung in a counterclockwise direction about pivot 64. There is a further reduction in the degree of movement be'- cause the center 1| of the link 10', to which the movement is imparted, is located nearer the pointv of rotation 64 than the .point v68 .of application.

IThe 'resultantvmovement is communicated to lever carry type face D upward into the printing position opposte ribbon ll. The partsare. proportioned so that depression of key 4l rocks links il and t2 to-depress link 1| and rock lever 13 in a counterclockwise direction. carrying print lever 8l along therewith in a clockwise direction as urged by spring "Il and moving pitman Ii to the right and shifting the eccentric mounting II thereof to rock the print wheel 81 in a counterclockwiseV direction and position typeface D for effecting a printing impression.

The second degree of movement is caused by operation of the G key member shown in Fig. 2. Depression of the key and key stem 4B causes a .rocking movement of the lower link with center t8 acting as a xed pivot. The link is moved until the right end strikes the top of cross bar I8.

About one-third of the swinging movement of link 6,2 is communicated to vertical link V10, and

.this is a movement about double the amount imthird step of movement is produced by operation of the C key member 42. The attached key stem 50, when depressed, pushes down on the left end of horizontal link'lil, through springV 56.'

Then, pivot 63 isstationary and link 6| swings about it. -About .two-thirds of thekey `stem 13 androcks this lever a slight amount in `a-- counterclockwise direction.y At the right end of `lever 13 isa shoulder 11 with a spring mounting Qfor a spring 18 which is attached to a stud 19 on `a bell crank lever 80 pivoted on a shaft 8|.

Theupper endof print control lever 80 carries a Ystud engaging in a slot 84 formed in the left end of a pitman'i pivoted at 86 on a type wheel 4 y 2 `The type wheel is freely mounted on a shaft 88 and ls normally pomtioned to present a blank typeface opposite s ribben so situated between the type -wheel and the platen 9|. Directly below j the blank face ls'on the type wheel`81 is a type "faoe extension bering the letter D. This is the 75 thirds of the full movement is imparted as a D keys for selection of the L type face. When cated in the usual way to the type wheel 81e, which is then rocked counterclockwiseA to .bring .the third or C type face' opposite the ribbonil.

The fourth type face on the printing wh'eel is moved into printing position by combined operation of theD and -G keys. Such operation causes both key stems 48 and 49 to be depressed.` Then pivotpoint acts as a stationary center for the rocking movement Vof link 6 I'caused by depression of key stem 49. This loweringmovement serves toplace center E8 below its usual position and augment the movement imparted to vertical link ,10 by the rocking movement of link 62 caused b'y depression of key stem 48. In other words,A

horizontal link 62 is pushed down on both ends by both key stems, and the resultant motion imparted'to lever 13 is four extents or portions. of movement, serving to carry the fourth type face T up into printing position.

The nfth and greatest degree-of movement is the one Vcaused by .'lQint operation of the C and key stems- 49 and B0 are depressed at the same time, link 6I` is lowered a full `depression stroke with the left end of link 6I abutting against the top of cross bar 38 and the right end of the link striking against offset portion 16. Vertical link &1 communicates the complete depression move- .ment to the left end of link 62, while the right end is held stationary around pivot 84. About twodepressing action of vertical link 10, and through pivot 12 the largest degree of movement is communicated through the levers and pitman to the Referring to Figs. 1 and 3, it is noted that the operating levers 13 are without offsets and have a plane of operation parallel with the sides of the machine. There are ve such levers near the right side of the machine and four such levers at the left side of the machine. Near the center of the machine are two other such levers 13' also without offsets but of a greater length than the ordinary levers 13. These two special operating levers 13 (Fig. 2) are provided'for the vowel keys n I which occupy va location near the front of the machine. These two vowel levers are pivoted on a shaft 14 extending between the two intermediate supporting plates 33 and 34. The front ends of levers 13 extend forward into cooperation with the lower ends of a pair o'f vertical links 10 similar in control as th operating links 10 already described. 'Ihe rear ends of levers 13' are formed' to avoid interference with shaft 14 and at the very end have a formation similar to the spring holding shoulder 11 already described with reference to levers 13.

