US 2391469 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 25, 1945. .1. c. MARSHALL ET AL' CQMMUNICATION AND POSTING SYSTEM Filed Sept. 2, 1944 13 Sheets-Sheet 1 TO FIG. 2
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INVENTORS 4 c MARSHALL H. F MAY ATTORNEY.
J. c. MARSHALL ET AL 2,391,469
COMMUNICATION AND POSTING SYSTEM Dec. 25, 1945.
Filed Sept. 2, 1944 1:5 She et'.'-:Sheet 2.
TO FIG. 3
1'0 FIG. 5
TO FIG. I
INVENTORS J. C. MARSHALL BY H. F. MAY
FIGQZ Dec. 25', 1945. J. c. MARSHALL ET AL COMMUNICATION AND POSTING SYSTEM 1s sheets-sheet 4" I Filed Sept. 2, 1944 SECOND DIGIT DATA INVENTORS J. C. MARSHALL H. F. MAY
TO FIG. 3
Dec. 25, 1945. J. c. MARSHALL E1 AL 2,391,469
QQMMUNICATION AND POSTING SYSTEM I 13 SheetsSheet 5 Filed Sept. 2, 1944 TO FIG. 6
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COMMUNICATION AND POSTING SYSTEM Dec. 25, 1945.
ATTORNEY Dec. 25,
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J.C.MARSHALLETAL Filed Sept. 2, 1944 l3 Sheets-Sheet 81 FIG.I8
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INVENTORS J. c. MARSHALL H. F. M Y
J. C. MARSHALL ET AL COMMUNICATIC JN AND POSTING SYSTEM Dec. 25, 1945.
Filed Sept. 2, 1944 13 Sheets-Sheet 10 TO FIG. ll
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INVENTORS J c MARSHALL H.F. MAY
Dec. 25, 1945. J. c. MARSHALL ETAL 2,391,459
COMMUNICATION AND POSTING SYSTEM 4 Filed Sept. 2, 1944 l3 Sheets-Sheet 1-2 mov . ATTORNEY.
Dec. 25, 1945. J. c. MARSHALL ETAL 2,391,459
COMMUNICATION AND POSTING SYSTEM Filed Sept. 2, 1944 1s Sheets-Sheet 1:5
TELETY PEWRI I'ER TE LE TYFEWRITER TELE TYPEWRITER LINE EQUIPMENT BLANK ROW INCOMING DXTR. PULSING DXTR. AND
LOCATION AND STORAGE PULSING EQUIPMENT RECORD BOARD commmsou EQPT.
SEQUENCING EQUIPMENT DISPLAY BOARD FIG. I4
FIG. I FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4
FIG. 5 FIG. 8 FIG. 7 FIG. I2
FIG. 9 FIG. 9 FIG. I0 FIG. ll
INVENTORS J. c. MARSHALL H. F. MAY
Patented n e'zs, 1945 UNITED STATES PATENT omen ' COMMUNICATION AND PQS'VIING S'YSTEM I Joseph C. Marshall, Baldwin, and Harold F. May, Valley Stream, N. Y., assignors to The Teleregister Corporation poration of Delaware NewYork, N. Y., a cor- Application September 2, 1944, Serial No. 552,428 20 Claims. (Cl.'177353) This invention relates generally to communication and posting systems for displaying on announcing boards information or data in regard air traffic control informationin which the sig-.
nals representing the information thus posted may be transmitted either from a local transmitter or from wire or radio transmitters reas to the direction of the various flights; the estimated time when the-aircraft will pass over or land at Certain marker points on the flight route; the time at which the aircraft actually passes over or lands at specific marker points; the expected approach time when the pilot may receive instructions ,to start his approach to a landing field; the proposed altitude at which the clearance has been issued to cross each marker or flight path; the altitude at which the aircraft actually crosses the various markers or flight paths, and
the landing sequence number assigned to landings 1 under instrument conditions. In addition to the motely situated with respect to the receiving postmg and recording apparatus, and in which the remote transmitters may be located either at ground stations or within aircraft in flight.
The system disclosed herein is an improvement over the communication and posting systems disclosed in the Marshall et al. Patent No.
2,246,449, issued June 17, 1941, and in our copending application Serial No. 518,370, filed January 15, 1944, now Patent N 0. 2,386,743, issued October 9, 1945. In order to simplify the present disclosure and to set forth moreclearlythe improvement represented by the instant invention, certain of the apparatus and'equipment in the aforesaid prior cases is diagrammatically represented in the drawings of the instant case by labeled rectangles, the disclosures of the prior cases being incorporated herein by reference.
