US 2391864 A
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Jan. 1, 1946. E. F. CHANDLER REPEATING ROCKET GUN Filed Aug. 26, 1941 3 SheefcsSheet 1 INVENT R Jan. 1, 1946. E. F. CHANDLER REPEATING ROCKET GUN '3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Aug. 26, 1941 INVENT &N
Sq Q R Jan. 1, 1946. E. F. CHANDLER 2,391,364
REPEATING ROCKET GUN Filed Aug. 26, 1941 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 was Jo. it
REPEATING ROCKET GUN Edward F. ndler, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Application August 26, 1941, Serial No. 408,284
This invention relates to improvements in ordnance and to an improved shell therefor, and also to an improved method of shell propulsion, and relates more particularly to a novel type of portable gun for dispatching shells of the reaction type formed with a self -contained propulsion charge, the present application constituting a continuation-in-part of my (so-pending application, Ser. No. 406,944, now Patent No. 2,380,024, July it, 1945.
One of the principal objects of the present invention is to provide a field piece which can be fired from the shoulder, and which is light in Weight, simple in operation, and is capable of dispatching a shell of fair caliber in great destructlve power. A further object or" the invention is the provision oi a novel shoulder-firing gun capable of firing in rapid succession a plurality of reaction-type shells carrying any type of oifensive charge in solid, liquid or gaseous form. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a gun of this type having improved cocking and firing means, and wherein after a shell has been fired, another shell may be quickly brought into position in the barrel, ready for firing.
Although the gun of the present invention is designed primarily as a. shoulder-firing field piece for infantry detachments, it may nevertheless be mounted on a tripod or gun carriage and may be fired from a fixed position, or may be fired from mobile units such as motor-driven vehicles, planes, tanks and the like. The firing of the gun from a pursuit plane is particularly important, since it has a minimum of recoil, although dispatching a relatively heavy shell of great destructive possibilities.
The gun of the present invention, when em- .bodied as a shoulder-firing field piece, will have a certain limit of caliber, although when the gun is mounted on a suitable carriage the caliber may be quite large and be capable of handling a shell of tremendous destructive power. In this connection, it is effective for use on small, highspeed water craft, especially for the reason that the recoil for any given caliber is relatively low, and for the further reason that the gun is fairly noiseless.
Another object of the invention is to provide a gun with a smooth bore for firing reactiontype shells, having a low center of gravity, low recoil, and because of its ease in handling and mobility of action, can be ready for firin at a moments notice and in any direction.
In the drawings:
Fig. l is a side elevation of a gun constituting one embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a broken vertical section taken through the firing mechanism and a portion of the barrel of the gun shown in Fig. l, the view showing the position of the parts prior to firing.
Fig. 3 is similar to Fig. 2, but shows the position of certain of the parts after the shell has been detonated and the breech element moved to partly retracted position.
Fig. 4 is similar to Fig. 2, but shows the position of the parts when the breech element is in fully retracted position.
Figs. 5, 6 and l are transverse sections taken on lines 5-5 and i-l', respectively, of Fig. "i. V
Fig. 8 is a side elevation, partially in section. of the improved shell which is particularly adapted for use in the gun of the present invention.
Fig. 9 is an end elevation thereof.
Fig. 1c is an enlarged section taken on line Fig. 11 is an enlarged broken side elevation of the rear portion of the afterbody of the shell.
Fig. 12 is an enlarged broken end elevation of the shell.
A general view of the gun constituting the preferred embodiment of the present invention, in side elevation, is shown in Fig. 1. The gun includes a breech housing or frame l5 supporting a gun stock ii at one end thereof, and a barrel H at its Opposite end. At its forward end, breech housing I5 is formed with a plurality of annular heat-diffusing fins l8, and on the upper surface of such housing a vertical shell magazine I9 is secured. Substantially midway between the ends of the barrel IT, a. forward hand grip 22, formed with a collar 23 enclosing the barrel, is secured. At its upper end, the shoulder-engaging portion of the gun stock I 6 is formed with an extension portion 20 adapted to fit over the shoulder of the user. The angle of the gun stock relative to the barrel is a matter of choice.
Adjacent to the lower surface of housing IS on each side thereof, a recessed trackway 24 is formed, such opposed trackways receiving internal, rib portions 25 of a substantially U shaped slide member 26 which supports a hand grip 21 at its lower extremity. A trigger 28 and trigger guard 29 are associated with slide member 26.
An adjustable sight 32 of any suitable type is mounted on the upper surface of housing l5 to one side of magazine IS. A plurality of shells 33 are positioned in magazine l9, which is shown in Fig. 4 as being open at its upper end.