A twelfth operating lever 13" is provided to operate a printing wheel under control of either of the two space bars 44 and 45 (Fig. 1) This lever 13" is positioned to lie directly beneath the right space bar 45 and is connected thereto by a pivot pin connection 83 (Fig. 2). Attached to lever 13" is an L-shaped offset bar 13a which also has a pivot pin connection with the key stem depending from the left space bar 44. In Fig. 2 it is seen that the space operating lever 13" is also pivoted on shaft 14' along with the two vowel levers 13. Although the forward part of the space lever is of a special formation, the rear portion coincides with the contour of the levers 13' and also carries a spring shoulder 11 for operating one of the print levers 80.

The sectional elevation view in Fig. 3 shows that, although the twelve operating levers 13,13'

, and 13" are without offset formations, that is not true of the print operating levers 80 which have converging formations above the supporting shaft 8|. The two vowel control levers 80 are centrally located and, therefore, have the smallest degree of converging formation. The other character selecting levers have progressively longer offsets as they are further removed from the center of the machine. An exception is the print control lever 80' cooperating with the space lever 13".. This lever is so situated that it is possible for it to operate directly inA connection with the pitman for rotating theprint wheel carrying the space type SP (note the space marks along the right margin of the sample strip in Fig. 5),.

The levers 13 (Fig. 2) are spaced on shaft 14 by hubs or collars 95 freely mounted on the shaft. In a similar fashion, the levers 13' and 13" (Fig. 1) are spaced and supported by hubs and collars 96 on shaft 14' between the intermediate support Plates 33 and 34. Referring to Fig. 3. it ls ble the parts as well as easy to take the machine apart for repairs.

A comb |00 (Figs. 2 and 3) is provided to guide the twelve pitman links 85 as they reciprocate to operate and restore the print wheels. Attached to the front end of each pitman 85 is a spring |0| also secured to a rod ,|02 between the intermediate frames. Springs |0| restore the pit anlinks and print wheels, but are not strong e ough to pull the linkage beyond the home position in which it is held againstshoulder 11 by spring 18 and balanced by the combined normal pressure of the key stem springs 55, 58 and 50.

A shift control is provided to make it possible for the keyboard to select a second set of type such as the special characters shown in Fig. 7. In Fig. 2 it is seen that each type wheel 81 not only bears the five character type faces already mentioned, but it also carries a second set of ve faces led by the blank space |03 at the top of the wheel. The twelve pitmen 85 are normally held down in the character selecting position by individual springs |05 attached to a rod |08. However, it is possible to lift the pitmen about center 83 to the dottedpostion 85 for the selection of special type. When this is done, the printer wheels 81 are rocked 'almost a quarter of a ,turn in a clockwise direction andv a position is reached wherein the shift blank face |03 is opposite the ribbon 90.

For the purpose of` lifting pitmen 85 for shift selection, a shift bale is provided with a horizontal rod |08 underlying all pitmen. Reference to Fig. 1 shows that the shift bale is composed of a short straight arm |09 at the right and a long converging lever ||0 at the left, a pivoting shaft between the arm and lever, and the'rod |08 on the rear ends of the arm and lever. Shaft is supported at the left by a bearing ||2 fixed to the left side of the casing. The shaft has further support by bearings in the intermediate frames- 33 and 34.

In Fig. 2A it is seen that the forward end of shift lever ||0 is articulated at ||3 on the lower end of the stem ||4 extending down from the shift bar 43 (Fig. 1). Depression of bar 43 causes a counterclockwise movement of the shift bale about center (Fig. 2). This serves to raise r0d |08 and carry all pitmen 8-5 up to the dotted position 85'. Then the effective ends of the pitmen are above the printer wheel center 88 rather than below it as normally used. The effect is that accompanying a shift all key selections cause the printer wheels to be rocked to one of live different extents in a clockwise direction and opposite to the normal direction of selection used with the pitmen in the normal lowered position, The selection of nve specialcharactersA by operation of three keys is brought about in the same manner as explained in connection with selection of the type faces of the letters D, G, C, T and L. As shown in Fig. '1, there are only three shift characters 3, 8 and on the keys corresponding to the G, D and C keys of Fig. 6. It is obvious that two other special marks as and are selectable by combined operation of pairs of such keys with the shift.

