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Publication numberUS2391972 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 1, 1946
Filing dateJun 19, 1944
Priority dateJun 19, 1944
Publication numberUS 2391972 A, US 2391972A, US-A-2391972, US2391972 A, US2391972A
InventorsGray Landon R, Hufford Lewis C
Original AssigneeHufford Machine Works Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Compressor
US 2391972 A
Images(1)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jal-L l, 1946 L. c.vHUFFoRD ErAL 2,391,972

. COMPRESSOR Filed June 19, 1944 lgj. Y f6! LANDON R. R/qy LEN/5 C Haifa/2.6

I N VEN T0125.

'BY M Patented Jan. 1, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENTV'OFFICE COMPRESSOR Lewis C. Huii'ord and Landon R. Gray, Redondo Beach, Calif., assignors to Hufford Machine Works, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., a corpora.-

tion of California Application June 19, 1944, Serial No. 540,975

18 Claims.

tomatically produce more power when more power is needed and less power when less is needed.

A further object is to provide a system, including a streamlined pumping arrangement that directly employs the expansive force in an internal combustion engine, and utilizes a fraction of the duid pumped thereby to operate intake, exhaust and ignition timing means for the internal combustion engine.

Our invention also has for its objects to provide such means that are positive in operation, convenient in use, easily installed in a working position and easily disconnected therefrom, economical of manufacture, relatively simple, and of general superiority and serviceability.

The invention also comprises novel details of construction and novel combinations and arrangements of parts, which will more fully appear in the course of the following description. However, the drawing merely shows and the following description merely describes one embodiment of the present invention, which is given by way of illustration or example only.

In the drawing, like reference characters designate similar parts in the several views.

Fig. 1 is a partly diagrammatic representation of a system embodying the foregoing objects, certain `parts being shown in broken sectional views.

Fig. 2 is a section taken on the line 2 2 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is a. section taken on the line 3--3 of Fig. 1. i

Fig. 4 is a section taken on the line 1 4 of Fig. 1.

Referring more in detail to the drawing, the reference number l designates a cylinder of an internal combustion engine having an intake pipe 5 for fuel, and an exhaust pipe 6 for spent gases of combustion. A spring biased valve 1 controls an inlet port 8 for fresh fuel. The spring 9 on the valve 1 is a light spring to permit the valve to open on the suction or downward stroke of a piston III in the cylinder 4.

An exhaust valve I2 controls the exhaust port I3 leadingto the exhaust conduit 6. A spring Il tends to seat the valve I2. A stem I5 of the valve I2 continues lengthwise into a, relatively small cylinder I6 in which reciprocates a piston I1 mounted on the stem I5. A conduit I8 supplies pressure fluid to the cylinder piston I1 to actuate same.

It is to be understood that any type of internal combustion engine may be employed in the present system, e. g. four-cycle, two-cycle, or Diesel.

For either of the former types, a spark plug I9 may be mounted in the head 2D of the cylinder 4, or in any other suitable place., Wiring 2 I is shown connecting with the spark plug I9.

The piston I0 has a ram-like neck Il connecting at its opposite end with an enlarged head 22 providing a plunger of preferably slightly less diameter than the piston I0. The plunger head 22 has a loose. sliding iit with a comparatively short portion 23 of the wall of the cylinder 4. A chamber in which the head 22 reciprocates is shown at 24 in broken longitudinal section. The chamber 24 has a minimum length of approximately the distance from the lower side of the piston I0 to a restricting inward ange or parttion 25, as they are shown in Fig. 1. A slightly restricted portion 26 at the lower end of the chamber 24 is approximately the same inside diameter as the cylindrical portion 23.

A pipe 21 vconnects with a fluid reservoir (not shown) for supplying fluid to the chamber 24. A 'alve 28 controls the ow of the uid from the pipe 21 to a port 29 leading into the chamber 24. A fluid motor 30 operates the valve 28. A pipe 3l supplies uid to the motor 30.

Fluid driven from the chamber 24 passes through the outlet passage 32, past a check valve 33. A'spring 36 tends to move the valve 33 to a seat 35, but permits the check valve to open when uid is driven under pressure through the passage 32 by means of the piston head 22. A discharge conduit 36 carries the fluid that is discharged under pressure fro'm the chamber 2t through the passage 32.

It will be noted that therev is a restricted annular space 31 in the cylinder 4 around the neck II of the plunger and between the piston IIl and the inward ange 25. A pipe 38 connects with the lower end of such space, as it is shown in Fig. 1.