The shells 33 are preferably of the reaction type, the details of one form of such shell being illustrated in Figs. 8 to 12, inclusive. Each shell is formed adjacent to its butt with an annular recess 34, and for the purpose of retaining the shell in firing position within barrel II, a detent 33 is provided adJacent to the rear end of barrel I1, such detent being urged downwardly by means of a spring 31. One of such shells is shown in firing position in Fig. 2, which also shows certain details of the breech and firing-pin assembly, which includes a sliding breech block it mounted for longitudinal movement within housing I5. This breech block is formed with a longitudinal bore 42 extending inwardly from the forward end I thereof the front portion oi such bore being threaded as at 43, and receives a bushing hav= ing a central bore fit; through which a firing pin 86 passes.
The firing pin 46 is preferably formed integrally with hammer element 6? slidably mounted within bore 42. At its rear end, bore 82 has a reduced portion i which receives the rear terminal of a spring 52. The forward end of spring 5% is positioned within a bore 53; in hammer element 4? and urges such element forwardly. On its lower surface hammer W has an integrally formed lug 5d, the purpose of such lug being to cock the hammer. When in firing position, as shown in Fig. 2. lug W is engaged by the rear end of a lev r 55 which is centrally pivoted at 58 and which is carried by the housing 95, and accordingly such lever does not change position during longitudinal movement of the breech block. Counterclockwise rotation of lever 55 beyond the position shown in Fig. 2 is restrained by means of a pin 57 carried by housing 95. v
When in the position shown in Fig. 2, energy has been stored in spring 52 preparatory to firing. Hammer Cl is released by trigger 28, which is formed with a bell crank lever portion GI formed integrally with the trigger 20, which is pivoted at 62 in sliding member 28. A pin 63 limits clockwise rotation of hell crank lever portion 6| beyond the position shown in Fig. 2. The trigger assembly is urged in a clockwise position by a spring 64 positioned within an aperture 65 at the upper end of hand grip 21. The rear end of. the spring is retained by means of a set screw 66, and the forward end of the spring receives a pin formed integrally with trigger 28. When the trigger is pulled, the upper surface of -bell crank lever 0! engages the lower surface of forward portion 10 of lever 55, thereby lowering the rear portion thereof and releasing lug 54, thereby releasing hammer element 41 and causing firing pin 03 to *move forward and detonate shell 33.
In order to sealthe breech portion of barrel I'I during firing and thus prevent the rearwardescape of combustion gases, the forward end of breech block 4| is formed with an annular reduced portion 12 which is received within the breech portion of the barrel, all as shown in Fig. 2. When the shell 33 is detonated, rearward movement of breech block 4| is prevented by means of a retaining pawl 13 which is pivoted at II on a block 8| at the rear of housing It. Pawl I3 is urged downwardly by means of a flat spring I0, and at its forward endis formed with a square cut-out portion 18 which engages the rear terminal of such breech block.
In order to assure a positive lock for the breech block when the same has been manually moved forward to firing position, a slight clearance is provided between shoulder portion 11 of lever 13 and the rear end of the breech block. Reactiontype shells of the kind disclosed herein set up a oneness minimum of recoil, and in order to absorb even this slight recoil, the means shown in Fig. 4 are provided. Pawl I3 is mounted on a block, 0| which is positioned for slidable movement in a recess 02 in housing I5. Block 3| is formed with anintegral rearward extension 34 having a reduced portion 86. A collar 30 rests against the shoulder formed by such reduced portion. A spring 01 at its forward end engages collar 86. and at its rear endspring 81 engages the bushing 30. The portion 86 is retained in position by a guide bushing 30. Forward movement of recoil element 04 is limited by means of a pin M which engages washer 32 carried on reduced portion 05. A can nut 33 encloses the recoil-absorbing means and retains the bushing 0b.
After the gun has been fired, a new shell is placed in the barrel, and the gun cooked in the following manner. The breech block H is moved rearwardly by manually drawing hand grip 29 carried by slide member :0 rearwardly along the trackways It. At the start of this movement the breech block is unlocked by the following means. A plate 84 is secured to slide member 26 by means of screws 85, such plate having an offset portion 96 formed with an elongated slot 81. A pin I00 carried by breech block it is positioned within such slot, the rear end of the slot engaging the pin when the block isin firing position. Initial rearward movement of member 26 causes plate at to move rearwardly'in a slot IIII formed in housing It without causing any movement of breech block 4! until the forward end of slot 31 engages pin I00, in which position it is shown in Fig. 3.
