|Publication number||US2391959 A|
|Publication date||Jan 1, 1946|
|Filing date||Jan 12, 1944|
|Priority date||Jan 12, 1944|
|Publication number||US 2391959 A, US 2391959A, US-A-2391959, US2391959 A, US2391959A|
|Original Assignee||George Gallowhur|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (30), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Patented Jan. 1,1946
um'rsn s'urr zs PATENT OFFICE SUN-BATIIING armam- George Gallowlmr, Reading, Vt.
No Drawing- Annlicatlon January s, 1e44, Serial No. 517,981
This invention relates to sunbathing apparel; and more particularly to sunbathingapparel such as bathing suits, etc. which will permit the wearer thereoftoacouireauniformsuntanwhenexposed to the sun or other source of ultraviolet radiation.
The new sunbathing apparel of the present invention is made of thin, flexible, elastic, translucent thermoplastic sheets or films within which have been incorporated ultraviolet light filtering agents. Such apparel permits the pigmenting range of ultraviolet radiations to pass while effectively suppressing the erythema range, and enables the wearer of such apparel toderive the cosmetic and therapeutic benefits of exposure to sunlight or other sources of ultraviolet radiation without the heretofore attendant and objectionable inflammation.
The invention is of particular value in sunbathing apparel such as bathing suits and trunkswhich cover a considerable part of the body but which nevertheless permit the wearer thereof to acquire a uniform sun tan on'the parts ofthe body so covered. The invention also includes other bathing apparel such as bathing caps, halters, trimks, shorts, sandals, slippers, belts, sunhats,
8, 1 (1928). Secondary anemia, various types of I tubercuiosis'and certain skin infections are similarly amenable to heliotherapy. A deep-seated relation also exists between skin tanning and the sex hormone system in males (Hamflton and Hubert, Science, 88, 481 (1938)) and in females (Hamilton, Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med, 40, 502
However, direct exposure to intense sunlight may have undesirable sequellae. Pigmentation (i.' e., "tanning") is considered to have cosmetic value, but is often accompanied or preceded by an intense and painful erythema (i. e., "sunburn). The relationship between pigmentation and erythema has been elucidated by Frydlender (Arch. droguerie pharm. 8, 4 (1938) Chem. Zentr. 1938 II, .1943; Chem. Abst. 34, 4863 (1040), and is important to an understanding of the present invention.
The ultraviolet spectrum covers the range of radiation between 136 and 4000 Angstroms. Part bandannas, visors, etc. The apparel may also be in the form of garments or sheets which cover the entire body so that the entire body may be suntanned and at the same time protected from sunburn even after prolonged exposure to the sun or other ultraviolet radiation.
It is a common observation that the skin of a wearer of bathing apparel such as has heretofore been available does not tan uniformly when exposed to sunlight or another source of ultraviolet radiation. Those areas covered by the apparel remain substantially unaifected. Not only does this produce an undesirable cosmetic effect, but such lack of uniformity in pigmentation is believed to be biologically undesirable.
The present invention has as one of its objects to provide novel translucent sunbathing apparel which will effectively permit the passa e of the desired range of ultraviolet radiation causing pigmentation (i. e., tanning") and which will effectively suppress the passage of the undesirable range of ultraviolet radiation causing erythema (i. e., sunburn"). Other objects of the invention will be apparent from. the following description.
Since Dr. J. H. Kelioggfirst employed the sun-- bath systematically under medical supervision in 1870, ,heliotherapy has become a valuable ad- Junct in the prophylaxis-and treatment of disease. The beneficial efi'ects of ultraviolet radiation in the therapy of rickets were first noted b Huldschinsky. and it is established that certain wavelengths of this radiation caused a synthesis of antirachitic vitamin D from a precursor compound (ergosterol) in the skin (Laurena'PhysioL) Rev.
of this range, from 136 A. to 1010 A., is also considered as part of the x-ray spectrum. The shortest solar radiation that can reach the earth is aboutv 2900 A.. so that the effective solar ultraviolet spectrum is from 2900 A. in 4000 A. The total amount of such radiation is never very great. On a clear day at sea level, the distribution of solar radiation is about 1-2% ultraviolet, 42-53% visible and 57-63% infrared. The limited therepeutic benefits derived from brief exposure to such radiation indicate the need for prophylactic measures, and the importance of adequatemeans for obtaining the range of radiation foroptimum biochemical effect (Hawk and Bergeim-Practical Physiological Chemistry, x edition, pg. 663).