When the shift bar is released, springs |05 pull the pitmen to the bottom of comb |00 and rod |08 is carried along therewith to restore mally retracted position by springs |23.

the bale. For the sake of uniformity, the space type faces and is rocked for'a shift operation along with the character wheels.

Printing is effected by a set of twelve print hammers |20 pivoted on a shaft |2| and guided by a comb |22. All hammers are held in a nor- The striking end of each hammer is formed with a pointed projection |24 for cooperation with locating V notches |25 cut in the printer wheel 81 i between the type faces. Thus, by means of cooperation between the points and notches the hammers are not only adapted to throw the type wheels against the platen, but also align them on the way.

Shaft 88, upon which the type wheels 81 are' mounted, is supported on the upper ends oi a pair oi' arms |21 pivotally mounted on the shaft |2| along with the hammers, However, the harnmers are held in a rocking frame comprising side plates |28 and a tie rod |28 passing through all the hammers. A rod |30 acts as a stop for the operating movement of the impression `arms |21. Pivotally attached at |32 to the left printer side plate |28 is the top of a link |33 forming part of a toggle linkage for operating the printing mechanism. The lower end oi link |33 is slotted to receive a pin |35 on the upper end of a long toggle link |38. 'I'he two toggle links are held together by an over center spring |31, attached to center |32 and on the end oi' a stud |38 forming the pivot at the lower end of link |38. l Also pivotally attached to stud |38 is a spring plunger |38 encased in a stationary holder |40 secured to the sides of casing 3|. Fitted within a circular opening in bolder |40 is a compression spring |4I, a portion of which is contained in a i hollowed out sleeve formed as the lower part of plunger 38. Spring |4| presses upward to force a shoulder |42 on the plunger against a locating stop in the form of a hook |43 fastened to the side of the holder. The action -of spring |4| supplements the tension of spring |31 to force the toggle linkage into one of the two home positions, one of which is shown in Fig. 2. The toggle linkage is thrown from right to left and4 back again alternately. each throw of the linkage being eiTective to cause a printing operation. The impression occurs as center |35 passes through the dead center position wherein the linkages straighten out to move the frame |28 in a clockwise direction.

f course. as the frame |28 is lifted about shaft |2|, the hammers |20 are carried along therewith and strike against the print wheels 81 carrying them over toward the right and pressing them against the ribbon 80, a recording strip 30, and the platen 9|. The timing of the hammer action is arranged to occur after the print wheels have assumed selected positions under small amounts to bring them in accurate regl istry, so that all type faces form a parallel line of characters on the record strip 30.

Printing operation is controlled by a pair oi' solenoids SI and S2. These solenoids are connected to the toggle mechanism to swing it alternately back and forth to cause a printing impression for each vibration. A bracket |45 is attached` to the left side of the casing and carries fastened thereto the solenoid SI. Aligned therewith and further to the rear is the 'other solenoid S2 supported by a bracket |48 also secured to the left side of the casing, Extending from the side of solenoid SI is the standard |41 for providing a pivot on which swings an operating lever |48.

A similar standard |48 is extended from the other solenoid S2. Plvoted on this second standard is another operating lever |50 to which is articulated the plunger |5| of solenoid S2. The solenoid SI has a plunger |52.which is connected in a similar fashion to the lever |48.` The lower ends of levers |48 and |50 are joined by a link |53, the center of which is pivotally connected at |54 to the link |38 of the toggle. 'I'he parts are shown in the position assumed when the solenoid S2 has been energized. Then the lplunger |5| is retracted and lever |50 is rocked in a counterclockwise direction to puil the link |53 towards the right, and through center |54 the toggle linkage is pulled over to the right to assume the position shown. l Springs |23, |31 and |4| all tend to collapse the toggle linkage, but it is prevented from further movement by the obstruction provided by hook |43.

When another print operating cycle is desired, solenoid Si is energized and it retracts the plunger |52 to rock the lever |48 in a clockwise direction. This serves to pull the link |53 towards the left, carrying toggle link |38 along therewithJ past the dead center position, which is the impression position, and allowing the toggle linkage to collapse a slight amount as limited by the hook |43.