Dining the aforesaid movement, the upper surface of extension 36 causes a toe portion I02 formed at the rear end of a lever I03 to be cammed upwardly. Lever I03 is pivotall mounted at I04 on the breech block I, and as cam lever I03 is moved upwardly from the position shown in Fig. 2 to that shown in Fig. 3, the upper surface thereof raises pawl I3 out ofengagement with the breech block, thus freeing same for rearward movement, which is accomplished by continued rearward movement of extension 30 operating against the pin I00. Maximum rearward position of breech block I is shown in Fig. 4, and when the block has reached this position, another shell 33 moves downwardly, preferably against some resilient element, as indicated by spring member I 00. The lowermost shell now being in alignment with barrel I1, hand grip 21 is moved forwardly, and during initial movement thereof no movement of breech .block II occurs until pin I00 has moved to the opposite end of slot 31. When this occurs, continued forward movement of hand grip 21 causes the breech block to move forwardly, thus moving shell 33 into the barrel.
00 In order to prevent the forward end of breech When the shell finally reaches the appropriate position for firing. spring-pressed detent 36 snaps into annular recess 34 in the shell.
One type of improved shell constituting the present invention, for use in connection with the gun Just described, is illustrated in Figs. 8 to 12,
" this shell may be used in other types of guns as well. The shell comprises a cylindrical afterbody I20 formed with a reduced, threaded forward extension I2I upon which the forward section I22 is mounted. In the shell shown, the afterbody and the forward section are of substantially the same diameter. The forward section is formed with a chamber I23, which chamber is adapted to carry any type of offensive charge in solid, liquid or gaseous form. The forward end of the chamher is closed by means of a closure member I24 which may contain a fuse of any suitable character, or any other appropriate means of detonation may be employed in connection with this forward section. At its rear end, forward section I22 is formediwitha threaded aperture which receives threaded portion I2I" of the afterbody.
In a shell of this character, the outer periphery thereof is preferably slightly smaller than the bore of the gun barrel, and in order to effect a relatively close gasseal between the shell and the bore of the gun barrel, a gasket I21 of slightly greater diameter than that of the shell is positioned between the sections adjacent to their outer peripheries. Afterbody I20 is also provided with a hollow chamber or bore I26 extending forwardly from the rear end thereof. Adjacent to its rear end, the bore is provided with a section of reduced diameter, as shown at I28, and is provided with internal threads I29. The rear face I3I of the afterbody has formed therein a plurality of nozzle openings I32 which are disposed at an angle to a line running longitudinally of the shell, all as shown in Figs. 11 and 12.
Within the threaded opening I29 an internal cartridge I35 i positioned, such cartridge having a forward tubular portion I35 containing the combustible charge I99 having a central bore I90 thence rearwardly through the area between the cartridge and the interior of the shell. By this means, the hot gases within this space tend to preheat the combustible charge which, together with the pressure generated in the chamber, accelerates the rate of gas evolution. The nozzle orifices are proportioned to provide a desired accumulation of pressure within chamber I26.
It. will be appreciated that, if the of the present invention is to be made in a caliber which is weapon, any suitable support may be-employed for the gun.
The embodiment of the invention illustrated in Figs. 1 to 7, inclusive, shows the shell magazine as being positioned on the upper side of frame member IS, the shells being fed vertically into the breech. It will be appreciated, of course, that anyother magazine and shellefeeding arrangement may be employed. It will be further appreciated that the invention is not limited to a repeating gun with appropriate mechanism for successively feeding the shells after each shell is fired, since the embodiments illustrated may be appropriately modified to. form -a single shot arm.
The embodiment of the present invention herein illustrated and described is illustrative only, and
. the breech end of said barrel, a breech block longitudinally reciprocable in 'said frame, resilient means locking the breech block in forward position comprising a block longitudinally reciprocable therethrough formed withalongitudinally splined 40 in said frame, spring means resisting rearward surface to increase the combustible area. The charge is detonated by means of a primer cap I62, and when the charge is set ofi the combustible gases within chamber I26 pass outwardly. through the diagonal nozzle openings I 32, propelling the shell forward and also setting up a gyratory effect.
The combustible gases which are generated within the cartridge are first caused to pass forwardly through the internal cartridge I95, and
movement of said block, a locking pawl pivotally mounted at itsrear end on said block and means urging the forward end of said pawl into blocking,
engagement with the rear terminal of said breech to rmit re-loading.
- EDWARD F. CHANDLER.
obviously too high for a shoulder-firing defined by the appended block, and manually-operable means for moving said pawl out of engagement with the breech block