US 2392551 A
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Jan. 8, 1946, J. ROE
INTERLOCKING BUILDING BLOCK Filed May 10, 1943 INVENTOR. Lie 277265 fibe Patented Jan. 8, 1946 INTERLOCKING BUILDING BLOCK James Roe, Chicago, IlL, assignor of one-half to Albert Kahn, Chicago, Ill.
Application May 10, 1943, Serial No. 486,355 '1 Claims. (01. 72-38) This invention relates tointerlocking building blocks and to building walls constructed there- I from.
It is one of the objects of the present invention to provide a building wall built of blocks laid in courses and so arranged that each block is interlocked with the adjacent blocks of its course and with the blocks of the adjacent courses whereby a sturdy construction is obtained. is a further object of the present invention to provide a wall whereby interlocking means also serves as a wind break to prevent the movement of air through the wall at the joints between blocks.
It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a wall formed of building blocks so interlocked that a sagging of a small part of the wall base will not result in the development the edge of a modified block employing the key of Figures 6 and 7.
Referring now more particularly to Figure 1, a
be interlocked both as to successive blocks of a of cracks between blocks of a course or between the respective courses.
It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a building block which can be made quickly, easily and cheaply, and which is provided with keys and keyways for interlocking it with adjacent blocks. Another feature of the invention lies in the provision of a building block with interlocking means to assure proper positioning of the block in the wall and a facing )f non-hygroscopic plastic so secured thereto that there can be relative expansion and contraction between the block and its facing without injuring the facing.
The attainment of the above and further objects of the present invention will be apparent from the following specification taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing forming a part thereof.
In the drawing:
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a portion of a wall constructed by blocks of the present invention;
Figure 2 is a central longitudinal sectional view through the wall of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a sectional view taken along the line 3-4 of Figure 2;
Figure 4 is an enlarged perspective view of the block of the present invention, with parts thereof broken away;
Figure 5 is a perspective view of a key used in the wall of Figure 1;
Figure 6 is a top view of a modified key construction;
Figure 7 is an end view of the key of Figure 6; and
Figure 8 is a fragmentary perspective view of course and as to successive courses. Each block is of a generally rectangular shape and may be made of any desired material, such as concrete or the like. The face of the block is covered by a facing plate 3 which may be of any non-hygroscopic plastic that has the desired physical appearance and which will not deteriorate when subjected to weather conditions to which a building block of the present type is subjected. The facing plate 3 may be a thermo-plastic or a thermo-setting material or of various ones of the synthetic resins. It is comparatively thin and has longitudinally extending projections H on the back thereof, which projections are wedgeshaped and integral with the facing plate. A
layer 5 of asphalt or asphalt impregnated paper 'or the like is interposed between the facing plate 3 and the block 2 to allow a limited amount of relative expansion ad contraction between the facing plate and the block.
In the manufacture of the block 2 the facing plate 3 is prefabricated and placed in the botjections 4 form and extend into similar wedgeshaped grooves in the face of the block 2 thus a forming a dovetail joint. The asphalt layer 5 extends around the wedge-shaped projections 4.
The block 2 has dovetail-shaped keyways 8-8 at opposite side faces thereof. In addition, the I top surface in of the block has a keyway opening ll formed therein which opening is of a double dovetail shape, namely, the shape of two of the keyways 88. The opening ll extends into the block only a short distance, as is apparent from Figure 3. The top surface ill of the block has one or more longitudinally extending identical inclined tongues or keys ll projecting upwardly therefrom. These keys extend the full length of the block and are at a substantial angle to the vertical, as may be seen from Figure 3. The bottom of the block has identical grooves or keyways l5--i 5 which are of the same shape as the keys I4 and extend the full length of the block.
Keys 20, which are separate from the blocks, are provided for interlocking adjacent blocks of a course and for interlocking adjacent courses.