The alternation of operation of solenoid SI, S2 is controlled by contacts opened and closed `by the levers |48 and |50 which oscillate as the solenoids operate. Located beneath the toggle linkage is a pair of transverse bars |55, |51 each carrying a series oi four contact blades insulated from the pair and from each other. These eight contact blades provide four pairs of contacts, two of which are associated with solenoid S| and the other two operated by solenoid S2. Contacts |58 and |80 are associated with solenoid SI and contacts 8| and |82 are associated with solenoid S2. The center blades of each related pair voi' contacts are connected by a block of insulation with another extending finger of insulation |83 and |84 placed in the path of the ends of link |53. The innerpairs of contacts |80 and |82 are of the normally closed construction while the outer pairs of contacts are normally open. The positions oi the contacts are reversed when the related solenoid is energized, for example, as shown in Fig. 2, with solenoid S2 energized, link |53 is shiftedinto cooperation with insulation ilnger |84, and movement of the finger towards the right carries the center insulation blades along therewith and operates to close contacts |8| and open contacts |82.

When the other solenoid SI is operated, the positions of associated contacts |58 and |80 are reversed from the position shown, because then the ilnger |53 is operated to close contacts |58 and open contacts |80. At the same time, the other two contacts |8| and |82 are released, so

. that their condition is reversed to open contacts derived from contacts operated by the keyboard late in each character selecting operation. Each impulse is initiated by the closure of a pair of contacts |66\ (Fig. 2) supported on insulation blocks and a bar |66 secured between the intermediate frame 34 and the right Side of the casing.

Cooperating with the lower blade of contacts |85 is the end of a lever |61 pivoted at |68 on the side of frame plate M. A spring |69 tends to hold the lever rocked in a normally counterclockwise direction against a stop |10 also extending from the intermediate plate. Carried on the rear end of lever 61 is a flipper |1| located underneath a horizontal plate |12 and in the path of a shoulder on the plate. 'I'his plate 12 extends across the entire machine and is located underneath the guiding ends extending from the lower part of the many key stems. The plate carries a series of plungers such` as plungers |13 extending vertically downward through a casting |14 fastened in a horizontal position across the machine between the sides of the casing. A similar casting |15 is provided between the intermediate plates to provide guide openings for the plungers on the plate underneath the vowel key positions.

Assembled on each plunger is a compression spring |11 which tends to hold the horizontal plate |12 in an elevated position against the lower ends of the key stems. Upon depression of any one of the keys. the plate is lowered and in doiner so cooperates with the flipper |1| and rocks the lever |61 to close contacts |65 near the end of the depression movement. As lever |61 rocks further in a clockwise direction, the end of flipper 1| escapes past the shoulder on the plate while the plate continues slightly in its downward course. Then spring |69 rocks the lever in a counterclockwise direction back to the normal position, wherein the contacts |65 are again opened. Later in the same cycle, the depressed key is released and plate |12 follows it upward and, in so doing, engages the end of ipper |1|, but it is not obstructed because the flipper is pivotally mounted and exible with respect to motion when imparted from the underside of the extending end. A small spring |18 is attached to the flipper to hold it in a clockwise direction against an abutment on the end of lever |61.

The temporary closure of contacts |65 sets up a circuit which is sustained by a relay for insuring that the proper solenoid is energized long enough to shift the toggle mechanism. Referring to the wiring diagram (Fig. 4), it is seen that extending from the power source PS is a pair of main lead lines |80 and |8|. 'I'he positive line |8| branches out to pass through the two solenoids S| and S2 by means of wires |83 and |84. Wire |83 is connected to the closed contact |60 and wire |84 is connected to the open contact |62. Assuming that the solenoid S2 was the one last energized, then the contacts are positioned as shown so that, when operating contacts |65 are closed, a circuit is set up through the other solenoid Sl and held momentarily through contacts closed by a relay RI. The line |80, wire |85, contacts |6|, wire |86, wire |81, contacts |65, relay RI, wire |88, contacts |60, wire |83, solenoid SI, and line |8|. The energized relay RI then operates its armature to close associated contacts |89 and the contacts |65 are shunted thereby, because in series with contacts `|09 is a wire |90 connected to the line |80. The

momentary holding circuit includes Aline |80, wire |90, contacts |89, relay RI, wire |88, contacts I 60, wire |83, solenoid Si and line |8|.

