|Publication number||US2392233 A|
|Publication date||Jan 1, 1946|
|Filing date||Feb 17, 1944|
|Priority date||Feb 17, 1944|
|Publication number||US 2392233 A, US 2392233A, US-A-2392233, US2392233 A, US2392233A|
|Original Assignee||Ernest Craig|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (1), Classifications (13)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Jan. 1946. E. CRAIG 2,392,233
VIBRATORY HAMMER Jan. 1, 194e. E HMG V2,392,233
VIBRA'IORY` HAMMER Filed Feb. 17, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 r. Y!!! '--J "l Z F92 "5 1" au M 2,
F95. "lh-lll'Il y fnrnfor.
Patented Jan. l, 1946 'Ernest Craig, Falconbrdge Township, Ontario,
Canada Application 'February 17, 194,4., Serial No. 522282? A(Cl. 125-33) 8 Claims.
This invention relates to improvements in vibratory hammers particularly adapted lfor use in rock drilling or for breaking up masses yof heavy material er for. riveting .where Sharp and'rapid vimpact blows are required, and the principal object of the invention is to Vdevise a tool which may be operated by any available type of rotary prime mover, Such as an electric4 motor 0r ses engine, througha flexible shaft, and lin which the tool will be relieved from the effeii. of direct: permissive shocks..
A further important object isjto producea high kspeed percussive machine where piping -for compressed air operated machines is not adaptable or 'permissible, and further, to provide av machine which will operate on a llow power consumption.
The principal feature of the invention consists in the Vnovel construction and arrangement ofA apcrank-operated reciprocating member havingaf vplurality Jof aligned cylindrical chambers with a lhammer member reciprocablymounted therein and provided with spaced-apart flanges forming pistons operating within saidcylindrical chambers.
A further important feature consists in the novel arrangement of ports 'in lthe wall of the reciprocatingmember directing the-inlet'and outlet of air to and from the individual lcylinders arranged therein to effect the dissipationof heat generated by compression in 'theoperation of the machine.
A still 'further feature of importance consists in 'thenovel manner of effecting a forced-circulation of air through rthe machine.
In 'the accompanying drawings 'Figure l is a longitudinal mid-sectional View of the machine showing the operating crank and reciprocating member in mid-stroke position.
4Figure 2 is a longitudinal KYInicl-sectional view of the meehine taken et. right angles tothe. section illustrated in Figure land showing the crank and reciprocating member et the downward, end Qtthesizreke of theerank.
Figure 3 is an enlarged mid-Sectional. view 0i e portion of the reciprocating member showingthe hammer member, with its pistons at the upper ends ofthe cylinders as in the downward vstroke of the reciprocating member and illustratingin dotted lines the position of the pistons at the downward limit of their stroke relative tothe upward movement of the reciprocating member.
vFigure 4 is a cross section taken on the line 4-4 of Figure 3.
Figure 5` is aperspective Yview `ofthe mainbody of the reciprocating cylinder-containing member.
Figurel 6 is a perspective detail of Ythe :piston end of the hammer member showing one -of the cylinder-separating discs anda pairl of the spacing rings in cross section.
Figure 7 is a .perspective detail of one,y of 4the cylinder-separating rings.
ln the use of rock drills, 1jack hammers v and riveters it isjhighly desirable that avform oi tool be availablevwhich will not require the cumbersome and expensive air ycompressor equipment capableof operating such machines, and this invention has been devised to enable the use "of a drill or hammer with an electric-motor or other suitable prime mover which maybe connected t-o the tool by means of a flexible shaft which 4will enable the tool to be operated Within a reason? able radiusoi the prime mover.
In the construction hereinillustratedV the outer body of the tool is formedof a head section I o f substantially cylindrical form having vjournal bearings 2 -and 3 in the side walls in which is mounted a crankshaft 4, and extending in right angular relation to the axis of the crank shaft is a cylindrical extension 5. I
A block E closes the open end ofthe cylindrical extension V5 and is formed with` a central cylindrical orifice 1 of lesser diameter than 'the 'internal diameter ofthe extension 5.
A cylinder 8, of similar dimensions to that of the cylinder extension 5, is mountedon the block l and is closed -at its lower end by a block'9 which is provided with a cylindrical oriiice I Il of smaller diameterI than the interior of 4the cylinder y8.
A cylindrical extension II mounted. on the block 9 is formed with a reduced end I2 Vin which the butt end I3 of a drilling tool, or other implement, is slidably mounted. The member I I 'is formed with radially extending lugs I4 and similar lugs I5 are arranged upon the head section I. Clamp rods I6 extend through the lugs I5 and I4, being rigidlysecured to clamp the 'several sections of the tool together by means of suitable nuts, and the upper ends of the rods 'I6 are con.. nected to a cross handle Il by means df which the machine is. manipulated.
Qperatingwithin the cyunder 's is, a cylindrical member I8 vwhich is'prov'ided'with'a reduced cylindrical portion I9, slidably operating in 'the cylindrical orifice l of the block 6, andV mounted on the upper end of the member I9 is a 'piston ring 2l)V which engages the inner wall ofthe cylindrical extension 5.