In systems for recording or posting flight plans and flight progress reports of aircraft and other messages relative to the control of aircraft, the
information'thus posted on the bulletin or announcing board usually relates to. numerous flights which may be identified by numbers, and the indicators on which the items are posted usually are arranged in display groups according h to the various marker or Fix classification and preferably are arranged within each Fix group in accordance with the expected or estimated. time of passage or arrival of the aircraft at the various recording or marker points en route and at the airport, The flight data posted may have to be changed from time to time during the progress of the flights as the result of conditions affecting the progress of aircraft, such as poor visibility, lice, changes in the direction and velocity of thewind, the necessity of blind landings, and other emergency conditions.
The information'posted may comprise numerous data such as the flight designation numbers,
followed by a section number, if any; information a;
foregoing, other information may beposted on the flight progress display boards, such as an I indication that a clearance through a marlrerf or Fix has been issued, an indication of a flight over the airport, an indication of a stop en route, and an indication that an aircraft has been cleared to the airport control tower or rangestation so that there will be no delayin landing.
As set forth in the foregoing patents, local communication facilities comprising known telephone ortelegraph wire or radio equipment may be employedto establishjcommunication between the air line companys dispatch offices and the various aircrafhairportcontrol towers, the local communication operator in the airwaytrafilc control, government regulating bureaus, military operations oflices, if-any, and other airports. In ourPatent No. 2,386,743 a record board is provided havin electrical signal storage rotatable indicators on which information in regard to the various flights is stored, in random order on the board, and a display board having a plurality of rotatable indicating devices for displayinginformation in regard to the'flights with sequenc ing apparatus controlled by the signal storage devices ofthe record board for obtaining information therefrom and automatically selecting and energizing the indicators on the display board to cause them to display in a predetermined serial order the items of information stored on the record board. The order in whichthe items were to bewritten or rewritten on the display board was'determined by the settings of new position storage devices manually set by an 1-; attendant who determined the desired serial arrangement or order of the items to be displayed or rewritten on the display board, and who assigned corresponding position numbers to the items on the recordboard.
In accordance with one feature of the present invention, theznew position storage devices are automatically set by the incoming flight signals to'indicate or produce a desired serial order of 7 items when the display board is rewritten, in accordance with the relativevalues. of data con-,-
data stored on the new position storage devices.v
corrected, if necessary, the comparison also determining what position numbersto assign to the new items of information.
Preferably, and as disclosed. in-the illustrative. embodiment herein, the new" position storage devices embody visual indicating means whereby numbers or other indicia are automatically posted.
on such devices which indicate a desired serial order in which the items should be displaced.
From these indicia, which in. this case are one or two digit numbers representing the relative positions in which the items should be posted on the display board, the control personnel may manually reset the indicators in the display board, as by means of a key set or otherwise, although preferably the resetting of the display indicators is. automatically controlled by the new position storage devices, the only manual operation required being. that of initiating an automatic sequencing operation. If' desired; the display board could. automatically be rewritten at predetermined intervals by switch means periodically controlledby clockwork .or other. suitable mechanism, although. ordinarily the rewriting operation of the board is left. to. the discretionof'the controller or other member. of..ithe,operatingj personneL. Also, from, theinew positionv numbers displayed by thenew position storage. indicators, the. personnel may. selectively pick out and transmit ina predetermined order certain of. the. stored items "to auxiliary posting boards or. other apparatus'.
In our aforesaid patentitwas also necessary to manuallyselect and control the operation of indicatorsinorder to store on the record board any flight or other item appearingfor the first time, sex that additional. information. orchanges in information in incoming messages would find its way automatically to the proper storage devices through the medium or a flight or item locator which searched for an identification number associated with each flight or other item. This identification number, incoming message, was. not available to the flight or item locator until the first posting: of the identification number was made. by means of a keyset;
In accordance with another feature of the present invention, blank row locator apparatus is provided'which functions when the flight locator fails to find an existingpostedv flight identification corresponding to the flight. identification .in anincoming message; When. no existing posted identification" is found, the blank row locator selects an available rowof 'indicatorsfin the display board and also in the record preferablyalthough'not necessarily, is the lowest blankrowin the display board and is'the first blank rowabove existing postings in the. record board. In these selected blank rows, the new item of information including the flight identification indicia; which. usually is a number; is posted without: the needfor manual control.
The blank row: locator apparatus functions when the night locator fails tofindan item-with an identification number identical to that'contained in the incoming message. The-'time comiparator apparatus functions whenever an incoming report or message contains time. If neither of the foregoing conditions occurs when a flight message-isreceived, neither the blankrow locator nor the time. comparator. circuit. is: required to function, and the received information is posted on the groups of indicators in the record and display boards where information in regard to the flight iscurrently posted.
