US 2394400 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 5, 1946. s. o. NoLEs 2,394,400
METHOD OF 'MAKING ARTIFICIAL EYES Filed Nov. 9, 1942 /7 7 @Y /vn/f/vrof? Hrm/wir Patented Feb. 5, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFE ME'rnon oF Mama An'rmcmr. mms
Sidney 0. Noles, Portland, Oreg. Application November 9, 1942.7seriai No. 465,022
(c1. s--im 2 Claims.
Ihis invention relates generally to plastics, and particularly to articial eyes and the method of making same.
The main object of this invention is to make a non-fragile artificial eye.
The second object is to make an artificial eye which can more comfortably remain in contact with the socket walls for longer periods of time than can the ordinary glass eye.
The third object is to produce an articial eye which will feel lighter and more natural within the socket than is the case with existing articial eyes.
The fourth object is-to produce an articial eye which will not break due to rapid temperature changes or under sudden shock, or under ordinary pressure, thereby eliminating a chance for injury to the person of the wearer and also avoiding the loss of time usually occasioned by such replacement.
The fifth object is to prevent the checking of the eye surface and the consequent discoloration due to the action of the uids in the socket area.
I accomplish these and other objects in the manner set forth in the following specification as illustrated in the accompanying drawing, in which:
Fig, 1 is a plan of a white plastic blank.
Fig. 2 is a section taken along the line 2--2 in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a plan of a blank after being recessed.
Fig. 4 is a section taken along the line 4 4 in Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary section taken along the line 5 5 in Fig. 4, showing the wafer in position in the recess.
Fig. 6 is a `view similar to Fig. 5 but showing the wafer covered with white plastic and remolded to the original form shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 'l is a view similar .to Fig. 6 but showing the excess plastic removed exposing the wafer with the voids around same lled with white plastic.
Fig. 8 is a view similar to Fig. 7 but showing the clear plastic cornea in place and remolded to the shape shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 9 is a plan of a wafer containing the colcred area.
Fig. 10 is a side elevation of Fig. 9.
Fig. 11 is a front elevation of the completed eye.
Similar numerals refer to the same or similar parts throughout the several views.
Referring in detail to my invention, there is first formed by means of a suitable mold Il,
shown in dotted lines, a blank I5 approximating closely the frontal shape and size of the natural eye. The'blank I 5 is formed of a plastic material such as one of the phenol resins which is nonporous and preferably free from toxic properties,
and practically non-fragile under `shock or rapid changes in temperature, and closely resembling the whi or sclera of the natural eye. The blank I5 is then counterbored substantially parallel to the visual axis to form a. circular recess I6 adapted to receive the wafer I1 which contains the colored matter I'I-a of the eye commonly referred to as the iris and indicated by dotted lines in Figs. 9 and 10. Owing to the fact that glass lends itself to this portion of the work it is used for this purpose, although any other suitable material may be used, At the same time the surface 20 of the blank I5 is ground back from the dotted mold line as shown in Fig. 5 to provide clearance space.
The wafer il is placed within the recess I6 and covered with a quantity of uncured white plastic I8 which is then pressed in the mold I4 and reformed as shown in Fig. 6 to the original form of the blank I5 also shown in Fig. 2.
The surplus material I8 is then removed by grinding and the projecting portions I9 of the plastic blank l5 around the sides of the recess IE are ground back to form a somewhat rounded surface 2@ as shown in Fig. 7. Vein lines 2l are formed on the surface 20 around the iris or insert l Il. The vein lines are usually added by painting them in place with a special, quick drying paint which will not be affected later by curing temperatures.
The cornea is formed of a thick layer of clear plastic 22 which is placed over the wafer I1 and vein lines 2l, then remolded and cured, after which the surface 23 of the plastic 22 and all the remaining surface of the blank l5 are highly polished.-
In order that the steps in the method may be more conveniently followed, the various additions of plastic are separately numbered.