The discharge conduit 36 leads to an accumulator 39 that contains -a floating piston 40. There is an air compressing space 4I above the oating piston 40 and a pressure iiuid space 42 below the I6 at a side of theA piston. It is believed clear without further illustration that a diaphragm may be used instead of the fluid, after its pressure has been spent, may

be transmitted back to the reservoir with which the pipe 21 connects. Y

Journals 5I, 52 and 33 rotatably support a shaft -54 that is driven by the gear motor. The shaft 54 carries three cams, Il. 53 and l1, which respectively engage headsA Il. Il and 30 of sliding valves 3 I, 32 and 63. Each of these sliding valves has opposed pistons, as shown at O4 and Il, `ioined by a reduced connecting member il. A coil spring 31 urges the piston assembly towardv the cam and to a position in which the piston I4 closes the outlet conduit of the valve. The inlet conduits to the valves II, 32 and 83 are shown by arrows D. The outlet conduits of the valves 3|, l2 and 63,`are the conduits 3l, 3l and Il, respectively,

previously mentioned. A pipe 33 connecting with the conduit 43 has three branches Il. 10 and 1I that respectively connect with and provide inlet conduits for the valves 4 I, 32 and I3.

When the cams 55, B8 and I1 move the sliding valves 8|, 62 and 63, to the left in Fig. 1, the piston `64 uncovers the outlet conduits, permitting/flow of pressure iluid from inlet conduits to the outlet conduits past the reduced connecting member 36. When the cams are turned to release the sliding valves. the springs-61 move the valves to a closing position. y

'I'he fourth cam 12 on the shaft I4. wipes an insulating pad 13 on a movable, grounded contact support 14. A spaced contact support 1B is vconnected with the wiring 2I and in turn carries a contact 1B that engages a contact 11 on 'the support 14, when the cam 12 urges them together.

When the cam 12 is turned around from the'- position shown, the inherent resilience of the support 'I4 will separate the contacts 1I and 11, breakingthe circuit of the spark plug I3.

In the operation of our present system, energy provided by the expansion of ignited gases in the cylinder 4 is directly transmitted to the fluid in the chamber 24 without the intermediary of a ignited gases in the cylinder 4 maintains the valve 1 closed on this' power stroke.

During each downward stroke of the piston I0, as it is shown in Fig. l, the valve 23 is closed against the intake of any more iluid. and the check valve 35 is opened for the discharge of fluid from the chamber 24 to the conduit 38.

r Each upward stroke of the piston I3 causes the closing of the valve 33. On the compression stroke of the piston I0, the valve 23 is opened for the inlet of fresh fluid from the reservoir. On the exhaust stroke of the piston III, however, the valve 23 is kept closed, in order to produce a partial vacuum in the chamber 24. This partial vacuum causes the piston Il to move downward for its fuel intake stroke, after the exhaust stroke is completed.

Pressure is built up in the accumulator 3l above the floating piston 4l, by the inflow of pressure fluid into the accumulator chamber 42. This stored power in the accumulator runs the engine through idle stroke and is useful for smoothing out and facilitating the starting of the engine;

The pipe 63 bleeds the conduit 43 of a relatively small amount of pressure fluid for operating the exhaust, intake, ignition, and piston operating valves. During the upward strokes of the piston III, the valve 8| is open in order to open the valve 23 for the intake of fresh fluid from the reservoir. During the intake and power strokes upward strokes of the piston, by means of the crank shaft. gears. or other conventional means for transmitting energy from an internal combustion engine to provide pressure upon a iiuid.

It is to be understood that the iiuid may be of a wide variety ci liquids or gases. Oil is merely suggested as an eilleient duid that may be used lin our system.

The operation will be described in connection vwith a four-cycle engine: the fuel for the Internal spring 34, to prevent the retrograde movement of the pressure fluid from the line 36. During said upward strokes, the'fuel intake valve 1 is closed. 'I'hen on the upward exhausting stroke of the piston, the valve 33 is opened to allow fluid pressure in the conduit I8 to open the exhaust valve I2 by means of the fluid motor I6, I1. The exhaust from the previously ignited fuel is thereby allowed to escape through the exhaust pipe 6.

