US 2391828 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 25,1945. A H D 2,391,828
FILE GAS ING Filed Feb. 14, 1945 23 In ventor Attorney Patented Dec. 25, 1945 Application February 14, 1945, Serial No; 577,353 In Great Britain December 2'9, 1943 "9 Claims.
This invention is for improvements in or 1131M". ing to the manufacture of in situ concrete piles, walls, cotter-dams and the like and has for an object to provide means whereby in situ concrete piles, walls, coffer-dams or the like can be constructed through water-lo ged ground or throu h an appreciable depth of water.
Hitherto the formation of such in situ concrete structures through w ter o any ap ecia le depth has never been successfully attempted for want of some means to enable the steel casing.- together with its shoe closure to .be lowered through water and driven into the ground, providing an effective automatic seal against the ingreSs of water under considerable external head pressures and at the same time eliminating the natural buoyancy of a hollow closed vessel, tor example a closed piling tube.
A r i to the present invention there are provided means, adapted to .be driven into the ground to permit construction of in situ concrete piles, walls, cofier-dams and the like in the presence of water, comprising a hollow open-ended casing, a closure member for one end thereof and a connecting member, comprising rubber or like resilient material, releasably engaging with said closure member and/or said casing to .seal the casing against ingress of water. Said connecting member "maybe secured to the interior of said casing by means of bolts or the like or it may be gripped between the edge of said casing and a screw-threaded collar en ag ng with a corresponding screw-thread formed on the said casing.
The preceding constructions are eminently suitable for the formation of the in situ concrete structures referred to, in water-lo ged ground; they provide a simple and conven'ientmeans for preventing the ingress of water into the casing during the operation of driving into the ground and at the same time permit of a ready with.- drawal of the casing when the concrete has been poured into the casing.
A feature-of the invention consist in that said connecting member is formed with a hole or holes therethrough permitting ingress of water into said casing and is resiliently deformable Joy pressure of said casing upon said closure member to close said hole or holes. By means of this construction the casing can be lowered-into contact with the ground. through a considerable depth of water. The provision of theholes in the connecting member permits water to flow into the interior of the casing and thereby over come.sthe diflicu-lty of buoyancy and enables the casing to be lowered without difiiculcy into the dcsiredno sition. The construction i such that closure member has made contact ground and the casing is lowered on to it, the connecting membe is resili nt y deformed in such a manner as to close the h les. th reby r teventing further in ress of water the casin and thus Permitting the casin to be m ni tered either before or after it is driven into the ground, but in any event before the concrete is poured into the casin :to form the desired structure.
The attachment of the shoe to casmg'inac cordance with the present invention makes it possible to make an important and valuable al.- teration in the method of driving the easing into the ground: ordinarily, the casing :is fitted with a driving helmet and a billing hammer is caused to the. said helmet and the driving veitort is then transmitted through the length of the easting to the shoe which thereby driven into the ground. This causes considerable vibration duh ing the driving operation and moreover necessittates the use of a casing which is stronger and heavier than is reqmed or its primary function, namely, forming a cavity into which the fluid concrete can be poured. Furthermore, a very strong piling frame is r qui ed in order to support the casing and snide it throughout the driv operation and to support the piling hammer at aiconsiderable height above ground.
According to a further important teatime of the invention there is provided amethodor driving a casing, as hereinbetore set forth, which comprises lowering the piling hammer inside the casing and causing it to strike the closure member at the toot of the casing and to engage with the connecting member whereby the closure member is .driven into the ground and the easing is simultaneously pulled down. Preferably the closure member (1. e., the shoe) is formed with aflat surface, :for-engagementwith a driving surface associated with piling"hammer, surrounded by an upstanding fiange between which and a part of said driving surface, the connecting member is nipped during a driving stroke of the piling hammer.
The advantage of the foregoing method of driving the easing into the ground that the easingca-n be constructed of thinner gauge metal than-would otherwise bejnecessaryasit doestnot have to transmit the drivjngelffont, that vibration during driving is minimized and that the piling frame c e less substantiallyabuilt than is-customary. 7 V e alternative method of fixing the rubber sleeve to the casing.
The following is a description with reference'to Figures 1 and 2 of an embodiment, of the invention for use in the formation of an in situ concrete pile under a considerable depth or".
In Figure 1 is shown a piling tube casing In,
which is of any ordinary type of construction, has attached to the interior thereof, adjacent the lowermost end I I, a rubber sleeve l2 which projects below the lowermost end of the casing to the extent of an inch to 1 inches. The rubber sleeve I2 is secured fast to the interior of the easing by means of a metal ring l3, attached-to the casing by means of studs or bolts not shown, firmly clamping the rubber sleeve between it and the casing. 1 r
The lowermost edge of the rubberisleeve I 2 is formed with a rim I 4 similar to the bead edge on a pneumatictyre. Around the periphery of the rubber sleeve l2 and at a point just below the lowermost edge H of the casing, a number of perforations ii are formed which, .as later described, permit the passage of water'into the interior of the casing.