The radiation causing erythema is in the region of 2967 A. Radiations of 3261 A. cause only 0.8% to 0.4% ofthe inflammation resulting from an equivalent exposure of 2967 A. radiations, although the pigment formation (i. e., "tanning) at 3261 A is considerable. The new sunbathing apparel of the present in vention has incorporated therein ultraviolet light filtering agents and particularly agents protectingthe skin from radiations between 2950 A. and 3100 A., such that the apparel will permit tanning without sunburn. These agents are incorporated in the thin, flexible, elastic, translucent thermoplastic sheets or films of which the apparel is made.
.rather convert such radiation into other wave lengths which donot cause erythema.
A typical example oi such an ultraviolet light filter for use in making the new apparel is betamethyl umbelliierone (Pari'umerie Moderne, May,
1936, pp. 203-209). The percent transmission .by a 1% solution of beta-methyl umbellii'erone of ultraviolet radiations oi' diirere'nt wavelengths isas follows:
Per cent Per cent 2894 A 3.0 3129 A 0.08 2967 A 0.6 3341' A. 0.40 3021 L 0.02 3050 A 94.00
Thus, it can be seen'that the erythema range" Y- ultravlolet radiations, 2950 A.-3l00 A., can be eiiectively screened out although longer and shorter wavelengths'oi ultraviolet light will pass the filter.
In making the new sunbathing apparel there is first made a thin, flexible, elastic, translucent, thermoplastic sheet or film within which has beenincorporated the ultraviolet, light filtering agents, and such sheets or films are then used When the thin, flexible, elastic, translucent thermoplastic films have suitable ultraviolet light filtering agents incorporated therein, such apparel permits the pigmenting range of ultra violet radiations to pass while eilectively suppressing the erythema range, and the wearer of such apparel may derive the cosmetic and therapeutic benefits orexposure to sunlight or other sources of ultraviolet radiation without attendant and objectionable inflammation.
Typical members of the group of materials which can be as thermoplastics are regeneratedcellulose, cellulose ester and cellulose ether sheeting (e. g.,v Lumarith, Tenite, Plastacele), rubber hydrochloride (e. g., Parlon, Plio- ,film) and some types or long-chain polyamides (nylon); The more typical-members or this groupand those more. readily applicable to the products of the present invention, are the socalled "vinyl resins." A good definition of this term is given by Akin (Chemical Industries, LII.
,458, April, 194s) "Commonly, the term-'vinyl resins is taken to mean polymers or co-polymers of vinyl esters and ethers as typified by the following structures, or products derived by subsequent condensations based on such resins: I
CHiICHCL Vinyl chloride CH:;CHOH Vinyl alcohol CHs:CCla- Vinylldene chloride CHa:CHOCOCHs Vinyl acetate CH:;CHOCaHs Vinyl ethyl ether" Typical vinyl resins available industrially are the'following:
Vinyl chloride polymers-Jlamenol, Koi'osel.
Korolac', Koroseal,'Vinylite Q.
Vinyl acetate polymers-Gelva, PV Acetate, Vi-
nyuw A v Vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymeis-Tygon,
Vinyiite V, Vinyon, Vinylseal Vinylidene chloride polymers-Apia, Saran, Veion Vinyl alcohol polymers-PVA, Solvar Vinyl ethyl ether polymers-Lutonal Condensation products of polymerized vinyl al-" cohol- With i'or'maldehyde-Formex, Forinvar With acetaldehyde-Alvar With butyraldehyde-Butacite, Butvar, Flex.-
seal, Heydenite. 'Safiex, Vinal, Vinylite X With benzaldehyde-Benvar With crotdnaldehyde-Crotvar.
. The term "ultraviolet light filtering agents" asused in the specification and claims or the present invention refers to those compounds capable oi absorbing at least the erythema range f ultraviolet radiations, i. e., 2950 A. to 3100 A., andconverting them to radiations of either shorter.
or longer wavelengths'than that range. These compounds bear no common chemical resemblance to each oth'er but are characterized by this sole physical property 01 re-emission of absorbed ultraviolet light. When this re-emitted light is visible, the phenomenon is called fluorescence.