During the fuel intake stroke of the piston, the valve 32 is in the position shown in Figs. l and 2, to-wit, connecting the conduit 3B with a. pipe'll that leads back to the reservoir. It is to be understood that said reservoir is under atmospheric pressure. Then, for the compression stroke of the piston I0 the cam turns to shut oil the flow to the conduit B0 and permits ilow of pressure fluid from the branch 10 through the valve 32 and through the conduit 38 to the space 31, thereby raising the pistonl I 0. In going through the valve 62, the fluid passes around the narrow connecting member 66, since the piston 34 is at the left of the opening into the conduit 38.

On the firing stroke, thevalve 62 still remains open, so that pressure uid forced through the conduit 33 may pass through the valve 62 and aaai-,eva

enter the pressure system. @n the exhaust stroke, the valve t2 is still open, so that pressure in the system may raise the piston in other words, the valve connects conduits and i@ at ail times, except on the fusi e stroke, when lthe valve di connects the con dit with the reservoir pipe St.

The oi pressure fluid that goes into the motor d@ to the worte that is operated by the fluid is determined by thecontrol valve The short cylinder portion 2-3 provides a pocket Si when the head is in a raised position, as in Fig. l. Fluid within the pocset has a cushioning effect upon the upward strokes of the piston. The fluid in the pocket is permitted to leak around the head since the head has a. loose, sliding t with the inner face oi the cylinder portion 2t, whereby the head 2i? in the pocket dil acts as a dashpot.

The shaft ii is timed to make one revolution in each complete cycle of operation of the engine. It is believed clear that one skilled in the art may so adjust the cams on the shaft that they open and permit the closing o the control valves at the required times in order to produce the lioregoing operation.

When less work is required of the pressure iluid driven from the chamber d, then the piston lil is permitted to taire a longerv stroke, which saves fusi. @n the other hand, if there is considerable resistance to the pressure fluid driven from the chamber 2d, by reason of more work having to be done, then the piston i@ takes a shorter stroke and internal combustion engine has more compiere cycies or operation in a given period of time, in order to produce more power.

it is believed clear Without further illustration that the intake, exhaust, ignition and piston control means may be actuated by electrical means (e. g., solenoids) or by mechanical means (e. g., crani; shaft and cams) as weli as by the hydrauiic or fluid motors shown and described.

While we have illustrated and described what we now regard as the preferred embodiment of our invention, the construction is, or" course, subject to modiiications Without departing from the spirit and scope of our invention. We, therefore, do not wish to restrict ourselves to the particular form of construction illustrated and described, but desire to avail ourselves of al1 modicationslthat may fall Within the scope of the appended claims.

Having thus described our invention, what We claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. In a compressor, a cylinder having fuel intake and exhaust means, a piston in the cylinder arranged to be actuated by ignition of fuel in the cylinder, means providing -a fluid chamber having fluid inlet and being mounted to operate in said chamber to draw uid into the chamber through said inlet means and to drive fluid therefrom through said discharge means when actuated by ignited gases of combustion in said cylinder, and a motor operable by a portion of the uid driven from said chamber to control said inlet means.

2. In a compressor, a cylinder, a reciprocating piston in the cylinder, the cylinder having fuel intake and exhaust means at one side of the piston and having fluid inlet and discharge means at the opposite side 'of the piston, to draw fluid into the cylinder through said inlet means at one stroke of the piston and to drive the fluid from the cylinder through said discharge means when fuel is ignited at the Opposite side of the piston,

discharge means, the piston and duid pressure operated timing trolling the erdiaust means.

3. in a compressor, .an elongated cylinder, a reciprocating piston in the cylinder, the cylinder having fuel intake' and exhaust means. at one side or the piston and having duid inlet and discharge means at the opposite side of the piston arranged to draw duid into the cylinder at said inlet means on the return stroke oi the piston, valve means connected to close said inlet on the power stroke of the piston, the discharge means being arranged to convey huid under pressure from the cylinder on said power stroke, and timing means connected to close the exhaust means and said valve means on the newer strokes of the piston.

d. In a compressor, a cylinder, a floating piston and plunger arranged back to bach in unitary structure within the cylinder, the cylinder having fuel intake and exhaust means et one side of the piston and having fluid intake and discharge means at .the opposite sida of the plunger, a valve to control said exhaust means, valves arranged to control the fluid 'intake and discharge means, and iluid pressure operated timing mechanism. connected to operate said exhaust and iiuid intake valves in the operation of the apparatus.