The shoe I6, which is made of cast iron, is in the conventional form, 1. e., it has a driving shoulder l1, and, extending upwardly from that shoulder,,a flange l8 arrangedto fit inside the casing. Around the periphery of the-."upstandingflange l8 there'is formed a groove 19 of sucha shape as to engage the bead-like rim 14 formed at the lowermost edge of thelrubber 1s1eeve l2. "The.
rubber sleeve 12 which isrof about 4 inch'in thicknessis sufficientlyv strong to securethe shoe to the casing lflwhen the casinglis suspended so :thatther casing and shoe can be 'loweredinto. position without the shoe becoming detached from the casing. r v V The casing. and shoe are, then lowered through the water at the selected position and when the shoe l6 makes contact with the ground the casing will continue to descend until its lowermost edge ll makes contact with the drivingshoulder I! on the shoe l6. '7 During the descent of the casing and shoe through the water, water has penetrated into the interior of the casing I!) through the perforations 15 so that the interior becomes, filled with water and has no undesirable buoyancy. V r During the relative movementbetween the 0.35?
ing and the shoe the rubber sleeve l2 becomes be appreciated of course that the casing-could be de-watered as soon as the rubber sleeve has been deformed sufficiently to close the perforations.
When the casing has been driven into the ground to the desired depth by means of blows upon a driving helmet fitted to the upper end of the casing in conventional manner, a steel cage reinforcement (not shown) can if desired be lowered into the casing and if desired a liner (not shown), also of steel tubing, can also be lowered into position and can be retained suspended inside the main casing.
The concrete is now poured into the casing HI (when a liner is employed the concrete is introduced into the liner only) and the casing can then be extracted in conventional manner by reversing the action of the piling hammer (when the concrete has set sufficiently to be self -supporting) and during the process of extraction the beadlike'rim II on the lowermost edge of the rubber sleeve I2 is withdrawn from the groove IS in the upstanding flange I8 of the shoe l6 leaving the shoe in position in the ground at the foot ofthe concrete column and permitting the casing tobe withdrawn. r
' In the case where a liner is used the casing can be withdrawn as soon as the required amount of concrete has been poured into the liner, the liner being left in position either permanently as a support and protection for the concrete pile or, alternatively, the liner (which may conveniently be made in sections as is conventional) may be withdrawn when the concrete column has become self-supporting. V
It will be appreciated that the perforations" in the rubber. sleeve l2 can beomitted when the casing and shoe assembly does not have to be lowered through any considerable depth of water; it is only where the depth of water is such that the buoyancy of the empty casing presents considerable difllculties in the control thereof whilst being lowered into position that the function of the perforations attains its full degree of importance. The following is a description, with reference to Figures 3 and 4 of the way in which the casing and shoe are modified from what is described above and of the means and method used for driving the casing and shoe into the ground. I The casing 20 is formed of sheet metal, or otherwise as required, of the thickness necessary to withstand the stresses imposed upon it by the lateral pressure of the ground and concrete filling, e. g., to thickness and has secured thereto, near to the lowermost end, a rubber sleeve-12 as above described. The rubber sleeve is attached to the shoe 2| by means of a bead l4 engaging with a groove [9 in the upstanding flange 22 on the shoe 2| also as above described.
The shoe 2| is formed with a flat surface 23 lying within the said upstanding flange 22 to receive the driving effort of the blows from the piling hammer. Into the casing there is lowered the piling hammer and associated parts which are constructed as follows: the piling hammer 24, which is a cylindrical mass weighing say two-and-ahalf tons, is formed with a hole 25 along the longitudinal axis and is attached by cable 26 or the like to the operating means in conventional man ner. Passing through said hole 25 is a rod ,2! which at its lowermost end is secured to an anvil 28 (hereinafter described) and at its uppermost end is formed with 'alcap or boss 29 so that when the piling hammer 24 is raised it will abut against the cap or' boss.29 sothat the extent of the drop is regulated. The rod'2l, which acts as a guide for the piling hammer, may also have holes (not shown) formed transversely through it into which pins or the like may be placed to vary the amount by which the piling hammer 24 is raised at each stroke whereby the driving effort can be regulated.