Oneof the objectsof the invention is a system for automatically receiving, storing and posting which precedes each board, which data, in .regard. to, various items, particularly aircraftand other vehicles, which system has means responsive to. incoming signals for automatically comparing certain data in incoming messages with the same kind of data in th prior messages posted and for storing signals and/ or posting indicia representative of a predetermined serial orderin whichsaid items should be posted.
Another object is a posting or announcing system which utilizes two boards; having indicators I carrying substantially the same information, or on which certain information is duplicated, one of which boards is a record board on which the information "regarding various flights or other-items maybe storedv in more or less random order-andthe other a display board on which the various flights or other'ite-ms may be displayed'in a particular seria1-order orsequence which is automaticallydetermined from the relative values of certain data in the messages thus posted.
Still another object-is theprovision of means for rewriting the -information on the display board in'a predeterminedserial order-or sequence which automatically is determined in accordance with the. relative values of certain data in the messages posted, and in which a multiplicity of rows of indicating -devices in the display board may simultaneously or concurrently be rewritten by multiple row sequencing operations.
An additional object is an arrangement whereby the. order in which the flights or other items are displayed on' the" display board may be changed to" display the items in chronological order as. determined; automatically by certain time datairr said items.
Another. object is a system in which the relative positions of the flights. or other items displayed. on the display board are determined by the settings of new position storage units which are automaticallyv setand/or reset in accordance with the relative :values of certain data contained in the incoming messages with respect to similar data. currently, posted in. regard to the-flights or other items.
Still. another object is a system and apparatus for automatically effecting a comparison between 4 a certain datum contained in an incoming message and' the same. kind of data posted on the board with regard to other items and for indicating or relocating the relative posting position or positions of. the incoming item or of the currently posted'items, or both, in accordance with the new datum.
A further object is apparatus for determining from the item designation in an incoming message whether information in regard to the item is currently posted, and if not, for finding an available blank row-of posting devices for entering theinfonnation in regard to the new item.
A still further object'is apparatus for entering a new item in .an available blank'row of posting devices and then comparing the relative values of the data in the new: item with the .same kind of data previously posted in other devices to de-' termine the'serial order in which the itemsshould be'displayed. 1, 7
Various other objects, advantages and improvements will be apparent from the following detailed description of "an illustrative embodiment of the invention, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a view, partly in diagrammatic form, of incoming telegraph line equipment, together with a receiving distributor for applying the incoming signals to certain storage relays, and another distributor associated with the time comparator circuit;
Fig. 2 shows a pulsing distributor and associated pulsing and control relays;
Fig. 3 shows certain Fix, flight identification and data storage and'decoding relays;
Fig. 4 shows a time comparator circuit with "new time relays, and a base time switch and associated relay equipment;
Fig. 5 illustrates certain-blank row selection relays and record board gang relays;
Fig. 6 shows new position storage indicators,
flight identification storage indicators and gang relay auxiliary equipment; a
Fig. 7 shows time and altitude storage indicators and present position storagerelays;
Fig. 8 shows certainblank row selection relays and base position rotary switches;
Fig.9 is a view of Various time comparator relays;
Fig. 10 shows blank row locator rotary switch equipment;
Fig. 11 represents diagrammatically a plurality of rows of indicators in the display board and gang relays associated therewith, and shows in diagrammatic form sequencing equipment for rewriting the display board; V
Fig. 12 shows certain other sequencing equipment for rewriting the display board;
Fig. 13 is a diagram showing various units of the system and their relation with respect to each other; and 1 Fig. 14 isa diagram showing the arrangement of the various sheets of drawings illustrative of the system.
In the specific embodiment of the invention illustrated herein, data in regard to the movements of a number of aircraft within a given area of a terminal or other flight control zone are recorded, and preferably are visually posted, on a record board, Figs. 6 and 7 of the drawings,
and are displayed in predetermined order on the display board shown in Fig. -11. Rotatable indicators IT, IU, TT, TU, AT and-AU, which are arranged in horizontal rows designated 00 to M, in Figs. 6, 7 and 11, preferably are employed as the recordingand display devices. Each row'of indicators, when identified with a certain flight,
is adapted to display the flight identification.
number and the flight information or data, for example, the estimated and actual times at which the aircraft reaches or passes a particular location or Fix, or the proposed and actualaltitudes of the aircraft at the various points, and also any additional information that'may be desired.
While the flights may be recorded or stored in the record board in random order, it is-highly desirable that in the flight progress display board of Fig. 11 the flights and information iii-regard thereto be displayed in a predetermined order corresponding to the relative values of either the altitude or time data, the indicators also bein arranged in groups corresponding to the diflerent Fixpoints to which they relate, such as Fix I, Fix 2, Fix 3, etc. Both the record board and the flight progress display board may be located at the. same place,rsuch as an air traific control center or airport, where the flights terminate or traverse apredetermined area associated with or controlled by the airport, and are posted on the display board by means of the indicators so as to be visible at all times to the airway traflic personnel or others interested in the progress'of the flights thus posted.