5. In a. compressor, a cylinder having an. apertured partition therein, a floating piston and plunger arranged back to back in unitary structure within the cylinder, the piston and plunger being connected by a reduced neet: portion arranged to slide within the aperture in the partition with the piston and plunger at the opposite sides of the partition, the cylinder having fuel intake `and exhaust means at one side of the piston and having uid intake and discharge means at the opposite side oi' plunger, conduit means connected to supply fluid pressure oetween the partition and the piston to actuate the latter, valve means connected to supply to said conduit means a fraction of the fluid emitted by the discharge means, and timing mechanism connected to maintain said valve open to supply pressure fluid to actuate the piston for its compression stroke.

6. In a compressor, a cylinder, a floating piston in the cylinder, the cylinder having fuel intake, ignition and exhaust means at one side of the piston and having duid intake and discharge means at the opposite side of the piston, an electric circuit for the ignition means including relatively movable contacts, and mechanism controlled by the discharge of duid from the cylinder arranged to close the contacts and time the -ignition of fuel in the operation of the apparatus.

'7. In a compressor, a cylinder, a floating piston in the cylinder, the cylinder having fuel intake and exhaust means at one side of the piston and having fluid discharge means at the opposite side of the piston, conduit means connected to supply a fraction of the uid emitted by the discharge means under the piston to actuate same for its return strokes, a valve controlling the ow through the conduit, and mechanism controlled by the discharge of fluid from th'e cylinder connected to time the operation of the valve.

8. In a compressor, a cylinder, a reciprocating piston in the cylinder, the cylinder having fuel intake and exhaust means at one side of the piston and having fluid discharge means at the opposite side of the piston, a fluid motor connected -to control the exhaust means, the fluid motor in turn being connected to be operated bya fraction of the fluid emitted by the discharge means, a valve connected to control the fluid motor, and mechanism controlled by the discharge of fluid from the cylinder connected to time the operation of the valve.

9. In a compressor, a cylinder, a floating pis# ton in the cylinder, the cylinder having fuel intake and exhaust means at one side of the piston and having fluid inlet and discharge means at the opposite side of the piston, a fluid motor connected to control the fluid inlet means, the fluid motor in turn being connected to be operated by a fraction of the fluid emitted by the discharge means, a valve connected to control the fluid motor, and mechanism controlled by the discharge of fluid from the cylinder connected to time the operation of th'e valve.

10. In a compressor, a cylinder, a floating piston in the cylinder, the cylinder having fuel intake and exhaust means at one side of the piston and having fluid inlet and discharge means at the opposite side of the piston, an accumulator y connected with the discharge means arranged to store pressure therefrom to aid in subsequent operation, and mechanism connected to control the exhaust and fluid inlet by the discharge of fluid from the cylinder, under the influence of the accumulator.

11. In a compressor, a cylinder, a reciprocating piston in the cylinder, the cylinder having fuel intake and exhaust means at one side of the piston and having fluid inlet and discharge means at the opposite side of the piston, a fluid motor connected to control the exhaust means, the fluid motor in turn being connected to be operated by a fraction of th'e fluid emitted by.

the discharge means, a valve connected to control the fluid motor, and fluid motor means connected to be driven by other of the fluid discharged by said discharge means and in turn connected to .time the operation of said valve.

12. In a compressor, a cylinder, a reciprocating piston in the cylinder, the cylinder having fuel intake and exhaust means at one side of the piston and having fluid inlet and discharge means at the opposite side of the piston, a fluid motor connected to control the fluid inlet means, the fluid motor in turn being connected to be operated by a fraction of the fluid emitted by the discharge means, a valve connected to control erate the valve to and from a given position. and fluid motor means connected to be driven by other of the fluid discharged by said discharge means and in turn connected to time the operation of said cam means.

14. In a compressor, a cylinder, a reciprocating piston in the cylinder, the cylinder having fuel intake and exhaust means at one side of the piston and having fluid inlet and discharge means at the opposite side of the piston, a fluid motor connected to control the duid inlet means, the fluid motor in turn being connected to be operated by a fraction of the uid emitted by the discharge means, a sliding, spring-biased valve connected to control the fluid motor, cam means arranged to slide the valve in one direction against the action of said spring and the cam means the fluid motor, and fluid motor means connected to be driven by other of the, fluid discharged by said discharge means and in turn connected to time the operation. of said valve.