Typical "ultraviolet light filtering agents" applicable in the products of the present invention 2950 A. to 3100 A. and entirely suppress this I pounds may be organic, inorganic,
are: beta-methyl umbelliierone, glyceryl p-aminobenzoate, menthyl salicylate, clyceryl salicylate, glycol salicylate. quinine bisuiiate and other quinin and cinchona alkaloid salts. hexahydroxyethyltannic acid, e'sculin. esculetin, stilbene,
sodium Z-phenylben aimidazole-5-sulfonate, 2-.
phenylbenzoxazole, menthyl anthranilate, cyclohexenylanthranilate, isosairole, benzalacetophenone, dibenzalacetone, 9-ethyl,3-dimethylaminocarbazole, 4-methyl,7-diethylaminocoumarin, .3- methyl,5 dimethylaminoazimidobenzene, 2-(paminophenyllfi-amlnobenzimidazole, 2-ph'enyl,5--
aminobenzoxazole, Ii-dimethylaminoacridine, al-' kyl' 3-methoxy-o-coumarate, triethanolamine o-cresotinate, triethanolamine 2,3-hydrcxynaphthoate, dibenzalazine, hydroquinone, chlorophyll derivatives such as pheophytin, pheophorbide, phytochlorine and photorhodlne, 2-hydroxybenzalacetoneoxalate esters, 2-chlorbenzalacetoneoxalate esters, iurfuralacetoneoxalate esters, cinnamalacetoneoxalate esters, and' many other compounds. In general, any non-toxic compound can be used as an ultraviolet light filtering agent that is compatible with the chemical nature of the thermoplastic, and that will absorb at least the range of ultraviolet radiations from range and/or re-emit it as radiations of smaller or greater. wavelengths. A large number of such compounds are listed and discussed in De Ment's Fluorescent Chemicals and Their Applications" (Chemical Publishing Co., 1942). These comorganic in nature.
,The thermoplastic materials used in making the, flexible. elastic, translucent films of which the sunbathing apparel is made are suitably c0mpounded according to various processes available in the compounding art. With some materials the compounding may be eiiected in a solution of the material from which the flexible, elastic, translucent film is obtained by evaporation of the solvent. With thermoplastic resins the comor metallo- Y poimdingwillingenerelbeeiiectedbyfiuxingin' a heated mixer'with the addition of the requisite phsticisers, opacifiers, dyes'or pigments, lubricants and stabilizers. Into this mixture may now be incorporated the requisite amount of the ultraviolet light filtering. agent. This amount may vary from traces, to 20% or the total weightof the composition, depending on the chemical naiiying agent. It may also serve as a lubricant and I as a stabilizing agent.
The hot resin "dough is then mixed further in an ordinary rubber mill to obtain better dispersion oi the ingredients, and is then calendered into sheeting (material thicker-than 0.005 inch) or film (material 0.005 inch thick, or less). Thickness usually runs in standard gauges e. g., 0.004, 0.008 0.020, 0.040 and 0.085 inch. .In general, it the original resin has an averagemolecular weight between 15,000 and 22,000, the resultant plastic forms a translucent, resilient. elastic sheet that is tough, strong, durable and washable. Such sheets are well suited for use in making the apparel oi the present invention.
Other methods of incorporating the ultraviolet light filtering agent than those above described may be used. Thus, the agent may be mixed with the monomer of the plastic and the latteris then polymerized (or co-polyinerized, ii a mixture of monomers is present). The filtering agent will thus become an integral part of the finished plastic. Alternatively, a sheet the ultraviolet light filtering a ent may be bonded between two sheets of the translucent or transparent plastic.
In general, the present invention involves the construction of sunbathing apparel or elastic,
translucent thermoplastics containing ultraviolet light filtering agents as integral components thereof, irrespective oi the manner in which said filtering agents have been incorporated.
Such sheets or films of plastic material containing the ultraviolet light filtering agent are used in making the new sunbathing apparel oi the present invention. The garments such as bathing suits may be' made by cutting the thin, flexible,
elastic, translucent films or sheets into suitable pieces or patterns and combining these to make 'the garments. The material can be shaped.
pressed, embossed, sewed or cemented and in some cases may be heat-sealed, depending upon the particular plastic material used. The cut film when shaped and suitably combined by sewing, cementing.,or' heat-sealing, etc., forms the garment or other sunbathing apparel. Such garmentsbeing made of thin, fiexible and elastic material and properly shaped and made, are pleasing in appearance, and can be worn with much the same facility and comfort as ordinary bathing suits and similar apparel.