General description of comparator circuits In our aforesaid patent two types of comparisons were effected, namely, flight location and position location, the latter occurring during the sequencing operation, These comparisons were made by energizing one conductor of a multiple which was connected to the banks of all indicators in the same column of ,the record board. For example, to locate a flight bearing the identification number 24, the No. 2 lead in the multiple connected to the tens identification column and the No, 4 lead in the units identification colulmn would be energized. Within the horizontal row of indicators assigned to flight '24 'these energized leads functioned to operate. a
gang relay which connects the indicator units of the row to the pulsing equipment. This type of comparison, which may be called an equality comparison, results in the selection of the one row in which the settings of the flight identification indicators exactly match the combination of energized multiple conductors.
Other types of comparison, in addition to an equality comparison, are employed in the system of the present invention. One of these is used to select all horizontal rows bearing position numbers higher than that of a certain row. Let us assign, for example the number as the position number of a certain row of indicators. As hereinafter explained in greater detail, one of the necessary steps is to select all rows having position numbers greater than 35.. If the comparison could be confined to a single denominational column or decimal position, the procedure would be to energize all multiple leads above a certain number. For example, to select all rows with unit numbers greater than five, it would only be necessary to energize leads 6, 1, 8, 9 and blank, and
indicators setting on any of these positions would be selected.
When-we Wish to accomplish a similar result in two denominational columns, a different situation is encounteredibecause a single column comparison does not identify those items which are greater in the units column but equal in the tens column, for example, 36, 8'7, 38, etc. It is necessary in making a multi-column comparison to initiate an equality comparison and a greater than comparison in all columns except the last orlowest decimal column. Where an indicator in the highest decimal position is connected to a "greater-than lead, that postion number is immediately deemed greater. If the same indicator receives an indication of equality, the function of comparison is extended to the indicator in the next lower decimal position, where a similar comparison is repeated. If no indication of either equality or greater-than is received, the position number is deemed lower. In order to distinguishbetween equality and greater-than indications, a separate multiple and contact bank is assigned for each type of indication. By the same arrangement, it is possible to select all items bearing position numbers: lower than aparticularrposition number.
Types of indicators employed-In the decimal system: of counting, ,theudigit: Orprecedes the digit 1 and'represents. the absence. of a quantityinthat denominational position in which it appears. Rotatable: step-by-step indicators of the type hayingeleven settable positions comprising ten digitdisplay'positions and a blank position preferably, although not necessarily; are employed; insll'ch indicators the digit 1 ordinarily follows :the blank position on the indicator drum in order that the number of stepping pulses necessary to actuate the. indicator to any digit position will be equal to the Value of the digit displayed. Therefore, if it is, desired to use a uniform typeof step-by-step indicator throughout the. system both for counting (asin the case of new position storage indi cators) and for display purposes and in-which such eleven-position, indicators are used, the digit should. follow the blank position on. the indicator drum. Inthis case the number ofstepping pulses necessary to advance-theindicator drum from its bank position to any digit will be. one greater than the value of the digit, and thepulse generating and transmitting equipment employed in this, case is designed to-generate one pulse more than, the. number representedby the digit posted. It is, of course, possible to utilize two different types of step-by-step indicators; one type may have the digit 1 following. the blank position, whereas the other type used for the new position indicatorsv may have the digit 0 following the blank position.
Position numbering-At this time it will be helpful to understand how position numbers are assigned and changed to maintain a desired sequence of items. As mentioned-before, the sequence may be based upon the time, which is part of the information in each item, and for purposes of illustration herein it will be assumed that a chronological sequence is desired. The itemalso contains such information as a flight identification number, the altitude of the plane and often other data pertinent to the control of air tramc. The item (on the record board only) also bears a. position number, of one or two digits, which corresponds to its proper relative location on the display board. Physical location is random on the record board, the position number taking the place of the actualphysical ordering on the display board. Time maybe displayed either as two digits, representing minutes, oras four digits, representing hours and minutes. For simplicity the system illustrated herein displays the time in minutes. In the initial condition of the board, even when no items are actually posted, the position numbers of the rows are posted When the first item is posted, the row bearing the lowest position number is: chosen. When the next item is received, it is posted in the row bearingv the next. lowest position number. This selection of rows is accomplished by the blank row locator. If, however, time is included in the information, an additional comparison takes place to change the position numbers if necessary. In any time comparisons, blank time is considered greater than any specific time to insure that all items including time data will be segregated at the bottom of their respective Fixes. If a new item of information containing time is received, a blank row is assigned and then the time is compared with that displayed by all. items already posted, since the new item should be inserted below all items with, higher posted times.v It is arbitrarily plannedtog-insertthe :item zabove .alLitem-s having the: same. time: posted. To insert amitem: at any. place it is necessary to move up, or actually-increase, the position numbers of: all: items whose posted time. data are greater: thamthat of the-newitem. As the new'item has been assigned to. a blank. row, it is only necessary to increase: the positionnumbers of: those rows upto the blank row'just; assigned. This ceiling onthe number of rows is determined by selecting onlyv those rows witnposted times-greater than: the newtime 1 and position. numbers lower than: thezpositiomnumber justassigned- The diagram below shows this principle of selection.