13. In a compressor, a cylinder, a reciprocating piston in the cylinder, the cylinder having fuel intake and exhaust means at one side of the piston and having uid inlet and discharge means at the oppositel side of the piston, a fluid motor connected to control the exhaust means, the fluid -motor in tum being connected to be operated by being arranged to be moved to a position permitting the spring to slide the valve to the opposite position, to operate the valve to and from a given position, and fluid motor means connected to be driven by other of the fluid discharged by said discharge means and in turn connected totime the operation of said cam means.

' l5. In a compressor, a cylinder, a reciprocating piston therein, the cylinder having intake and exhaust means at one side of the piston and hav ing fluid inlet and discharge means at the opposite side of the piston., the discharge, means being adapted to convey fluid under pressure from the cylinder on the power stroke of the piston,

der having fuel intake and exhaust means at one side ofthe piston and having fluid intake and discharge means at the opposite side of the plunger to draw fluid into the cylinder through said inlet on the return stroke of the piston, a valve to close said inlet on the power stroke of the piston, and means to supply to the space between said piston and plunger a fraction of the fluid discharged from the cylinder by the power stroke of the piston to effect the return stroke of said piston.

17. In a compressor, a cylinder, a floating piston in the cylinder, the cylinder having fuel intake and exhaust means at one side of the piston and having fluid discharge means at the opposite side of the piston, means to supply a portion of the uid forced through said discharge means to said cylinder to actuate the same for its return stroke, and means to control said supply means.

18. In a compressor, a cylinder,.a floating piston in said cylinder, the cylinder having fuel intake and exhaust means at one side of the piston and having fluid discharge meansat the opposite side of said piston, means to supply a portion of the fluid forced through said discharge means to said cylinder to actuate the piston for its return stroke, a valve to control said supply means, and means to v operate said valve.

LEWIS C. HUFFORD. LANDON R. GRAY.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2564052 *Feb 12, 1948Aug 14, 1951Chiville Jr Leslie LInternal-combustion engine
US2661592 *Sep 17, 1951Dec 8, 1953Bright Cooper BHydraulic drive internal-combustion engine
US2788777 *Dec 20, 1954Apr 16, 1957Henry S BartosiewiczInternal combustion engines
US2816532 *Jun 3, 1954Dec 17, 1957Ratliff William TCam
US2900488 *Nov 9, 1955Aug 18, 1959Air LiquideArc welding guns with consumable electrode wire
US2995006 *Sep 10, 1958Aug 8, 1961Eugene J ErwinskiInternal combustion engine and pressurized hydraulic pump and turbine transmission system
US3001360 *Jun 8, 1959Sep 26, 1961New York Air Brake CoEngine starting system
US3031972 *Jun 17, 1957May 1, 1962Hermann JanickeFree piston engine driven pump assembly
US3046897 *Jun 10, 1959Jul 31, 1962Vickers IncPower transmission
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US3089305 *Aug 12, 1959May 14, 1963Hobbs Transmission LtdInternal combustion engines and power transmission therefor
US3101888 *Dec 16, 1960Aug 27, 1963 Combined positive displacement engine and positive
US3106896 *Jul 25, 1960Oct 15, 1963Lely Nv C Van DerFluid pumps
US3119230 *May 10, 1961Jan 28, 1964Harold KosoffFree piston engine system
US3174432 *Aug 1, 1961Mar 23, 1965Karl EickmannCombustion engine for conveying a hydraulic pressure medium
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US3269321 *Feb 14, 1964Aug 30, 1966Karl EickmannCombustion engine for conveying a hydraulic pressure medium
US3635014 *Jan 26, 1970Jan 18, 1972Kress HerwigMethod and device for controlling the piston movement of hydrostatic prime movers
US4334407 *Jan 22, 1980Jun 15, 1982Ulpiano BarnesCompressed gas operated turbine
US4362477 *Jan 14, 1980Dec 7, 1982Patten Kenneth SInternal combustion engine or pumping device
US4612883 *Apr 18, 1985Sep 23, 1986Brisko Frank SHydraulically actuated valve train for an internal combustion engine
US5347968 *May 24, 1993Sep 20, 1994Caterpillar Inc.Integral air compression system
Classifications
U.S. Classification417/323, 417/364, 417/317, 123/90.13
International ClassificationF01B9/04, F02B75/02, F02B71/04, F02B3/06
Cooperative ClassificationF02B2075/025, F02B71/04, F02B3/06, F01B9/04
European ClassificationF01B9/04, F02B71/04