'Ihese keys 20 are in the shape 01' a double dovetail and lit into the keyways 8 of two adjacent blocks of the same course, as may be seen from Figure i. In the case of the lowermost course the key 28 is made of a length equal to the height of the block. 7 In the case of all succeeding courses, the key 28 used is of a length in excess of the height of the block. The key 28 extends through the dovetail keyways 8-8 of adjacent blocks, and the lower end of the key 20 extends into the key opening H of the next lower block in the top of which opening the key fits snugly. The bottom of the key 20 is tapered to facilitate entry. of the key into the opening II, and acts as a wedge to align the blocks of adjacent courses. The key 28 not only looks adjacent blocks of the same course together but also locks each course to the subjacent course and holds the courses or the blocks of the courses against relative horizontal shifting.
In the laying of the blocks each block is positioned on its subjacent block by a movement which is downward and forward so that the keyways it of the block that is being lowered slide on the keys ll of the subjacent course. When the block that is being positionedreaches its proper position upon the next lower course the front surfaces of the two blocks are in alignment.
The bottom of the key 28 is tapered so that at it very bottom the key 28 is of a cross sectional shape and area substantially less than the area of the opening II. This facilitates positioning of the key for if the keyways 8-8 through which the key is being driven are slightly displaced from the opening H in the subjacent block whenv the key is being driven downwardly, the tapered lower edge of the key 28 will nevertheless enter the opening Ii. Upon further forcing of the key 28 into the keyways the key will cause a relative shifting of the courses to bring the keyways 8-8 directly in vertical the subjacent block.
When the wall has been erected each of the blocks is held against horizontal movement and against vertical movement. Thus if there should be a slight sa ging of the foundation at one point in the length of the wall, or a sagging of a doorway or window support, the block 2 over the part that sags will not drop. It will, instead, remain suspended fromits keys II that are in the keyways I! of the blocks above. It will remain suspended in this manner because in order to drop, the block would have to shift forwardly, and such shifting is prevented by the interlocking keys 20.
In Figures 6, '7 and 8 I have illustrated a somewhat different shape of key, corresponding to the key 20, and difierent shaped slots corresponding to the keyway slots 8 and I I. In other respects the blocks of Figure 8 are the same as the blocks of Figure 4. The key illustrated in Figures 6 and 7 is indicated by the ref erence numeral 30. The key consists of two similar knobs 3l3| joined by a bridge'or web portion 32 that extends the full length of the key. The surfaces 83-33 of the knobs 3| are parallel to one another, being truly vertical. The inner surfaces of the knobs, indicated at il-fl, are slightly tapered vertically so that each knob is substantially thicker at its top than at its bottom or, stated otherwise, the distance between the knobs and the width of the bridge or .web 82, progressively increases from the top to the bottom of the key. The slots 8 in the side wall of each block are of a shape corresponding to the shape of the key 80, that is, each slot has a vertical wall 36 and has an inclined wall 81. When the key 30 is first placed into the keyways in the blocks the lower end of the key fits very loosely in the top of the keyway so that even if the blocks are not sumciently close together the key will nevertheless lit into the keyway slots. As the key is being driven home the inclined surfaces of the key bear against the surfaces 81 of the keyway slots in the blocks and draw the blocks together. The bottom of the key enters into a correspondingly shaped opening the center of the subjacent block located as is the opening H of the block of Figure 4, to interlock the courses together.
In compliance with the requirements of the patent statutes I have here shown and described a preferred embodiment of my invention. It is, however, to be understood that the invention is not limited to the precise construction here shown, the same being merely illustrative of the principles of the invention.
What I consider new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A wall structure comprising a series of superposed courses of building blocks, matching keyways in certain adjacent blocksin a course,
keys in said keyways locking said adjacent blocks together,each of said keys extending from one course into and fitting snugly within an opening in a block of an adjacent course, thereby also locking adjacent courses together against horizontal shifting, and tongue and groove connections inclined to the longitudinl axes of the keys and interlocking blocks of adjacent courses whereby said first named keys and'said'tongue and groove connections lock the courses against vertical asv well as" horizontal shifting, the tongues of the tongue and groove connections being each integral with a block.