It the new informationreceived pertains to an item already on the record board, the flight locator finds the existing item instead of the blank row locator assigning'a rows Otherwise the same comparison as described above occurs. The selected rows have their positionnumbers advanced one-step, and .the'original position number of the lowest selected row is rewritten in the'row where the new information isto be; posted Under certain conditions new information will require changing an item to-show alater time than that previously posted... This will. generally requirexthe position number'of. that item to be increased. In this case the-rows betweentheold and new position numbers will. requirea reduction in position number. These rows; are selected by the combined requirements of-havingpostedtimes lower than the new time received and-position numbers greater than the present position number of the item being changed. The. following diagram shows how these. requirements determine and select the. rows to. be changed.
Base position scheme-It is not feasible to drive the step-by-step indicators backward, and thereforea different method-of lowering the position numbers of the selected rows is employed. In thismethod' the position'numbers of all rows except the selected rows are raised; this lowers the position numbers of the selected rows relatively. As a result any number may be assigned to the lowest numbered row-in the board. Eventually the lowest item in order of posting'will bear a number near the maximum and the'highest item will bear a lower number because the numberin cycle has passed through zero. For example, if the base positionnumber is when the lowest numbered row is 5 represents blank which follows 9)" and the highest is 08, we have a contradiction to the normal order of counting.
In order to correct this situation'it is necessary to introduce a base position number, which is a means of keepinga record of thelowest numbered item on the record board; The-positionnumbers recorded for the individual items are not the actual row numbers which the item should occupy but are merely a relative indication which is referred to a changeable base position to determine the true display board row. Consequently, when it is necessary to lower the position numbers of selected items, the position numbers of all other items are raised and also the base position number is raised. It should be noted that a base posi tion recorder is required because of the repeating nature of the position numbers.
Base time scheme-When making comparisons of time, a problem similar to that of the position comparator is encountered. Time, being cyclical, repeats itself every twenty-four hours when hours and minutes are employed, and in the present disclosure time repeats every sixty .minutes, since only two indicators are used. The question arises as to which time is greater when, for example, one time is 2:50 and the other 3:10. In order to ensure correct comparisons, it is necessary to provide base time indicating equipment to'record the lowest time. In the example above the base time indicated might be :40. Referred to this standard it is evident that :50 is lower than :10. The base time equipment indicates the'zero point in the time cycle, just as the base position indicating equi ment indicates the zero point in the position cycle. 1
Circuit description The incoming signals for posting on the record board and the display board may beof any suitable type. Usually, and in accordance with conventional telegraph practice, permutation code signals, for example, five-unit code signals, are
em loyed, and these signals may be initiated at various keyboard printer or other transmitting stations and transmitted by wire to the receiving line equipment IOI, Fig. l, or the signals may be transmitted by radio transmitting apparatus situated in the aircraft While in flight, and thereby transmit signals which are received by radio apparatus. Various means of transmitting and receiving both types of signals are known in the art, some of which are disclosed in the aforesaid Marshall et aL'patent and ourpatent. The line equipment IOI contains receiving distributors for applying incoming signals to tapereperforators of knownrtypes, for example, as disclosed in Hoover Patent 2,252,852 and 'Dirkes et a1. Patent 2,193,-
809. The perforated'tape is fed through conventional tape transmitters whereby the stored signals are repeated and applied to a distributor such'as DRI shown in Fig. l;
' In the illustrative embodiment disclosed herein each flight information message comprises numerical, alphabetical and functional characters. The first two characters or digits of the message represent the flight identification numbenand the third character a digit which represents a particular Fix; the fourth character is a range or selecting signal, which usually is an alphabetical character, for the data posting indicators, for example, Time, in which case .the fifth and sixth characters are the tens and unitsdigits respectively of the Time, and are followed by two spacing signals which are interposed between the first and second parts of the message when both Time and Altitude-information dataare transmitted. The first two characters following the secondspace signal again represent the flight identification number, the third character the Fix number; the four character is therange or selecting signal for the'Altitude posting indicators, and the following two characters are the thousands and hundreds digits of the Altitude, and a'refollowed by theend-of-mess'age signal, which isusually transmitted by the key L of the printer'keyboard. As'above stated, each complete message r'eceived by the receiving distributors in the line equipment isfollowe'd by an endof-message signal which is stored in a group of relays and which causes'seeker mechanism in' the line equipment to function and start an associated tape transmitter into operation to transmit' the received message during a revolution of the distributor DRI of Fig. 1, which is set into operation by the seeker relay associated with the operated group of end-of message relays when the seeker mechanism has come to rest in a position associated with the operated seeker relay, as described in detail in the Marshall et al. patent and our aforesaid patent. The operation of a transmitter-connecting relay in'the line equipment connects, at the proper times, the transmitting tongues of the tape transmitter, through conductors I to Set cable I 02, Fig. 1, to the five solid rings 2, 4, 6,8 and I0 of the rotarydistributor DRI; Conductor 6 is connected to the even numbered segments 2, '4 6, 8, I0 and-I2 of the segmented ring 'II or distributor URI for stepping the tape transmitter;
Operation of distributor DRI Thestart magnet SMI operates in series with the transmitter-connecting relay in the line equipment, by meansof conductor 1 in. cable I02,
conductor 4'in cable [I 9 to the break'contact and "armature I 0 I 9 of a sequence start relay SST, Fig.