A wristA pin ZI is mounted intermediate -of vthe length of the reduced cylindrid'al DDr-tion, of "the cylinder I8, and on this is mounted a connectend of the reduced cylindrical portion I9 on the member I8, and below this plate the member I8 is of cylindrica1 form.
Mounted within the cylindrical interior 24 of the member VI8, are a plurality of rings 2,5 which are spacedl apart by ringV plates 26 which thus 2,392,233 28 in the rings 25 are closed by the anges 4I and form a plurality of Vspaced-apart cylinders 21 V within the reciprocable member I8.
Each of the rings is provided with a pair of:
ports V28 which are preferably arranged diametrically opposite and corresponding ports 29 are the air entrapped between the said anges and the ring plates 26 and plate 23 is compressed when the hammer reaches the bottom end of its stroke, coming in contact with the buttY end I3 of the tool, but there is suiiicient spacing between the flanges Y 4I and the ring plates 26 soY that the anges will not come in physical contact with the lplates butl `will cushion upon Kthe entrapped air, as is illustrated in the full lines of Figure 3. On the return movement of the crank in the upward direction the compressed air between the Y flanges 4I and the ring plates 26 accelerates the movement of the cylinder I8 and exerts a downward pressure against the hammer, causing the hammer to move relatively in the opposite direcarranged in the wall of the member I8 to register f' with the ports in said rings. l
The'outer perimeter of the member I8 ,is formed j Y with a pair of part-circular recesses 38 separated`v by longitudinal ribs 3 I such recesses communicating with the several ports 29 sideof the member I8.
The'upper andlower ends of the memberV I8 form piston heads arranged in sliding engagement with the inner Wall of the cylinder 8.
Ports 34, and 36 are arranged in the cylinder 8 tocommunicate with the recess 30 on one side ofthe member I8 while corresponding ports 31, 38 and 39 are arranged diametrically opposite the ports l34, 35 and 36 to communicate with the recess 30 on the' opposite side of the ribs 3I of the Y member I8.
These ports in the cylinder wally permit 'the inlflowof airtothe ports in one side of the reciprocating cylinder member I8' andthe air isexhausted out'the opposite side through the ports 31, 38 and 39. Mounted within the vcylindrical interior ofthe member I8 is the, hammer member 40 which d is provided with cir-cularflanges 4I which operarranged on either Y ate'in sliding con-tact with the inner perimeter of Y the rings 25. Y
The central reduced stem 42 extending between the flanges 4I extend through the central orices 43 in the ring plates 26 whichare held in position between the rings 25. The ring plates 26 must necessarily be /formedin segmen'ts'in order to be placed around the `central reduced stem of the hammer between the anges 4 I, and they are provided with suitable tongue and groove Vjoint ccn-V nections 44, as illustrated in Figure '1.'
A casing member 45, arranged 'longitudinally outside ofthe main body of the cylinder 8, extends over the ports 34, 35 and 36 and conducts a flow of air to these ports. The upper end of the casing 45 is connected to the discharge opening 46 of a circular casing 41 formed on the outer side of the head section I, and a rotatable fan member 48 mounted on the end of the crank shaft rotating within this casing, forces air vthrough the discharge to said port.r A suitable intake opening with filter 49 isarranged in the outer cover of the fan casing. x
A casing 58, similar to the casing 45, is vsecured to the outer side of the machine and' forms a communicating passage from the ducts 31, 38 and 39, and connects'lwith a duct 5I arranged v below Y ciprocating movement in the cylinder 8. f
As the member I8 moves downwardly it over-` takes the hammer meinberlin s'o-that the'V ports tion to the upward movement of the member I8 `untilthe iianges close the ports 28 and entrapped air between the flanges and the adjacent plates 26,
thereby compressing the air entrapped therebetween to form a cushion at the opposite end of the stroke of the device. Y
Each time the hammer reciprocates while it closes 01T the ports 28 in the rings 25 at one side, that is 'top' or bottom,rthe 'flanges automatically open these ports on the opposite side,v and lthe airY which has been compressed will be blownout through the ports' 31, 38 and 39 by the pressure of air entering through the portsY 34, 35 and 36 created by the operationof the fan 48.