The advantages of the process involved are based on the fact that the correct eye shape is used as a .basis of all of the operations and this shape, having been ascertained by making an impression of the eye socket and corresponding outer curvatures, is transferred to a mold Il which becomes the governing gauge in the succeeding steps which not only make the applicants product the perfect article that it is, but do so on a commercial basis. Y
'I'he steps in the process involve iirst the formation of a model, then the formation of a mold Il of the desired eye shape as indicated by the model, including the projection of the visual axis," then the making of a white plastic blank l which corresponds exactly with the mold Il,
then recessing the blank l5 along the visual axis space between the partially formed eye'and the mold with clear plastic, then polishing the exterior of the clear plastic.
It will be understood that in the various applications of the plastic, each application is cured as applied. 'I'his curing is done under pressure and the pressure is obtained by investing Vitvin the mold I4 during the curing process. The earlier i process steps can, of course be of shorter duration than the latter steps as the total curing time of the earlier steps increases with each subsequent curing operation.
It'must ybe understood that the size and shape bearing on the invention, but are merelygrllustrative, y It must also be understood that While the term plastic is used somewhat loosely, it is imperative that whatever type of plastic isused should befree from toxic properties. Most lplastics of ,the acrylic type are satisfactory for this purpose.
It can be seen from the foregoing that by my invention it is easily possible to retain all of the advantages of glass coloring without keeping the disadvantages which arise from bringing glass into direct contact with the body.
It is a well known fact that most wearers of glass eyes remove them before retiring in order to rest the muscles of the eye socket.. This need not be done with plastic eyes. This isl due to the fact that glass when wet is naturally slippery, causing the muscles to hold much tighter than is needed with the plastic eye and thereby causing more fatigue. Also the slippage of the glass eye causes friction and often abrasion of the socket lining. With a plastic eye, the socket has a better grip on the eye and less eifort is expended, all of which contributes to the feeling of ease ex perienced by the users thereof.
Again, by the use of plastic, the wearer is robbed of his fear of breakage which adds greatly to his peace of mind,
The plastic eye is not aected by the fluids oi' the eye socket and there are no discolorations, dimming, cracks or checks which would detract from the beauty of the artificial member. Nor is there any danger of accidentally breaking the eye by dropping it, or by sudden changes in temperature such as are often experienced by farmtions thereof asianr fairiy within the following of the'parts herein illustrated have no actual,
.in naturalness of appearance.
ers and others who move between wide ranges of temperatures. Y,
Since glass eyes are commonly made of imported glass which is becoming less available, it
follows that the substitution of plastic for glass meets an acute industrial need, but the realvalue o f the invention resides in the properties possessed by plastic and not possessed by glass.l
In addition tothe unbreakable feature and the improved gripping and contacting action, the plastic eye possesses the outstanding advantage Given the same polish, the plastic eye has fewer of the extreme highlights which are so common with the glass eyes. This is especially noticeable when plastic and glass eyes are'compared with human eyes.
I have therefore made possible the production of a beautiful reproduction of the appearance of the human eye and this appearance is permanent, the eye `non-fragile, and the wearingthereot extremely comfortable.
- I- am aware that there precise forrnjor method describedvherein, but I do intend 'toV` cover all of such forms'and variaolaimS.
l; A method of making artiilcialeyes consisting of forming a blank of4 white plastichaving a c convex front side, then partially Vfcuring said blank, thenk forming a cylindrical recess in said front side having its axis substantially parallel to` the visual axis, then insertingfafcolored waferin Y said recess, then-covering said wafer with white 40 tour of the convex face of the blank. and the outer size, then further curing the blank and partiallyl curing the added plastic, then making the conblank conforming to the frontal shape ofthe.
human eye, then partially curing said blank, then forming a. cylindrical recess in said blank along the visual axis, then placing the wafer within the recess then covering the wafer with plastic and remolding the blank to its original size and form and forcing plastic around said wafer, then further curing said blank, thenl forming the front of said blank to a rounded contour adjoining said wafer, then forming representations of veins on the plastic portions around'said wafer,y then y are several Ways inl l, which this result can be accomplished, andV it is therefore not my intention to limit `myself `to the