10, and thence by way of conductor I in cable' The engagement of brushes BI to B5 of thedistributorwith their corresponding segments 2, closes the circuits from the tongues of thetape transmitter in the line equipment, through con-' ductors I to -5 of cable I02 and conductors. I, I, I3, I9 and 25 of cable 104 to thegrounded windings of the first digit identification storage and decoding relays III to 1T5, Fig. ,8. Assume,for
example, that the'first digit of the identification number of the' aircraft or other source from I which a report or message is being received is the digit 1. v The five-unit permutation code pulses for digit 1 are marking, marking, marking, spacing, marking, and'when the row of tape perforations representing'digit 1 passes through the tape transmitter of the line equipment, conductors I, 2, 3 and?! of cable I02 will beenergized with battery from the marking bus of the tapetransmitter. Since battery is supplied only to conductors I, 2,3 and 5 of cable I02, only relays ITI, 'IT2, 1T3 and 1T5 will be operated. These relays operate and lockover a circuit from ground at their windings, through their make contacts andarmatures 325 to holdingbattery 220 furnished over conductor 20I through normally closed contact and armature 202 of relay RAGA, Fig. 2, and normally closed contact and armature 2I9 ofrelease relay REL. The ar-- rangement of relays and armatures for the second d igit identification storage relay group of Fig. 3 is the sameas that of the first di'gitide'n- .tification group shownfi a I The brush B6 of distributor DRI next contacts segment 2 j of ring I I and f completes a circuit from grounded battery I 95 on segment 2 of ring I2, through thebrush and segment 20f ring II to conductor 6 of cable I02, and thence to the tape stepping magnet of the tape transmitter in the line equipment IflI, thereby stepping the tape in the transmitter in known manner. As the distributor DRI rotates, the brushes BI to B thereof close circuits to segments 4 of rings 1,. 3, 5, 'I and 9, connecting the second digit identification storage and decoding relays shown in Fig. 3, to the tongues of the tape transmitter in a manner similar to that of the precedingcharacter, thereby actuating and locking the relays in the second identification group in accordance with the code for the second digit, for example, the digit 4. l
Similarly, as the tape is advanced through the tape transmitter, the remaining characters are transmitted by segments 6, 8, I0 and I2 of rings I, 3, 5, l and 9 of DRI, and successively are stored in the Fix relay group, Fig. 3, the range relay group, Fig. 1, the first digit data group, Fig. 3, and the second digit data relay group, Fig-4.
When the brush B6 of distributor DRI reaches segment I2 .of ring II, this completes a circuit from grounded battery on segment 2 of ring I2, through the brush, segment I2, and conductor 6 of cable I92, to the tape stepping magnet of the tape transmitter in the line equipment. Stepping of the tape transmitter advances the next character under the sensing, pins which is a space signal.
When the brush B6 of distributor DRI reaches segment Id of segmented ring II, ground is applied from segment 4 of ring I2, through the brush, segment I4, conductor I20, armature 294 and break contact of relay T, Fig. 2, conductor 209, start magnet SMZ of distributor DB2, and thence to grounded battery, actuating the start magnet and releasing the brush B of the distributor for rotation. As the distributor brush of DB2 leaves its rest position, the circuit from segment I of ring I is opened, thereby deenergizingstart magnet SMI of distributor DRI, and distributor DRI then comes to rest with its brushes on its stop segment I. The distributor waits until distributor DB2 has completed its cycle of transmission hereinafter described, before continuing to take the remainder or second half of the message from the tape transmitter.