circuit includes.Il

When the solenoid is fully effective, it shifts the circuit through solenoid SI is open at contacts |60 and both the solenoid and associated relay RI are deenergized at the same time that preparatory circuits are set up in readiness for energization o! solenoid S2, whenever operating contacts are again closed. The circuit for energization of solenoid S2 includes line |80, contacts |69, wire |81, contacts |65, relay R2, wire |9I, contacts |62, wire |84, solenoid S2, and line |8|. Energization of relay R2 serves to close the associated contacts |92 and arrange a shunt connection around contacts |65 including a wire |93 connected to the line |80.

It is understood that it is possible to depress the keys of a plurality of rows at the same time and that a printing impression is effected to record a complete word or a part of a word for each stroke of the hands. Each line on the strip in Fig.- 5 is a product of a single operating stroke.

Means is provided for advancing the record strip 30 after each printing impression. Referring to Fig. 2, it is seen that the' printer frame |28 is formed with an operating arm |84 extending toward the rear. Carried on the end of this arm is a pin |95 cooperating with a link |96 pivoted on one end of a paper feeding lever |91. The lever is pivoted at |98 and carries a pawl |99 cooperating with a ratchet wheel 200 assembled on the shaft 20| to which is secured the cylindrical tube 202 carrying the platen roller 9|. Also cooperating with the ratchet wheel 200 is a retaining pawl 203 for holding it in the adjusted position.

When the printing frame is rocked in a clock- Wise direction, the pin |95 stretches a spring 204 attached to link |96 and rocks the lever |91 back in a clockwise direction. Then as the printer frame is restored, the lever |91 is pushed counterclockwise in a positive way to drive the pawl |99 in cooperation with the ratchet teeth on the gear 200. 'I'his serves to advance the record strip 30 which is caught between the surface of the platen and a pressure roller 205 freely mounted on shaft 206 mounted between the casing sides. A pair of openings 201 and 208 are cut in the casing to provide access for assembling the record strip around the platen.

While there have been shown and described and pointed out the fundamental novel features of the invention as applied to a single modiilcation, it will be understood that various omissions and substitutions and changes in the form and de- 5 tails of the device illustrated and in its operation may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. It is the intention therefore to be limited only as indicated by the scope of the following claims.

The keyboards and key arrangements disclosed are not claimed herein but are claimed in a di,

tial mechanism comprising a rst horizontal link,

one end of which is depressed by one key while the other end is depressed by the adjacent center' key of the three, a first vertical link, the upper end of which is connected at an offset position to said horizontal link, a second horizontal link, one end of which is connected to the lower end f said vertical link while the opposite end is connected for operation by the third key, and a second vertical link, one end of which is connected at an offset position to said second'horizontal link and the opposite end of which is connected to a linkage for operating said printing member.

2. In a printing machine, a set of three manipulative keys arranged in a longitudinal row and disposed in a compact formation for operation singly or in combination by a. single finger, a differential mechanism operatedv under control of said keys and selectively positioned to a greater number of control positions than the number of keys, printing devices adjusted under control of said diilerential mechanism, means for operating said printing devices to eiect a recording impression on a record strip, electrical means under control of an operated key for timing the operation of said impression means, said impression means including a hammer mechanism connected to a toggle mechanism operated by a pair of solenoids,

i said hammer mechanism effecting an impression when the toggle mechanism is operated in either of two directions, said solenoids being connected on opposite sides of said toggle mechanism to operate it alternately, said solenoids having circuit connections for making them alternately effective under control of the operating keys.

3. In a printing machine, a set of three manipulative keys arranged in a longitudinal row and disposed in a compact formation for operation singly or in combination by a single finger, a differential mechanism operated under control of said keys and selectively positioned to a greater number of control positions than the number of keys, printing devices adjusted under control of said differential mechanism, means for operating said printing devices to effect a. recording impression on a record strip, electrical means under control oi' an operated key for timing the operation of said impression means, said 4impression means including a hammer mechanism connected to a toggle mechanism operated by a pair of solenoids, said hammer mechanism effecting an impression when the toggle mechanism is operated in either of two directions, said solenoids being connected on opposite sides of said toggle mechanism to operate it alternately, and holding means under control of said electrical means for sustaining the operation of said solenoids, whereby the operation of said toggle mechansim is made independent of the duration of key operation.