2. A wall structure comprising a series of superposed courses or building blocks. matching keyways extending through the height of certain adjacent blocks in a course, keys in said keyways locking said adjacent blocks together, each of said keys extending from one course intoiand fitting snugly within an opening in a block of an adjacent course, thereby also locking adjacent courses together against horizontal'shifting, and means inclined to the longitudinal axes of the keys and interlocking the blocks or adjacent courses whereby said named keys and said last 'means lock the courses against vertical as well as horizontal shifting.
3. A wall structure comprising a series of superposed courses of building blocks, matching keyways extending through the height of certain adjacent blocks in a course, keys in said keyways locking said adjacent blocks together, each of said keys extending from one course into and fitting snugly within an opening in a block of an adjacent course, thereby also locking adjacent courses together against horizontal shifting, said keys extending the full height of a block and thus constituting wind breaks between adjacent blocks of a course, and means interlocking blocks of adjacent courses, said means being inclined to the longitudinal axes. of said keys whereby said keys and said last named means lock the courses against vertical as well as against horizontal shifting, said last named means extending the full lengths or the blocks and thus constituting wind breaks between courses.
4. A wall structure comprising a series of superposed courses of building blocks, matching keyways extending vertically through certain ad- J'acent blocks in a course, keys separate from said blocks and located each in a set of matching keyways for locking said adjacent blocks together, and tongues and grooves inclined to the vertical and interlocking blocks of adjacent courses whereby said first named keys and said tongues and grooves lock the courses against vertical as well as horizontal shifting, the inclination of the tongues and grooves with respect to the vertically extending keyways preventing placing of a block in interlocking relationship to a subjacent block by a vertical lowering movement and requiring a movement at an angle to the vertical to bring a block into and out of position with respect to similar blocks in adjacent courses.
5. A building block of a. generally rectangular shape having parallel keyways in the sides thereof for facilitating interlocking of the block with adjacent blocks in the same course, and having a key receiving opening in the top surface thereof, said block having matching longitudinally extending tongues and tongue-receiving grooves across the opposite horizontal surfaces thereof and inclined to the longitudinal axis of the parallel keyways, said block being adapted to be laid with similar blocks in courses to form a wall structure with the tongue of one block entering the inclined groove of a superposed block, the inclination of the tongue and groove with respect to the parallel keyways preventing the placing of the block in interlocking relationship with another similar block by a lowering movement parallel to the longitudinal axes of said parallel keyways and requiring a movement at an angle to the longitudinal axes of said parallel keyways to bring said block into and out of position with respect to similar blocks in adjacent courses.
6. A building block of a generally rectangular shape, a longitudinally extending inclined tongue across the top of the block and projecting up-- wardly therefrom at a substantial angle to the vertical, said block having along the bottom surface thereof an inclined groove which as to shape jacent courses.
and location is a counterpart of the tongue on the top surface, and a keyway extending vertically completely through the block for facilitating locking the block against horizontal shifting with respect to adjacent blocks, said block being adapted to be laid with similar blocks in courses to form a wall structure with the tongue of the block entering the inclined groove of a superposed block, the inclination of the tongue and groove with respect to the vertically extending keyway preventing the placing of the block in interlocking relationship to a subjacent block by a lowering movement parallel to the longitudinal axis of said keyway and requiring a movement at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the vertical keyway to bring said block into and out of position with respect to similar blocks in adjacent courses.
7. A building block adapted to be laid with similar blocks in courses to form a. wall structure,
the opposite transverse ends of the block having keyways extending from the top to the bottom thereof with the keyways at the two transverse ends parallel. to one another and identically spaced from the front of the block so that when the end of the block is placed in abutment with the opposite end of a similar block in the laying of a course the keyways of the two blocks will match one another to receive a single interlocking key, the top and the bottom surfaces of the block having means extending longitudinally of the block for facilitating interlocking said block with similar blocks above and below the same, said means including a groove on at least one of said surfaces for receiving an interlocking key, said groove being at a substantial inclination to the longitudinal axes of said keyways whereby the last named means prevents the separation oi a block in interlocking relationship from superposed block by a lowering. movement parallel to the longitudinal axes of the keyways and requires a movement at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the keyways to bring said block into and out of position with respect to similar blocks in ad- JAMES ROE.