Blank row Zocator In order to provide the blank row locating feature, the distributor DRI has been modified to include circuits which originate from segments I and II of ring II, the purpose of which will be explained below under Blank row selection. In our aforesaid patent, following the completion of an operating cycle of distributor DRI, the flight identification number stored on the identification relays was used to locate the flight on the display board. In general, this operation involves energizing one conductor in each of the storage indicator multiples of the Identification and Fix indicators in the display board. These multiples in the instant disclosure are identified by reference numerals 303, 304 and 309 and are shown in Figs. 3 and 6. It will be seen that the] apex of the relay pyramid PRI associated with the first digit identification relays ITI to 1T5 is supplied with ground at armature 305 of relay ITI, over conductor 306 and normally closed contact and grounded armature 201 of blank row selector relay BRS, Fig. 2. Similarly, the apex of the pyramid of the second digit identification relays shown schematically bythe rectangle .30I in Fig- 3, and which are like the first digit identification relays, obtains ground from the normally closed contact, and armature 291 of relay :BRS over conductors 306 and 391. When the code combinations representing the digits of the identification number have been stored, one of the conductors 0 to 9 of cable 393, and one of the conductors ll to 9 of cable 304 will be energized with ground from the armature 297 of relay BBS. The multiple cable 303 is connected to corresponding banks 60I of thefirst digit'identification storage indicator 692, Fig. 6, in each of the horizontal rows of storage indicators of the record board. Fifteen of such rows of indicators are shown in the drawings, the lower fourteen rows 98-43 being indicated diagrammatically in Fig. 7, and the upper row No. I4 being shown in detail in this figure. It will be understood that in practice-a great many more rows than those indicated will be employed in the record board; in an average size installation there may be 2500 or more rows of such indicators.
Each horizontal row of the record board contains storage or recording units NPT, NPU, F, IT, IU, 'IT, TU, AT and AU, the upper row I4 of which is shown in Figs. 6 and 7, these recording units respectively storing digits representative of the new position tens, new position units, Fix, identification tens, identification units, time tens, time units, altitude tens and altitude units. With the exception of the Fix storage units which are switches with manually rotatable switch arms, the recording units preferably are step-by-step indicators of the type disclosed in Haselton et a1. Patent 2,155,825,.issued April 25, 1939. Such indicators are provided with a set of equally spaced contacts corresponding in number to the number of positions to which the indicator drums may be rotated by electromagnetic pawl and ratchet structure, the contacts being arranged in a continuous series. The wiper arm is attached to the indicator drum assembly and engages the contacts of the indicator in accordance with the instant setting of the drum; for example, if the drum is set to display the digit 1, the wiper will be engaged by the contact I; similarly, if the indicator is set for its blank position, the associated wiper will be in engagement with its blank contact B. The contact assemblies herein referred to are illustrated schematically in arcuate form in the drawings to show more clearly the circuits connected thereto, it being understood that the wipers take settings in accordance with the flight identification and information digits or symbols posted bythe'indicators. As each of the indicators reaches its blank or home position, during the transmission to the indicator of restoration pulses, the restoration circuit to ground is opened and an actuation or resetting circuit is closed by a switch element, such as indicated at s intheindicators of Figs. 6 and 7, thereby to cause the indicator to stop when it reaches its'home position and its actuating coil switched to an actuation circuit, as disclosed in the patents to Haselton 2,049,499, issued August 4, 1936, and Hicks et al. 2,189,581, issued February 6, 1940. The subsequent application of the resetting or actuation pulses to the indicator causes the switch member s to be restored to its former position when the indicator leaves its blank position during the resetting operation.
Cable 304is multipled to banks 603 of the second-digit identification storage --indicato-r 804 in every row of the record board. The Fix storage relay's'FI to F5, Fig. 3, function in amanner simi-v lar to the identification storage relays, but the cable multiple 309 from the Fix pyramid is connected to the banks of a manually settable tap switch 606, Fig. 6, in each row of the record board. The Fix character, while not actually a part of the flight identification number, represents the section of the record board which is assigned to all flights passing over a certain geographical zone, and, the same flight identification of the recground on armature 3 I of the Fix relay FI, Fig, 3, through its normally closed contact to armature 3 of relay F2 which is now operated in accordance with the character 8 which in permutation code has the signal elements 2 and 3 marking in character and which is stored on the Fix storage relays. This ground is extended through the make contact associated with armature 3 H relay F2, armature 3I2 and make contact of energized relay F3, and normally closed contacts of. relays F4 and F5 to conductor 8 in cable 309. Since the brush of the Fix switch 606 in row I4, Fig. 6, is resting on terminal 8 of the switch bank, a path to a relay F0 is established from battery 608, and FC operates. This relay connects batter from 608 through its armature 640 and make contact tothe winding of a units comparator relay UC, the circuit continuing through armature 609 and mature 646 and make contact, conductor II in break contact of a transferrelay TR, to the brush of bank 603 of the IU indicator, and then through bank terminal 8 and conductor 8 in cable 304 to the second digit identification pyramid PRI in.
