|Publication number||US2393055 A|
|Publication date||Jan 15, 1946|
|Filing date||Mar 7, 1944|
|Priority date||Feb 4, 1942|
|Publication number||US 2393055 A, US 2393055A, US-A-2393055, US2393055 A, US2393055A|
|Original Assignee||Johannes Fredricus Ludovicus N|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (5), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
'l-"atented Jan. 15, 1946 GREENHOUSE STRUCTURE Johannes Negrijn, Cottingham, England, assignor of one-half to Johannes Fredricus Ludovicus Negrijn, Cottingham, England Application March '7, 1944, Serial No. 525,403 In Great Britain February 4, 1942 2 Claims.
The present invention consists in a greenhouse structure comprising the combination of a supporting structure formed mainly or wholly of concrete with separate and readily detachable toplights.
It has previously been proposed to construct greenhouses and other structures of reinforced concrete elements interfitting and joined together to form a framework span, but it is not believed that there has been any previous proposal for utilising such a framework for closure at the top by top-lights separate from each other and separate from the remainder of the structure and readily detachable therefrom.
The invention is mainly concerned with that type of greenhouse which is used to cover large areas for the purpose of intensive cultivation but, at the same time, the invention may have a useful application to smaller scale greenhouses which may be extended in sections so that private gardeners and smallholders may add new sections to an already existing unit.
In order that it may be clearly understood and readily carried into effect, the invention is hereinafter described with reference to the accompanying diagrammatic drawings, of which:
Figure 1 is an end elevation of an outside span of a greenhouse built up in accordance with the present invention;
Figure 2 is a side elevation corresponding to Figure 1, but broken away in the longitudinal sense;
Figure 3 is a front end elevation of an outside right-hand concrete half-arch member according to the present invention; while Figure 4 is a front end elevation illustrating a left-hand intermediate concrete half-arch member according to the invention for co-operation, either with an arch as shown in Figure 3, or with a similar half-arch of the same type as shown in Figure 5 but oppositely disposed;
Figure 5 is a front end elevation of an intermediate left-hand concrete half-arch member which may be useful in cases where a wide span is required.
Referring now to the drawings, there is seen in Figures 1 and 2 an end arch-member which is built up by the right-hand half-arch GR and the left-hand half-arch 6L. Each half-arch member is cast out of concrete and is constituted by a roof bearer extending at an angle from the upper end of each upright, but it will be noticed that the upright 01 the right-hand half-arch is, in this case, not truly vertical but is preferably sloped outwardly downwards. It is preferable that such slope should be provided in the case of the outside uprights of each outside span. The uprights are secured in position by being embedded in cement, and it is preferable that a cement foundation, as indicated at I, shall be provided to enclose the area which is to be covered, but it suffices to locate all those uprights within the area defined by the outer foundation wall in blocks of cement embedded in the soil. The uprights are adapted and arranged so that the roof bearers meet at a central point where they are securely joined by the bolted fish-plate 8, or any other suitable form of joint.
Most clearly seen in Figure 3, there is indicated a notch portion 9 at the top of the roof bearer. A co-operating notch 9 is provided at the top of the roof bearer of the half-arch 6L and the two notches co-operate to form a bed for the reception of the longitudinal L section cast concrete beam H1. The arrangement is such that when the structure is assembled and secured, the longitudinal beam I0 is securely seated and presents upwardly at its base-portion edge flanges MA which slope substantially in alignment with the upper surfaces of the roof bearers. 'Laterally of the roof bearers notches are provided, that in Figure 3 being represented by the reference numeral ll, whereas a similar notch 12 appears in Figure 4. The notches ll, being at the outside of an outside span, receive a support beam l3, whereas the notches l2 define a trough for the reception of a gutter l4 which, preferably, is of cast concrete in the form shown, the'base and two sides defining three adjacent sides of a rectangle, whereas the upper side is constituted mainly by a trough of semi-cylindrical formation, The roof of the structure is'completely closed in by the detachable wooden frame standard agricultural lights, represented by the reference numeral I5 in Figure 1. It will be seen that the lights l5 are supported at one end on one of the sloping upper surfaces of one of the edge flanges IllA of the longitudinal beam Ill while, at the other end, the light is supported by the support beam I3. The left-hand half of the arch is covered in the same way by a standard agricultural light but, in the case of the left-hand half-arch andfor that matter in the case of all intermediate half-arches, the lights rest on the edge flanges IBA of the longitudinal beam l8 and are laterally supported by the gutters M, which thus serves the dual purpose ofa support and a. drain. The lights may be secured in any convenient manner, but it has'been found generally practical and convenient simply to tie a wire or cord between two hooks or projections, the wires or cords being drawn tight up underneath the longitudinal beams I or the gutters M, as the case may be. It is important for the proper draining away and adequate exclusion of weather that the lights l shall be securel seated upon the beams l0 and the support beams l3 or gutters I4, as the case may be. It is in fact desirable that the lights l5 should overhang the edges of the gutter l4 quite appreciably, as shown in Figure 1, and for secure and weather-tight seating of the lights the upper edges of the gutters M are sloped, as indicated at MA, to form virtually continuations of the upper surfaces of adjacent roof bearers. It is, furthermore, preferred to provide a small gable-section ridge bar It on top of the longitudinal beam in to overhang the upper ends of the supported ton-lights. The ridge bars l0 may be located by bolts provided at suitably spaced intervals.