The anvil 28 is a block of metal having a flat undersurface 30, which is to engage with the flat surface 23 of the shoe above referred to, and a transverse flange 3| extending sideways to such an extent as to overlap the upstanding flange 22 on the shoe, the said transverse flange 3| being disposed at a distance above the flat surface 30 such that it rests upon the rubber sleeve |2 where the latter is folded over and upon the upstanding flange 22; the transverse flange 3| is preferably provided with a rubber or other soft facing 32 (best seen in Figure 4) for engaging with the rubber sleeve l2. The anvil 28 may be arranged to rest with its flange 3| upon the rubber sleeve l2 and to be brought into contact with the shoe 2| only during the driving stroke; it is provided with a flat upper surface 33 for engagement with the piling hammer 24.
As the shoe 2| is moved deeper into the ground at each blow of the piling hammer 24, the casing is caused to follow it by reason of the pull exerted on it by the rubber sleeve l2; the rubber sleeve l2, being nipped between the flange 3| of the anvil 28 and the flange 22 of the shoe, transmits the movement of the shoe 2| to the casing 2|! which consequently does not need to be driven.
When the casing and shoe have been driven into the ground to the required distance, the anvil and piling hammer are withdrawn and the finishing of the concrete pile effected as described in relation to Figures 1 and 2.
In addition to showing, on a larger scale, part of Figure 3, Figure 4 also shows an alternative method of securing the rubber sleeve |2 to the casing 20. In this arrangement, a screw-thread 34 is formed on the outside of the casing 20 and a correspondingly screw-threaded collar 35 is secured thereto. The collar 35 is formed with a recess 31 which cooperates with the end 36 of the casing 20 to form a groove in which the beaded upper edge 38 of the rubber sleeve I2 is nipped.
This method of securing the rubber sleeve to the casing is possibly more convenient than that shown in Figures 1, 2 and 3 and although it is illustrated in connection with the embodiment of the invention described with reference to Figure 3, it is to be understood that it is not limited thereto and can be applied to the embodiment shown in Figures 1 and 2, i. e., where the casing is driven by the blows of a piling hammer upon the conventional driving helmet fitted to the top of the casing.
What I claim is: 1. Means for use in the formation of in s1tu concrete piles, walls, coffer dams and the like in the presence of water, and adapted to be driven into the ground comprising a hollow open-ended casing, a closure member for one end thereof and a connecting member of flexible, water-impervious material, releasably engaging with said closure member and said casing to seal the casing against ingress of water.
2. Means according to claim 1, including means in the form of bolts for releasably securing said connecting member to the interior of said casing.
3. Means according to claim 1, including a metal ring between which and the interior of said casing said connecting member is gripped, and means in the form of bolts for releasably securing said ring and connecting member to said casing.
4. Means according to claim 1, said casing terminating at its lower end in a screw threaded portion, a screw threaded collar threadedly mounted on said screw threaded portion, and one end of said connecting member being gripped between the edge of said casing and said screw threaded collar.
5. Means according to claim 1, said connecting member being provided with means for the passage therethrough of water into said casing, and being resiliently deformable by pressure of said casing upon said closure member to close said last-named means.
6. Means according to claim 1, said connecting member being provided at its lower end with a bead, and said closure member being provided with a cooperating groove for the releasable rcception of said bead.
7. Means for use in the formation of in situ concrete piles, walls, coifer dams and the like in the presence of water, and adapted to be driven into the ground comprising a hollow open-ended casing, a closure member for one end thereof and a connecting member, of flexible rubber material, releasably engaging with said closure member and said casing to seal the casing against ingress of water, said closure member being formed with a flat surface surrounded by an upstanding flange arranged to fit within said casing, said flange being so disposed and dimensioned that, when the casing is pressed upon said closure member, the said connecting member is deformed so as to overlap the edge thereof and is nipped between said flange and driving means engaging with said flat surface during driving of said casing and closure means into the ground.
8. Means according to claim '7, said driving means comprising an anvil, provided with a circumferential flange extending outwards to overlap said upstanding flange and with a flat surface for engagement with the flat surface of said closure member, a guide member secured to said anvil, a drop-hammer fitting around said guidemember, a stop on said guide member for'limiting the upward movement of said drop-hammer and operating means for raising and dropping said drop-hammer.
9. Means acccording to claim '7, said driving means comprising an anvil, provided with a circumferential flange extending outwards to overlap said upstanding flange and with a flat surface for engagement with the flat surface of said closure member, a guide member secured to said anvil, a drop-hammer fitting around said guidemember, a stop on said guide member for limiting the upward movement of said drop-hammer and operating means for raising and dropping said drop-hammer, wherein the lower face of said circumferential flange on the anvil being faced with soft or resilient material and is disposed at such a distance from the flat surface of said anvil that said flat surface is held out of contact with the flat surface of the closure member except during a driving stroke when said connecting member is nipped between the upstanding and circumferential flanges and causes the casing to move down with the closure member.