the relay group 30I,.Fig. 3. Since this pyramid has stored in it the digit 8, a circuit is completed ,over' conductors 301 and 306 to the grounded armature 206 of relay BRS, Fig. 2. 1
Relay UC, Fig. 6, operates and connects battery -6II through armature GM and break contact of the transfer relay TR, armature 642 and make contact of operated relay UC, armature 632 and break contact of the relay TR, to the winding of the relay TC. The circuit from this winding con- 'tinues through armature 643 and break contact of relay TR, to the brush of contact bank of the IT storage indicator in row I4; Since this brush is resting on'bank terminal 0, the circuit is extended over lead 0 in cable 303 to the first digit identification pyramid, Fig. 3. Stored in this pyramid is the digit 0, the permutation code signal for which has code elements 2, 3 and 5 marking, and the circuit of conductor 0 in cable 303 is extended to armature 305 of relay'ITI to ground on armature 201 of relay BRS, Fig. 2. Relay TC, Fig. 6, operate and connects battery 6| 2 through normally closed break contacts 63I of relay TR, through. armature 644 and make contact of operated relay TC, normally closed contacts 630 of relay .TR, conductor 6I4, armature 50I and break contact of relay BRS, Fig. 5, and conductor 520 to the winding of auxiliary-gang relay AGAI 4, Fig, 6,.andthence to ground. I 1 Relay AGAI 4 operatesand locksup overitsarcable 309, through armature 224 and breakcontact of relay RAGA, Fig. 2, and armature 22.6 and break contact of release relay REL, to battery 220. The operation of relay AGAI 4 applies battery, throughits armature 648 and make contact, to conductor 29 in cable 506, and thenc to the winding of gang relay GAI4, Fig. 5. The circuit continues from the winding of this relay, over conductor'8 in cable 502, and through the winding of relay GOT,Fig. 1, to ground. Thus, the op-' erationof relay GAI4 required the successive operation of relays FC, UC and TC, indicating an agreement in the Fix, second digit identification and first digit identification characters. When GAI4 or any other similar gang relay operates, relay GOT operates in series with it.
Blank row selecti0n.If no row of storage indicators in the record board carries the Fix and Identification numbers stored in the storage and decoding relays, Fig. 3, none of the GA gang relays will operate, and relay GOT, Fig. 1, will be unoperated, thus indicating that the incoming message has not been previously posted. When brush B6 ofthe distributor DRI reaches segment 1 of ring II, battery I05 will be fed through the brush, segment I, armature I25 and break contact of relay GOT, and thence over conductor I in cable I06, and through the winding of the blank row selector relay BRS in Fig. 2, to ground. This relay has an armature and contact 50I, Fig. 5, in each row in the record board, which serves to change the selection circuits in each row to select a blank row. To accomplish this the blank conductors B from the first and second digit Identificationpyramids PRI, Fig. 3, must be energized since any blank row will have its Identification indicators setting in the blank positions. The blank leads areenergized by means of armature 201 and associated make contact of relay BRS, Fig. 2, which applies ground to conductor 3I5 connected to the B (blank) leads in cables 303 and 304, Fig. 4. Any storage indicators IT or IU which are in their blank'positions will have their associated tens and units comparator relays TC and UC, Fig. 6, operated provided their Fix comparator relay FC has'been operated previously. However, there may be a pluralityof blank rows in each Fix and only one, the lowest numbered, should be selected. The operation of relay BRS has added this requirement by opening the normal gang relay path through its armature and break contact 50I, Fig. 5.
When conductor 6I4, connected to armature 5!, is energized in the several blank rows through the combined operation of their FC, UC and TC relays, battery 6I2 (in all blank rows) is connected over conductor 6I4, armature 50I and 'makecontact of relay BRS and conductor 522 to'the winding of the position tens comparator relay PTC, Fig. 6. Th circuit continues over conductor 650 to the brush and bank 6I5 of the new position tens storage indicator NPT, Fig. 6,
and thence through one of the bank terminals to a conductor in cable 6I6 which is multiplied to a corresponding bank of the NPT storage indicator in each of the rows 00-I4. If, for example, we assumethat row I4 is a blank row, the conductor 0 in cable 6 I 6 will be energized through the winding of the PTC relay from the battery 6I2, Fig. 6. The conductors of cable 6I6 are connected through; normally closed contacts of a position comparator PC relay, Fig. 9, and thence through conductorsOfI to BT of cable I which termi-