The new bathing suits and other sunbathing apparel oi the present invention may be made in diii'erent colors and patterns. Although translucent in the sense hereinbei'ore described such that they permit the passage 01' the pigmenting range of ultraviolet radiations to pass while eiiectively suppressing the er'ythema range, they are opaque to visible radiations.
The thin, fiexible, elastic, translucent plastic sheets or films used in making the new sunbathing apparel can also be used in-sheet form for ture oi the filtering agent. This filtering agent is nevertheless translucent and permits a desir ultraviolet radiation without objectionable sunburn.
It will .thus be seen that the present invention provides sunbathing apparel which while protecting the wearer and being opaque in appearance able transmission oi the pigmenting range of ultraviolet radiation to permit tanning oi the parts 0! the body covered by the apparel while nevertheless protecting such parts of the body from sunburn.
l. sunbathing apparel made of thin, fiexible, translucent, thermoplastic sheets containing ultravvlolet light filtering agents, said apparel being opaque to visible radiations and permitting the pigmenting range of ultraviolet radiations to pass while efi'ectively suppressing the erythema range. and enabling the wearer of the apparel to acquire a suntan without sunburn on the parts of the body covered bythe apparel.
2. sunbathing apparel made of thin, flexible, elastic, translucent, thermoplastic sheets containing agents to prevent the passage oi. at least the 2050 A. to 3100 A. range oi ultraviolet radiations, said apparel being opaque to visible radiations and permitting thev pigmenting range 01' ultraviolet radiations to pass while eiiectively suppressing the erythema range, and'enabling the wearer oi the apparel to acquire a suntan without sunburn on 'the parts oi the body covered by the apparel,
3. simbauiing apparel made of thin, flexible,"
translucent, vinyl resin thermoplastic sheets containing ultraviolet light filtering agents, said appare] being opaque to visible radiations and permitting the pigmenting range oi ultraviolet radiations to pass'while ei'lectively suppressing the erythema range, and enabling the wearer oi the apparel to acquire a suntan without sunburn on the parts of the body covered by the apparel.
4. sunbathing apparel made of thin, fiexlble elastic, translucent, vinyl resin thermoplastic sheets containing agents to prevent the passage of at least the 2950 A.-to 3100 A. range of ultraviolet radiations, said apparel being .opaque to visible radiations and permitting the pigmenting range of ultraviolet radiations to pass while eiiectively suppressing the erythema range, and enabling the wearer of the apparel to acquire a suntan' without sunburn on the parts oi the body being opaque to visible radiations and permitting the pigmenting range of ultraviolet radiations to pass while effectively suppressing the erytheina range, and enabling the wearer oi the apparel to acquire a suntan without sunburn on the parts oi the body covered by the apparel.
6. sunbathing apparel made 'oithin sheets of covering the bodywhile being exposed tosunlight II at one member oi the groupv oi fiexible,
translucent vinyl resin thermoplastics consistin: in; opaque to visible radiations and permitting of vinyl chloridepolymers. vinyl acetate polymers. the pigmenting range of ultraviolet radiations to vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate eopolymers, vinyl pass while effectively suppressing the erythema alcohol polymers, vinylidene chloride polymers. range, and enabling the wearer oi the apparel to and their condensation products with aliphatic 5 acquire a suntan without sunburn on the parts 01' and aromatic aldehydes, containing agents to prethe body covered by the apparel;
} vent the passaie of at least the 2950 A. to 3100 A.