4. In a printing machine,a plurality of keys, a differential mechanism adjusted by said keys, printing devices adjusted by said differential mechanism, a platen, 4a hammer mechanism for Aimpressing the printing devices against the to place a selected type face of the other set in and electrical connections between said contacts and said electromagnetic means for operating the magnetic means at a time governed by the de pression of any one or more of said keys.

5. In a printing machine, a printing wheel bearing two sets of type characters, a platen, means for impressing the wheel against the platen, a set of type selection keys, a differential mechanism between said keys and said type wheel for adjusting said wheel to position a selected type for printing according to the setting of said keys, said differential mechanism including a link pivotally connected on the side of said wheel, a shift mechanism including a shift key and connections therefrom to said link for operating it to rock said printing wheel to select the second of said two sets of type on said printing wheel.

6. In a multiple impression typewriter, the combination of a plurality of type wheels each having two sets of five type faces and rockable to select the set other than a normal set and further rocked to one of ve extents to select a type in the selected set, a plurality of sets of keys with three keys in each set, a differential mechanism between each type wheel and a related set of keys and adjusted thereby to one of five extents by the keys operated singly or in pairs, a shift key, d means under control of said shift key for rocking said wheels to select the set of type other than the normally selected set.

7. In a multiple impression typewriter, the combination of a type wheel having two sets of type faces separated by two blank type faces, one

'of said blank faces normally aligned with the printing point, a set of keys, means under control of said keys for rocking said wheel to place a selected type face of one set in effective position at the printing point, ashift control, and means under control of said shift control in cooperation with said rocking `means for rocking said wheel effective printing position.

8. In a printing device, a printing wheel, a rocking frame upon which said wheel is mounted, a toggle mechanism operable in either of two directions to be extended for shifting said frame to eiect printing impressions, a pair of solenoids connected to opposite sides of the toggle mechanism for operating said mechanism, and electrical controls for selecting alternate operation of said solenoids.

9. In a stenographic printing machine, a set o f twelve printing wheels, each wheel bearing ten characters, ve of which are effective for normal printing and the other five for selection of shift operations, a Wheel operating means including a differential positioning mechanism for each wheel, a set of three keys operable singly or in combination for adjusting said differential mechanism to one of iive different extents, and a shift mechanism cooperating 4with said wheel operating means to operate the wheel beyond the normal position to select the shift characters.

WALDEMAR A. AAYRES. RALPH E. PAGE.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2428605 *Oct 21, 1944Oct 7, 1947IbmStenographic machine
US2449126 *Nov 2, 1945Sep 14, 1948Kirkpatrick Wendell VMechanical shorthand writing means
US2593371 *Jul 26, 1949Apr 15, 1952IbmElectrically operated stenographic machine
US2683518 *Jan 12, 1950Jul 13, 1954Harry BastowMachine for recording characters
US2727689 *Jan 21, 1953Dec 20, 1955Brunsviga Maschinenwerke AgTen digit keyboard for calculating machine
US3225883 *Nov 13, 1962Dec 28, 1965Ayres Waldemar AWord writing machine producing closed-up printing in response to simultaneous actuation of keys
US3305062 *Apr 12, 1965Feb 21, 1967Edward D KittredgeTranslation device having mirror image keyboard
US3557927 *Dec 8, 1967Jan 26, 1971Stenographic Machines IncStenographic transcription system
US4415283 *Jul 27, 1982Nov 15, 1983Baron Data SystemsShorthand machine having active tactile feedback
US5993089 *Feb 3, 1997Nov 30, 1999Burrell, Iv; James William8-bit binary code for use as an 8-dot braille arrangement and data entry system and method for 8-key chordic binary keyboards
Classifications
U.S. Classification400/94, 400/157.1, 400/184, 400/93, 400/95, 400/169
International ClassificationB41J3/00, B41J3/26
Cooperative ClassificationB41J3/26
European ClassificationB41J3/26