' i The 'end walls of the individual spans are closed ofi'by letting vertical glazing bars into the arch sections and into the base foundation, the glazing bars being indicated at H. The glazing bars are preferably provided at their ends with tenons, indicated in dotted lines at HA, for fitting into mortises moulded in the material of the arch and foundation. Glass is secured in the glazing bars by putty in the usual way. For entry through an end wall, a door frame I8 is provided which mounts any convenient form of hinged door. The sidewalls are similarly closed; in by glass located by the glazing bars, again represented by the ref erence numeral H, tenon ended for engagement with mortises in the foundation 1 and the longitudinal support beams 3. The glass preferably rests on rebates 6A formed at the inside edges of half-arches against which it is conveniently secured by putty in the usual way. Rebates l8A are provided in the door frames for the same ing, they are actually required only in conjunction with the end arches; they will in no way be detrimental to the structure, and it can generally be regarded that it is much better to have them available rather than to have to cut them specially if they are not already there.
The uprights of the intermediate half-arches are joined together preferably by bolts, seen at l9 inFigHre 1.
The half-arch section shown in Figure 5 merely serves to illustrate a modification which may be desirable in cases where a wide span is provided and additional support is required in order that two standard length lights may be accommodated in the width of each half-span. In this case the notch 20 is provided midway along each roof support for the reception of the longitudinal intermediate supporting beam 2!, and the roof is enclosed by lights, of which one is seen at 15' extending between the gutter h and the support beam 2|, whereas the upper light I5" is supported partly by the longitudinal formed of concrete, appropriately reinforced if :necessary. a v a The structure as hereinbefore described is constituted by a plurality of spans and, in practice, it is intended that only the outside and end Walls of the structure shall be enclosed so that there is free communication between the spans Within the boundary covered by the whole structure.
The standard agricultural lights are readily obtainable as units and can easily be propped open or easily removed for Ventilation purposes, and the whole roof structure can be quickly covered in any inclement weather or when there is danger of frost destroying a delicate crop.
Although the invention has been described as applied to the gabled-type of greenhouse, it will be realised that by suitable variation of the sections it may be equally applicable to structures of the lean-to or north-light type, while, again, in the case of large spans, instead of providing only one central longitudinal roof bearer at the apex of each span, an additional longitudinally extending bearer or aplurality of such members may be inserted between the said central member and the gutters, a
The invention may also be usefully applied to concrete frame structures for forcing frames, in which case the frame structure may comprise arch supportsover which the removable lights are secured, while the side walls of the structure may be glazed or filled in with brickwork or reinforced concrete panels. Where reinforced concrete panels are employed, they may be secured by means of tenons engaging mortises in the arch sections or vice-versa.
What I claim is:
l. A greenhouse structure comprising a longitudinal series of transverse frames, each includ ing two independent half-arch members, each half-arch member being constructed of concrete and comprising an upright portion and an inclined roof-bearing portion extending laterally from one end of the upright, with the ends of the roof-bearing portions arranged in contact and the uprights in spaced relation to form the transverse frame, each upright portion being formed at its upper end with a notch, a support beam secured in all such notches of the series of transverse frames to tie said frames, the upper surface of the support beam having an inclination in the plane of the adjacent roof-bearing portion to. form end bearing sealing support for roof panels, means for'securing the meeting ends of the roof-bearing portions of each frame together, such meeting ends of the roof-bearing portions of each frame being notched to form a rectangular recess, an inverted T-shaped support bar fitted in such recesses of the series of transverse frames with the cross bar of the inverted T-shaped support providing end support for roof panels, a ridge bar secured to and bridging the uprights of all inverted T-shaped supports of the series of transverse frames and having a width to overlie all roof panels resting on the inverted T-shaped supports, and roof panels applied to the roof-bearing members with end support on the support beams and on the inverted T-shaped support bar throughout the series of transverse frames, and glass supporting frames in each transverse'frame.
2. A construction as defined in claim l where in the glass supporting members are terminally formed with tenons to fit into mcrtises molded into the material of the frames.
JOHANNES NEGR JN,
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2480330 *||Jun 19, 1945||Aug 30, 1949||Kump Ernest J||Building method and construction|
|US3252682 *||Aug 17, 1960||May 24, 1966||Soukup Fabian F||Prefabricated concrete wall and roof form structure|
|US5513470 *||Jun 29, 1993||May 7, 1996||Cravo Equipment Ltd.||Drainage system for retractable roof|
|US5581954 *||Feb 24, 1994||Dec 10, 1996||Cravo Equipment Ltd.||Drainage system for retractable roof|
|US5809701 *||Oct 9, 1996||Sep 22, 1998||Cravo Equipment Ltd.||Drainage system for retractable roof|
|U.S. Classification||52/86, 52/DIG.170, 52/13|
|Cooperative Classification||A01G9/14, Y10S52/17|