This evacuation of Athe air from the compression chamber releasesthe temperature of compression, the air being supplemented by fresh air drawn in by the fan from outer atmosphere, and the airso blown fromthe compression chamber is directed through the port 5I into the interior of lthe casing I I from whence it escapes through an upwardly within the cylinder` 8 and the upper end passes the port 34, air is entrapped in the cylinder 8 between said member I8 and the block 6 and inV the downward movement when the lower end passes the port 36 air is entrapped between said member and the block 9, thereby cushioning the movement of the reciprocating member. cushioning airis also entrapped between the upper piston ring portion 28 of the reducedY upper end I9 of the member I8 and the block 6. i .The crank shaft and connecting rod are lubricated by placing lubricating oil within .thehead section I, and lubrication of the member I8 and the hammer membery 48 is effected bythe splashing ofthe oil within the head section and the compression of air therein directingl oil vapour through an oil tube v 54 which communicates through a port 55 with the air channel in the casing 45'l'eading to the inlet ports 34, 35 'and 36. A machinev constructed as herein shown and described-has beenfoperated at high-speedsfor due vibration and stress in the upper casing structure. Y f t l .'[twill be readily understood-that a toolsuch as described can be operated-inmany-V places where compressed air is'not available butfwhere kan electric motor can operate, and work of' a desirable nature canA be done with this tool Vin lieu of the heavy more cumbersome and more' expensive air-operated machines. 1 j
What IY claim as my inventionis: j
' K1, A"vibratory hammer" comlprisin'g,A Va` crank-I operated reciprocating cylindrical member, ring plates spaced apart within said cylindrical member, rings spacing said ring plates and with said ring plates forming a plurality 0f aligned cylinders, ports opening through the walls of said cylinders midway of their length, and a hammer member having circular ilanges spaced apart and extending between said ring plates and forming pistons operating within said cylinders.
2. A vibratory hammer comprising, a cylindrical casing having a head section, a crank shaft mounted in the head section of said casing, a hollow cylindrical member slidably mounted' in said cylindrical casing, a connecting rod connecting said hollow cylindrical member with said crank shaft, a plurality of ring plates spaced apart within said hollow cylindrical member and forming a plurality of longitudinally aligned cylinders, ports in the walls of said hollow cylindrical member spaced intermediately between said ring plates, and a hammer member having a plurality of laterally extending annular flanges forming pistons operating in said aligned cylinders and adapted to compress air entrapped within said cylinders both above and below the ports in the wall of the cylindrical member.
3. A vibratory hammer comprising, a cylindrical casing, a crank shaft journalled at one end of said cylindrical casing, a hollow cylindrical member reciprocably mounted within said cylindrical casing, a connecting rod connecting said hollow cylindrical member with said crank shaft, said hollow cylindrical member having its side walls recessedon the outer side, said recessed portion being divided by longitudinal ribs, ports arranged in the side wall of the cylindrical casing communicating with the recesses in the reciprocable cylindrical member on opposite sides, means for directing air through said ports on one side of the cylindrical casing, means for directing air from the ports on the opposite side of the cylindrical casing, a hammer member reciprocably mounted within said reciprocable cylindrical member and having a plurality of laterally extending spaced-apart flanges, a plurality of ring plates arranged within said reciprocable cylindrical member extending between the flanges of said hammer member, rings within the reciprocable cylindrical member spacing said ring plates apart, and ports in the wall of said reciprocable cylindrical member and said spacing rings.
4. A vibratory hammer, as claimed in claim 3, in which the ring plates are formed in half sections and said half sections are formed with inter-tting tongue and groove edges.
5. A device as claimed in claim 3, in which a rotary fan is mounted on said crank shaft to direct a ilow of air to the ports in said cylindrical casing.
6. A vibratory hammer comprising, a cylindricalv casing having a head section at one end formed with transversely arranged bearings and a reduced tool-supporting member at the opposite end, a crank shaft mounted in the bearings in said head section, a block separating the head section from the main cylindrical body of said casing, a cylindrical member slidably mounted in said cylindrical casing and having a reduced por tion extending through said block into the head section, a connecting rod connecting the reduced end of said cylindrical member with said crank. shaft, a piston end mounted on the reduced end of said cylindrical member, a plurality of ring plates equally spaced apart within said cylindrical reciprocating member and forming a plurality of aligned cylinders, ports opening through the side walls of said cylinders intermediate of their length and on opposite sides thereof, and a hammer member adapted to engage the operating tool mounted in the reduced end of the outercasing having piston flanges spaced apart and arranged within the ported cylinders formed in said reciprocating cylindrical member.
7. A vibratory hammer comprising, a crankoperated reciprocating member having a plurality of axially aligned cylindrical chambers, a hammer member reciprocably mounted in the aforesaid member and having flanges forming pistons operating within said cylindrical chambers, ports 4leading to said cylindrical chamber in the inpiston midway of the length of the relative movement of said members to entrap a body of air at either end of said cylinder to cushion the ends of the stroke of the relatively reciprocating members, said ports being opened to atmosphere alternately to opposite ends of the piston as the members move relatively beyond mid-stroke admitting cool outer air and discharging heated air to cool the hammer.
' ERNEST CRAIG.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4625903 *||Jul 3, 1984||Dec 2, 1986||Sencorp||Multiple impact fastener driving tool|
|U.S. Classification||173/118, 173/122, 173/171|
|International Classification||B25D11/12, E21B1/34, B25D11/00, E21B1/00, B25D17/00, B25D17/06|
|Cooperative Classification||B25D11/12, B25D17/06|
|European Classification||B25D11/12, B25D17/06|