GEORGE GALLOWHUR. ranges of ultraviolet radiations, said apparel be-
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2649375 *||Oct 26, 1950||Aug 18, 1953||Eastman Kodak Co||Light-sensitive photographic element|
|US3455856 *||Nov 4, 1965||Jul 15, 1969||Lawter Chem Inc||Pigmented printing ink and method|
|US4115615 *||May 4, 1977||Sep 19, 1978||Uvetex Glarus Ag.||Fabric permeable to ultraviolet radiations|
|US4546493 *||Sep 30, 1982||Oct 15, 1985||Bortnick Kenneth A||Tan-through wearing apparel and process for making the same|
|US4793668 *||Nov 13, 1986||Dec 27, 1988||Eric Longstaff||Sunbathing filter with incomplete UV-B absorption|
|US4798427 *||Jun 10, 1986||Jan 17, 1989||Sevendart Limited, A Limited Company Of U.K.||Apparatus for use in sunbathing|
|US5022181 *||Dec 14, 1989||Jun 11, 1991||R. E. I., Inc.||Method and apparatus for use in plant growth promotion and flower development|
|US5066082 *||Sep 21, 1990||Nov 19, 1991||B.V. Interlad||Sunbathing filter with incomplete UV-B absorption|
|US5334289 *||Jun 15, 1992||Aug 2, 1994||The Procter & Gamble Company||Papermaking belt and method of making the same using differential light transmission techniques|
|US5446580 *||Jan 24, 1994||Aug 29, 1995||Collins; Frederick L.||Privacy tanning screen|
|US5514523 *||Dec 20, 1993||May 7, 1996||The Procter & Gamble Company||Papermaking belt and method of making the same using differential light transmission techniques|
|US5529664 *||May 26, 1995||Jun 25, 1996||The Procter & Gamble Company||Papermaking belt and method of making the same using differential light transmission techniques|
|US5554467 *||May 25, 1995||Sep 10, 1996||The Proctor & Gamble Company||Papermaking belt and method of making the same using differential light transmission techniques|
|US5624790 *||Dec 20, 1995||Apr 29, 1997||The Procter & Gamble Company||Papermaking belt and method of making the same using differential light transmission techniques|
|US5652959 *||Jan 16, 1996||Aug 5, 1997||Proctor; Michael K.||Skin stencil|
|US6182295 *||Jun 14, 1999||Feb 6, 2001||Kevin Sciglia||Hat|
|US6343382 *||Feb 5, 2001||Feb 5, 2002||Kevin Sciglia||Hat|
|US8084377||Jan 10, 2008||Dec 27, 2011||Sun-Soul Inc.||Protective material, clothing item and method of protection|
|US20070016173 *||Jul 14, 2005||Jan 18, 2007||Michael Kreindel||Protective material, clothing item and method of protection|
|US20070113314 *||Nov 23, 2005||May 24, 2007||Hurwitz Jodie L||System and method for forming untanned skin portions on the body of a person during a sun tan process|
|US20080179573 *||Jan 10, 2008||Jul 31, 2008||Michael Kreindel||Protective material, clothing item and method of protection|
|DE1209072B *||Oct 26, 1959||Jan 20, 1966||Bernhard Bohnert||Bade- bzw. Sportbekleidungsstueck|
|EP0267655A2 *||Nov 6, 1987||May 18, 1988||Eric Longstaff||Sunbathing filter with incomplete UV-B absorption|
|EP0267655A3 *||Nov 6, 1987||Jul 27, 1988||Eric Longstaff||Sunbathing filter with incomplete uv-b absorption sunbathing filter with incomplete uv-b absorption|
|EP0410055A1 *||Jul 28, 1989||Jan 30, 1991||Michael A. Goldenhersh||Ultraviolet blocking material and method of making same|
|EP0807708A2 *||Jul 28, 1989||Nov 19, 1997||Michael A. Goldenhersh||Ultraviolet blocking material and method of making same|
|EP0807708A3 *||Jul 28, 1989||Dec 9, 1998||Michael A. Goldenhersh||Ultraviolet blocking material and method of making same|
|EP1530912A1||Nov 12, 2004||May 18, 2005||Vives Vidal, Vivesa, SA||Procedure for the manufacture of a monopiece underwear or swimsuit and product obtained|
|EP1906778A1 *||Jul 14, 2006||Apr 9, 2008||Sunsoul Inc.||Protective material, clothing item and method of protection|
|EP1906778A4 *||Jul 14, 2006||Dec 10, 2008||Sunsoul Inc||Protective material, clothing item and method of protection|
|U.S. Classification||2/67, 359/361, 2/87, 2/200.1|
|Cooperative Classification||A41D2400/26, A41D2400/28, A41D31/00, G02B5/208|
|European Classification||A41D31/00, G02B5/20V|